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Edward King
(Lord Kingsborough)
Antiquities of Mexico.
(London: 1830-31, 1848)

  • Contents (all 9 vols.)
  • Sample Plates
  • Vol. 6 Title Page
  • Vol. 6 Excerpts
  • Author's Statement (from Vol. 6)
  • Vol. 8 Excerpts

  • transcriber's comments

  • enlarge image

    Sample excerpts in *.pdf format   |   Sample excerpts in *.txt format   |   Sample plates
    von Humboldt's Researches   |   F. Clavigero's History   |   E. Boudinot's Star in the West
    Barbara A. Simon's The Ten Tribes of Israel Historically Identified   |   Autumn Leaves


    C O N T E N T S


    Copy of the collection of Mendoza preserved in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. -- 73 pages. -- Marked Arch. Seld. A. 1. cat. Mss. Angl. 3134.

    Copy of the Codex Telleriano-Remensis, preserved in the royal Library at Paris. -- 93 pages. -- Marked 14. Reg. 1616.

    Fac-simile of an original mexican Hieroglyphic painting, from the collection of Bolurini. -- 23 pages.

    Fac-simile of an original mexican painting, preserved in the collection of sir Thomas Bodley in Bodleian Library at Oxford. -- 40 pages. -- Marked Arch. Bodl. A. 75. cat. Mss. Angl. 2858.

    Fac-simile of an original mexican painting, preserved in the Selden collection of Mss. in the Bodleian Library at Oxford -- 20 pages. -- Marked Arch. Seld. A. 2. cat. Mss. Angl. 3135.

    Fac-simile of an original mexican Hieroglyphic painting, preserved amongst the Selden collection in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. -- A Roll, marked Arch. Seld. A. Rot. 3. Cat. Mss. Angl. 3207.


    Copy of a mexican Mss. preserved in the Library of the Vatican. -- 149 pages. -- Marked. no 3738.

    Fac-simile of and original Mexican painting given to the imiversity of Oxford by archbishop Laud, and preserved in the Bodleian Library. -- 46 pages. -- Marked Laud B. 65, nunc 678.Cat. Mss. Angl. 546.

    Fac-simile of and original Mexican painting preserved in the Library of Ihe Instilute at Bologna. -- 24 pages.

    Fac-simile of an original Mexican painting preserved in the Imperial Library at Vienna. -- 66 pages.

    Fac-simile of original mexican paintings deposited in the royal Library at Berlin by the Baron de Humboldt, and of a mexican bas-relief preserved in the royal cabinet of antiques. (1)


    Fac-simile of an original Mexiean painting preserved in the Borgian Museum, the College of Propaganda, in Rome. -- 76 pages (planches in-plano).

    Fac-simile of original Mcxican painting in the Royal Library, at Dresden. -- 74 pages.

    Fac-simile of an original Mexican painting in the possession of M. de FejÚrvÔry at Pess, in Hungary. -- 44 pages.

    Fac-simile of an original Mexican painting preserved in the Library of the Vatican. -- 90 pages. (Total, 290 planches).


    Monuments of New-Spain, by M. Dupaix, from the original drawings, executed by order of the King of Spain, in three parts.

    Specimens of Mexican sculpture, in the possession of M. La Tour Allard, in Paris.

    Specimens of Mexican sculpture, preserved in the British Museum.

    Plates copied from the Giro del Mondo of Gemelli Careri; with an engraving of a Mexican Cycle, from a painting formerly in the possession of Boturini.

    Specimen of Peruvian Quipus, with plates representing a carved Peruvian box containing a Collection of supposed Peruvian Quipus.


    Commentaries of early French, Spanish, and Italian writers, on the Hieroglyphical Paintings in Volumes I, II and III.

    Commentary of Mr. Dupaix, on the Monuments of New Spain, displayed in Volume IV.

    The Sixth Book of the inedited MS. of Sahagun's History of New Spain, treating of the Rhetoric, Philosophy, Morals, and Religion of the Mexicans.


    An English translation of the matter in Volume V, along with copious notes, by the Right Honourable Lord Viscount Kingsborough.


    The whole of the MS. of the History of New Spain by Sahagun, in the Original Spanish, (with the exception of the Sixth Book), which was previously printed in Volume V.


    VoL VIII. Contains extracts from Torquemada, Acosta, Garcia, and other writers. Supplementary notes to the Antiquities of Mexico.

    IX. Contains "Cronica Mexico de Fernando de Alvarado Tezozomoc," et " Historia Chichimeca" by Don Fernando de Alva Ixtlilxochitl, "Relaciones de Don Fernando de Alva Ixtlilxochitl" by the same author, "Ritos antiguos, sacrificios e idolatrias de los Indios de la Nueva Espana," &c.

    The THIRD Volume comprises:
    1. Copy of an Original Mexican Painting, preserved in the Borgian Museum, at the College of Propaganda, in Rome. 76 pages.

    This is truly magnificent and beautiful; one of the finest specimens in the collection.

    2. Fac-simile of an Original Mexican Painting, preserved in the Royal Library at Dresden. 74 pages.

    Figures and hieroglyphies similar to those of this manuscript were discovered on the walls of some buildings three or four hundred miles from Mexico, about twenty-five years ago, by M. Dupaix.

    3. Fac-simile of an Original Mexican Painting, in the possession of M. De Fejervary, at Pest, in Hungary.

    4. Copy of an Original Mexican Painting, preserved in the library of the Vatican. 96 pages. No. 3776.

    The contents of the FOURTH Volume are:
    1. Monuments of New Spain, by M. Dupaix, from the original drawings executed by order of the King of Spain. In three parts.

    The first part consists of sixteen plates, lithographed by Mr. Aglio. The second is not wholly lithographic. The third comprises views, buildings, &c. most of which are lithographed; among the drawings of this part is that of a very curious sacrificial stone, where twenty-four persons are made to represent the same number of territories. We here strikingly recognise in the figures, that peculiar formation of the head, and prominence of the nose, which are the essential characteristies of the monuments of Mexican sculpture. M. Dupaix, captain in the service of the King of Spain, having in early life improved his taste for the fine arts by a residence in Italy, made several excursions through New Spain, in 1805, 6, 7, to investigate the Mexican monuments; and in these volumes is contained the result of his travels.

    2. Specimens of Mexican Sculpture, in the possession of M. Latour Allard, in Paris.

    3. Specimens of Mexican Sculpture, preserved in the British Museum.

    4. Plates copied from the " Giro del Hondo" of Gemelli Carreri; with an engraving of a Mexican Cycle, from a painting formerly in the possession of Boturini.

    5. Specimen of Peruvian Quipos, with Plates, representing a carved Peruvian box, containing a collection of supposed Peruvian Quipos. Drawings of the various fanciful figures on the lid, front, back, and two ends of this box are here given. The box is in the possession of Lord Kingsborough.

    The FIFTH Volume contains:
    the Dedication to Lord Kingsborough; an extract from Humboldt's "Monumens de l'Amerique;" the Spanish Interpretations to the Codices of "Mendoza" and the "Telleriano-Remensis," and the Italian to the Vatican MS. No. 3738, as far as the 92d plate, up to the time of the Conquest. Then we have the Commentary of Dupaix, in the original Spanish, on the Monuments of New Spain, engraved in the fourth volume. And, lastly, in Spanish also, the sixth book of the inedited MS. of Sahagun's History of New Spain : treating of the rhetoric, philosophy, morals, and religion of the Mexicans.

    The SIXTH Volume, as an Appendix, consists of:
    an English version of the Interpretations accompanying the three hieroglyphical Paintings already specified, with copious Annotations by Lord Kingsborough.

    Arguments to show that the Jews in early ages colonized America, extending in the form of notes tbrough 188 pages. Translation of Dupaix's Commentary on the Monuments, contained in the 6fth volume.

    A further body of notes concludes this volume.

    Volume the SEVENTH contains:
    the whole of the MSS. of the "History of New Spain" by Sahagun, in the original Spanish, except the sixth book, printed in the fifth volume.

    Bernardino de Sahagun, a Franciscan monk, being employed during the sixteenth century in instructing the Mexicans, made great proficiency in their language and history. He composed several works in Mexican and Spanish; and among them may be particularly mentioned, a "Universal Dictionary of the Mexican Language," in twelve volumes, folio, containing all that belonged to the geography, the religion, and the political and natural history of the Mexicans. This work of great erudition and labour was sent to Madrid, and is probably still preserved in some library of Spain. He is the author also of the "General History of New Spain;" in writing which, he says, that he assembled the Indians of Tezcuco and Mexico, most conversant with the antiquities of their country, iu order that they might explain to him the signification of their ancient paintings, as the best authority he could follow in composing his history. It has been hitherto preserved in manuscript, in the library of some Spanish convent, until it came into the possession of Lord Kingsborough, though, we believe, owing to religious bigotry, it has not escaped some mutilations.

    (under construction)

    Sample Images, from Lord Kingsborough's 4th Volume

    view von Humboldt's plate of a Calendar Stone     view von Humboldt's plate of a Maya Bas-Relief



    F A C - S I M I L E S







    BY  M.  DUPAIX,




    Inedited  Manuscripts,

    BY   L O R D   K I N G S B O R O U G H.



    VOL. VI.



    pages: 03-05  |  46-48  |  49-52  |  53-56  |  64-66  |  69-71  |  77-78  |  96-97
    102-03  |  107-11  |  113-19  |  128-31  | 

    (see A.L., p. 116)

    A P P E N D I X.



    The History and Foundation of the Capital of Mexico here commences, which was founded and peopled by the Mexicans, who were at that time named Meçitis; the origin of whose empire, and the lives and actions of whose kings, are truly and briefly declared in this history, accordingly as they are successively signified by the paintings and hieroglyphics which follow.

    In the year thirteen hundred and twenty-four after the advent of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, the Mexicans arrived at the site of the capital of Mexico; and as they found the place and situation agreeable, after having for many years wandered in their travels from country to country, in some of which they stopped for several years, having prosecuted their journey from distant parts, none of the situations in which they had made a temporary abode contenting them, they arrived at the site of Mexico, which was at that time a complete swamp, overgrown with thick rushes, which they call tuli, and tall flags resembling a thicket. The entire extent of this site was occupied by a clear stream of water in the shape of a cross, free from weeds and rushes, which cross resembled that of Saint Andrew, as the painting shows. Nearly at the bounds and centre of this space and cross, the Meçitis found a large stone * or rock, on which was a high tunal, to which an eagle with rich plumage was accustomed to resort to devour its prey, so that the ground was strewed round about with the bones of birds, and many feathers of different colours. Having passed through and explored the whole site, and found it fertile and abundant in game, fish, and fowl, and such productions as are peculiar to a marshy soil, with which they might be enabled to support themselves, and to turn their industry to account in their dealings with the neighbouring people, and further induced by the security which the water afforded, which their neighbours could not cut off, and from other motives and causes, they determined to extend their travels no further; and having so determined, they fortified themselves, substituting in the place of walls and bulwarks, the water and thick clumps of tulis and of flags. Having laid the foundation or commencement

    * Instead of honda, donde should have been printed in the corresponding Spanish passage, and a comma should have been inserted after peña; and for Candal, which is there supposed to be the proper name of the eagle, the word caudal should be substituted.

    (see A.L., p. 116)

    of a settlement and population, they determined to bestow a name and appellation on the place, calling it Tenotchtitlan, because and on account of the tunal growing upon the stone. *

    The Mexican army had ten persons as chiefs, whose names were OCELPAN, QUAPAN, ACACITLI, AHUEXOTL, TENUCH, TECINEUH, XOMIMITL, XOCOYOL, XIUHCAQUI, and ATOTOTL, (as likewise is demonstrated by the painting,) who having made choice of a site, elected as their head and king TENUCH, in order that he might rule over them, as a person eminently fitted for that office, who united in himself talents and abilities qualifying him for command. The other chiefs became in a manner his lieutenants, and filled the post of captains over the mixed multitude. Some years having passed away in a course of settlement, and the population of the city increasing, the capital received likewise the name of Mexico, being named and called after the Mexicans, and was distinguished by the appellation of the place and habitation of the Mexicans; and as the number of the people had somewhat increased, they began like a brave and warlike nation to direct their attention to conquests over their neighbours; and accordingly they signalized their courage in arms, thereby reducing to a state of vassalage, and to the payment of tribute, two cities in the vicinity of Mexico, named Colhuacan and Tenayucan, (which is also proved by the painting,) which events occurred in the course of the reign of TENUCH, which lasted fifty-one years; at the expiration of which period he died.

    * This account appears to be compounded of truth and fiction. It is probable that when the Mexicans selected, for the sake of security, a swampy island in the Mexican Lake as the site of the capital of their future empire, the first thing they proceeded to do, was to make drains, as well for the purpose of rendering the ground more firm for the sake of building, as to guard against the noxious exhalations which, continually arising from so marshy a soil, would have proved very destructive to the lives of the new colonists; and that the main drains were cut in the shape of the cross represented in the plate. We learn from the letters of Cortes, that the city of Mexico itself was entirely intersected with drains and canals, and that while some of the streets were wholly water, otherswere half earth and half water, a line of road for foot-passengers running parallel to the half which served as a passage for boats and canoes... Peter Martyr compares it to Venice, and says in his fifth Decade, that he had seen a map of it which was done by the natives: "After that we saw another great map, a little lesse, but not lesse alluring to our mindes, which contained the city of Tenustitan itself, described by the same hand, of the inhabitants, with her temples, bridges, and lakes." The cross of Saint Andrew was likewise a sacred symbol among the Indians. Gomara, describing the manners and customs of the inhabitants of Cumana, says..."Amongst the many idols and figures which they worship as gods, they have a cross like that of Saint Andrew, and a sign, done as it were by a penman, square, enclosed, and with a cross diagonally passing through it, which many monks and other Spaniards have pronounced to be a cross, and with it they defend themselves from nightly spectres, and place it over children shortly after their birth." In the edition of Peter Martyr's work, published in Paris, by Hakluyt,and dedicated to Sir Walter Raleigh, a wood engraving, as well as a description of the same kind of cross, occurs. The engravingexactly resemhles the cross in which the Mexicans founded their city, and the description is similar to that given by Gomara, whichin the English translation of the Decades is as follows. "They knew them (the Chiribians... [to]) honour the crosse, although lying somewhat oblique, and in another place compassed about with lynes, they putt it upon such as are newe borne, supposing the divels flie from that instrument. If any fearefull apparition bee seene at any time by night, they set up the crosse, and say that the place is cleansed by that remedy; and being demanded whence they learned this, and lite speeches which they understande not, they answere that those rites and customes came by traditionfrom the elders to the younger." Gomara says, that in Yucatan a cross of copper, or of wood, was placed over the graves of the dead.... "They found there crosses of copper and of wood over the dead. Whence some conclude that many Spaniards fled to that country at the period of the destruction of Spain by the Moors, in the time of the King Don Roderic: but I do not credit this, because there are no crosses in the islands." Gomara mentions here the discovery of crosses in Yucatan, as

    (see A.L., p. 116)

    a fact of which there could be no doubt, and which had engaged the attention of well-informed Spaniards; but Herrera, who pronounces so severe a censure on the Indian monarchy of Torquemada, and declares Sahagun to be a writer of no authority, and is further determined that no crosses should be found in America, disbelieves Gomara on the grounds of Yucatan not possessing mines; although, unfortunately for his own credit as an historian, M. Dupaix discovered a copper medal in the city of Ciudad Real, which ison the frontiers of Tabasco, and the peninsula of Yucatan; a representation of which will be found in the eighth plate of the third partof his Monuments of New Spain, No. 12. In another part of America, the Spaniards were disappointed by finding that a golden cross,in search of which they had proceeded nine hundred miles to the north of Mexico, as far as Quivira, was merely a jewel of copper.... After recounting the many hardships which they suffered in the journey, he proceeds to add... "They arrived at last at Quivira, and found Tatarrax, whom they sought, a naked, gray-headed old man, with acopper jewel hanging at his neck, which was his only wealth. The Spaniards, perceiving the joke of these so much boasted riches, returned to Tiguex, without seeing cross or trace of Christianity..." In further corroboration of the accounts given by Peter Martyr and Gomara of crosses discovered in America, the testimony of Garcia may be adduced, who, having been himself many years in Peru, is not likely to have been deceived respecting the one in Cuzco... Origen de los Indios, pag. 243....


    (pages 6-45 not transcribed)

    (see A.L., p. 116)

    ...A very remarkable representation of the ten plagues which God sent on Egypt, in order to punish Pharaoh's hardness of heart, occurs in the eleventh and twelfth pages of the Borgian MS. Moses is there painted holding up in his left hand his rod which became a serpent, and with a furious gesture calling down plagues on the Egyptians. These plagues were frogs, locusts, lice, flies, &c., all which seem to be represented in the pages referred to; but the last and most dreadful were the thick darkness which overspread Egypt for three days, and the death of the first-born of all the Egyptians; the former of which is represented by the figure of an eclipse of the sun, and the latter by Mictlanteotle, (or the god of the dead,) descending in the form of a skeleton or a cadaverous body, from the rod of Moses. The curious symbol of one serpent swallowing up another, occurs likewise in the nineteenth page of the same MS. It is not extraordinary that the Mexicans, who were acquainted with one portion of Exodus, -- that relating to the migration of the children of Israel from Egypt, -- should also have not been ignorant of another....


    (pages 47-48 not transcribed)

    (see Simon, pp. 89-90)

    ...In nothing did the civil policy of the Mexicans more closely resemble that of the Jews than in their dedicating their children at the temple, and afterwards sending them there to be instructed by the master, or, as we might say, the superior Rabbi, in the doctrines of their religion and their moral and ceremonial laws. Christ himself is said, when only eight years old, to have gone to the temple at Jerusalem, and disputed with the Rabbis, listening to them and asking them questions: whence it may be inferred (as they could not have known that he was the Son of God, since general publicity was not given to that circumstance till many years afterwards), that it was customary for the priests and Rabbis to teach children who came to the temple, by discoursing to them of matters of Jewish faith and doctrine. And that it was also a custom for children perpetually to serve in the temple we know from the history of Samuel, who waited on Eli the high priest; of whom it is said, in the eighteenth verse of the second chapter of the First Book of Samuel, "But Samuel ministered before the Lord, being a child, girded with a linen ephod." Torquemada says, that the ceremony of dedicating their children to the military profession was likewise a religious one; and that their names were registered at the temple by the priests, that when they attained a fit age they might be compelled to go on military service. Amongst the Jews all wars, not excepting their civil wars, bore a religious character (for even in civil war right must exist on one side); and in the twentieth chapter of Deuteronomy directions are given to the priests to accompany and exhort the soldiers to battle. The interpreter of the Collection of Mendoza says that priests likewise followed the Mexican armies, not only for the purpose of joining the combatants, but also to perform certain religious ceremonies, in which some analogy is discovered between the customs of the two nations. So frequently is Jehovah named in Scripture the God of war, and likened to a warrior going forth to battle, as in the following verse, "The Lord is a man of war, The Lord is his name," -- that it is evident that the Jews believed that such epithets of praise did not profane the Majesty of Heaven, and that it was magnifying God to ascribe to him courage and invincibility in conflicts with arms of flesh and a mortal foe. Since likewise the expression "The Lord went up," as applied to the marching of the Jewish armies, repeatedly occurs, and the presence of Jehovah in the camp of Israel is so often proclaimed, -- it is not surprising that they should have considered their wars as sacred, and have called them the "wars of the Lord;" or that they should have attached religious ideas to the profession of arms. But whether the names of the soldiers were enrolled by the Levites, as they were by the priests amongst the Mexicans, is uncertain. A striking example is afforded in the twentieth chapter of the Book of Judges of the religious spirit which animated the Jews even in their wars with each other. This remarkable chapter contains the account of the extermination of nearly the whole tribe of Benjamin by the other tribes, and of the singular cause which led to that result; as well as of the solemn and religious preparation for a war that deluged Israel with blood, and seemed to lend a sanction to a precedent by which Romulus might have justified the violence which he offered to the Sabine women. The very commencement of it reminds us of the formal summons to Cusco which the Ingas sent to their subjects when about to undertake any of their religions wars: "Then all the children of Israel went out, and the congregation was gathered together as one man, from Dan even to Beersheba, with the land of Gilead, unto the Lord in Mizpeh. And the chief of all the people, even of all the tribes of Israel, presented themselves in the assembly of the people of God, four hundred thousand footmen that drew the sword." That the Ingas waged wars for the express purpose of compelling other nations to lay aside what they deemed to be idolatry, and to embrace the knowledge of the true God, we have the authority of Acosta and of other eminent historians for asserting. And the following passage from the eighteenth chapter of the sixth book of the Natural and Moral History of the Indies, will show that they were at no loss for specious reasons with which to defend their injustice...

    (see A.L., pp. 116-17)

    "But let us now proceed briefly to state the plea and pretext by which they (the Ingas) subdued those countries under their yoke. They professed to the people that after the deluge, with which event the Indians were universally acquainted, the human species was again propagated and multiplied by the Ingas alone; for that seven heroes of their race came forth from the cave of Pacaritambo and procreated, in the manner which has been mentioned, new nations and people; whence it was fit and just that all mankind should obey and submit to the Ingas as their ancestors and progenitors. They made this likewise a boast, that they alone of all men possessed the true and pure knowledge of the worship and honour due to God: and hence in Cusco, as in some holy land, the temples exceeded the number of four hundred, and the neighbouring territory was every where full of religious mysteries. In the same manner also as they were strenuous in seizing on, and conquering kingdoms, so they were not less sedulous in founding temples and in instituting religious rites. Of the gods whom they worshiped, the principal was Viracocha Pachayachachic, that is to say, the creator of the world. Next to him came the sun; and they believed that both the sun and the Guacas derived the virtue and vigour infused into them from the creator, before whom they interceded as mediators and advocates for men."... The Peruvians had the singular custom of putting the images of the gods of the conquered provinces into a large net or latticed frame, and of preserving them as a trophy in honour of Viracocha. And we may observe, in passing, that Ezekiel twice introduces God as threatening to spread his net over his enemies, in which light he regarded the disobedient Jews: "My net also will I spread upon him, and he shall be taken in my snare: and I will bring him to Babylon to the land of the Chaldeans; yet shall he not see it, though he shall die there. And I will scatter toward every wind all that are about him to help him, and all his bands; and I will draw out the sword after them." chap. xii. This prophecy related to the captivity of the Jews and of their king Zedekiah, whose eyes were put out before he was carried to Babylon. The expression likewise of "scattering towards every wind," which occurs in several places of Scripture, brings to our recollection that passage in the twenty-ninth chapter of Acosta's History of America, wherein, treating of the Mexican jubilee which was celebrated every fifty-second year in honour of Tetzcatlipoca, he says, that the Mexicans, in the midst of the sincerest manifestation of their penitence for their past sins, (the recollection of which was awakened by the sound of the trumpets which the priests blew towards the four quarters of the world,) humbly deprecated injuries from either darkness or the winds. In the seventeenth chapter of his prophecies, Ezekiel again makes use of almost the same language: "And I will spread my net upon him, and he shall be taken in my snare, and I will bring him to Babylon, and will plead with him there for his trespass that he hath trespassed against me. And all his fugitives with all his bands shall fall by the sword, and they that remain shall be scattered toward all winds; and ye shall know that I the Lord have spoken it." Job also employs a like metaphor: "Know now that God hath overthrown me, and hath compassed me with his net: Behold, I cry out of wrong, but I am not heard; I cry aloud, but there is no judgment. He hath fenced up my way that I cannot pass, and he hath set darkness in my paths." That the Jews did, like the Peruvians, acknowledge in a manner the gods of other nations, although they disbelieved in their divinity, cannot be denied; since it is evident from the following remarkable verse in the twenty-second chapter of Exodus: "Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor curse the ruler of thy people."And it says in the twenty-seventh verse of the twenty-sixth chapter of the First Book of Chronicles; "Out of the spoils won in battles did they dedicate to maintain the house of the Lord:" which usage was precisely that of the Mexicans.
      It has been before remarked, that the Mexicans in many of their customs resembled the Peruvians, and that their religion was probably derived from a common source, Viracocha being the same deity as Tetzcatlipoca and Huitzilopuchtli, although worshiped under a different name.... The belief which the Mexicans and Peruvians entertained of their origin is likewise an argument in favour of their common descent. The former of these nations pretended that their ancestors had proceeded from seven caves; and the latter, that they were descended from seven heroes, who

    (see A.L., p. 117)

    came out of the same cave. M. de Humboldt has observed, that if we knew exactly in what part of the globe the ancient kingdoms of Tulan, Tlapallan, Huetlapallan, Amaquemacam, Aztlan, and Chicomoztoc were situated, we might be able to form an opinion of who the ancestors of the Mexicans were, and from what country they passed over to America. An attentive examination of the meaning of these proper names, and the mutual comparison of one with another, may at least assist us in forming some conjecture. But it must first be observed, that the opinion of Herrera, (who is the authority to which a kind of general submission is yielded on all questions relating to America), viz. that that continent was only colonized from its western side, -- is improbable in the extreme; for, omitting physical reasons and other causes for supposing that the contrary would rather have been the case; such as the great current of the sea which runs from the African towards the American shores; the relative magnitude of the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans; and the consequent nearer proximity of America to Europe; and the much greater naval enterprise which has in all ages distinguished Europeans, and the Asiatics bordering on the coasts of the Mediteranean Sea from other Asiatics: and likewise the curious fact mentioned by Sahagun, that the Mexicans recorded in numerous historical paintings an early colonization of America from the East; as also that Torquemada says that when Quecalcoatle set out on his return to his former kingdom of Tlapallan, he proceeded to the province of Coacacoalco, (which was situated on (he gulf of Mexico,) and there embarked in a boat or raft formed out of serpents' skins (and such a boat seems to be represented in the forty-third page of the painting preserved in the Royal Library of Dresden) -- Herrera cannot be considered a candid author, or one who declared all that he knew or believed respecting the ancient colonization of America; nor can it be expected that much weight should be attached to his theory; -- that America was peopled from Asia by colonists passing over the Isthmus of California, and that the Mexicans came from thence; since modern geographical science contradicts the supposed facilities of such a passage. We shall therefore, (divesting ourselves of all ancient prejudices, which Lord Bacon rightly considers the idols to which human reason readily bows, and to be most detrimental to the advance of knowledge,) proceed to the consideration of the meaning of the above-mentioned proper names, and, comparing them with each other, endeavour to discover whether they may not all have a common reference, and lead us to that portion of the Old continent to which ancient traditions and the mythological recollections of Peru and Mexico equally point. Tulan signifies the country of reeds, Tlapallan the red sea, Huetlapallan the old red sea, Amaquemecam the country of the veil of paper, Aztlan the country of the flamingo, and Chicomoztoc the seven caves. In the absence of all positive knowledge of facts, to employ conjecture is not only admissible, but becomes absolutely necessary, if research after truth is not altogether to be abandoned. We may therefore be permitted to express an opinion, for reasons which shall be alledged, that Egypt is the country to which all these proper names refer; and that the colony which arrived in early ages in America from the East, were Jews from Alexandria; in which emporium of the commerce of the world they had been established from the period of its foundation by Alexander the Great, and enjoyed equal rites of citizenship with the other citizens, possessed a contentious synagogue; and, probably as a means of increasing their wealth, addicted themselves to those mercantile pursuits which caused its haven to be crowded with the ships of every country.

    The Scripture testifies that in the reign of Solomon the Jews embarked extensively in mercantile speculations; and the frequent mention which it makes of the gold of Ophir and of silver, common in Jerusalem as the stones in the days of that king, might have induced their descendants, settled at Alexandria, to try whether they could not likewise discover the "navigation to the Isles." That the Jews would not have allowed their ignorance of the art of navigation to remain long an obstacle to the gain which they might acquire from it, it is unnecessary to attempt to prove; and that in later ages there were good cosmographers amongst them, the testimony of Doctor Robertson is sufficient to show...


    (page 52 not transcribed)

    (see A.L., p. 117)

    ...That in very early ages the tide of Jewish migration flowed from East to West, may be inferred from the great numbers of Jews who settled in Spain, and from the monument mentioned by Procopius in the second book of his History of the Vandal War, as having been discovered in the city of Tangiers, which bore the following inscription in the Phenician language... "We are those who, flying in a ship from the robber Jesus the Son, have arrived at a place of safety." It is impossible to understand this inscription as referring to the Canaanites in the days of Joshua, although Procopius and Calmet both so explain it...The appellation of Culebras (or serpents) corresponding in signification with the Mexican name Coatl or Cohuatl, which Votan bestows on his brethren of both continents, might also have been a term either applied by the Jews to themselves, or given to them by Christians, or of patronymic derivation. Since "wise as a serpent" was a Hebrew proverb, the Jews might, in some critical posture of their affairs, -- such as would have been the discovery by them of the West Indian Islands or of the continent of America, when the exercise of prudence and circumspection would have appeared very necessary to keep the secret from Christians, -- have assumed this epithet as a kind of motto of caution; or having fled from the wrath of Christians and settled in the New World, they might, out of hatred to Christianity, have adopted a name which was first given to them by Christ, and which the early Christians, following his example, might likewise have applied to them as a term of reproach; indicating, by so doing, their intention of becoming, should it be ever in their power, that in deed to Christianity, which they before were only in name: and certainly, in considering the nature of many of the Mexican and Peruvian religious rites, an intended profanation of Christian mysteries seems almost manifest. The last argument for supposing that serpents or snakes may have been an appellation by which the Hebrew race were occasionally distinguished... is, that Christ calls the Pharisees "a generation of vipers;" whether from their wickedness, their prudence, or their lineage, is not absolutely certain, although probability inclines to the first and second reasons. If lineage or territorial occupation was insinuated in this address, it might be in consequence of the similarity of the proper names Hevrei and Hebaei, (the first of which, according to Calmet, signifies in the Phenician language, snakes,) and from the Jews having possessed themselves by force of the land of the Hivites, or Hevaei. With respect to the latter name, the Rabbis say that the reason the Hivites were so called, was because they were accustomed to live in subterraneous caves, like snakes, being the early inhabitants of the land of Canaan... if there was any thing honorary as indicating great antiquity in the term Hevaei, the Jews from their long residence in the land of Canaan would have had a right to assume it.

    The strongest argument, however, and one which we perceive how unwilling the Spanish historians of the sixteenth centnry were to press to a conclusion, by which to prove that America was colonized from its European side, is the confession of Montezuma and his nobles, one and all, to Cortes, -- that their ancestors had come from the same part of the globe as the Spaniards,

    (see A.L., p. 117)

    situated toward the rising sun."... Which Montezuma also acknowledges in the following passage of his speech to his subjects... where Montezuma affirms that he and his subjects might have erred in matters of faith, from having been aliens for such a length of time from the country of their ancestors, and that they had intermarried with the women of the land,) seem more particularly worthy of attention. The lord to whom he alludes as having conducted the Mexicans to their new settlements, "whose vassals all were," was Quecalcoatle. But his second coming, after the lapse of a long period of time, to the American continent, is an enigmatical piece of history which it is not probable will speedily be explained. It is singular, however, that he should have left a prophecy that he would come again on the sign of One Cane; and that Cortes, who chanced to arrive in Mexico in the year of that sign, and who perceived how much to his own advantage he might turn the popular superstition and this current belief, should have pretended that he himself was their expected Messiah... When Cortes had declared these things by interpreters, Muteczuma, with a pale countenance and trembling heart, replied; Hearken, O Cortes! The ceremonies of sacrifices lift us by traditions from our ancestors, those we observe and have hitherto exercised: but seeing you say we have so much erred, and that it is displeasing to our king, we are greatly [delighted to hear it]


    (page 52 not transcribed)

    (see Simon, pp. 89-90)

    In every thing relating to the treatment of their children, even in their mode of punishing them, the Mexicans resembled the Jews. As sterility was reckoned by the Jewish women a great misfortune, and they made vows at the temple to obtain children; so the Mexican women considered it a great reproach to be without them, and they offered up prayers to Huitzilopuchtli that he might vouchsafe to remove that cause of complaint. Torquemada has also observed, that in the festivals consequent on the birth of children, the Mexican customs were like those of the Jews. These festivals (omitting further mention of baptismal ceremonies and the rite of circumcision, both which it may be presumed on the authority of very eminent writers were in use amongst the Mexicans) took place on naming the infant, and afterwards on its being weaned or removed from the breast; and were celebrated by invitations of guests to an entertainment. From the account given in the first chapter of St. Luke, we know that many persons were present at the naming of John the Baptist. And Torquemada, in treating in the twenty-fourth chapter of the thirteenth book of his Indian Monarchy, of the antiquity of the custom amongst the Jews of keeping the day on which an infant was weaned as a festival, -- in reference to the same custom prevailing amongst the Mexicans, says; "That this was an ancient custom is manifest and notorious; and the Holy Scripture affords us the strongest and clearest proof of this fact, since Moses says in Genesis, of the Patriarch Abraham, that when the day for his son Isaac being weaned arrived, he made a very great entertainment. From whence it is reasonable to infer, that, being a man of such distinction and power, the guests who were invited were likewise numerous: for if this had not been the case, the Holy Scripture would not have said that he made a great entertainment. The reason of this entertainment, according to the Jews, as stated by Lira, was: that as Sarah was barren and childless, and an old woman of ninety, Abraham's neighbours would not believe that his wife Sarah had given birth to that son; but that having taken it from some other woman, she had adopted it, and pretended that it was her own; and that to remove that doubt and convince them of the fact, he sent them a formal invitation; and not only placed before them refreshment, but likewise caused his wife, who had been lately delivered of a son, to suckle at her breast the children who chanced at that time to be sucking other mothers; and that God on this occasion gave her great abundance of milk." Torquemada further observes, in commendation of the Mexican women, that, like the wives of the Jewish patriarchs, they made it a point to nurse their own children, not trusting that task to others. The education of children commenced amongst the Mexicans, as with the Jews, at an exceedingly early age; and the first thing which they taught them, was to honour the gods: on which custom Torquemada remarking, says... "I likewise wish it to be noticed that the devil commanded amongst his vain Indian people; that the first thing a father bid his children do, should be, to love and honour their gods."...


    (pages 57-63 not transcribed)

    (see Simon, p. 57)

    ... from the following passage of the fourth chapter of Peter Martyr's fifth Decade, the Mexicans would appear closely to have imitated the example of the Jews: and the same may be said of the Peruvians. This passage is also interesting from the mention which it makes of the churches or temples, parishes, and particular images, like those of patron saints, which existed in Mexico in the time of Montezuma; and the description which it gives of the greater temple... From the last sentence we may infer that their parents consecrated them at the temple as Nazarites to Huitzilopuchtli, -- the martial and tutelary god of the Mexicans, who was represented under the figure of a man seated upon an azure globe, scattering forth arrows from his right hand, -- to whom, or to Tetzcatiipoca, Herrera must allude in the following passage of the fifteenth chapter of the second book of his third Decade... "The Mexicans, notwithstanding, confessed a supreme God, the Lord, and framer of the universe; and he was the principal object whom they adored, looking up to heaven and calling him the Creator of heaven and earth, and the wonderful, with other epithets of great excellence."...

    (see Simon, p. 94)

    ...The Jews were likewise accustomed to strew the temple with branches of trees, and to keep the courts and pavement of it swept perfectly clean; and women seem sometimes to have occupied themselves in this manner out of a deep sense of devotion to Jehovah, and in performance of particular vows. Torquemada, confounding as it would appear the miraculous birth of Quecalcoatle, or of Huitzilopuchtli, and the pregnancy of Chimalman with some other history perhaps connected with the birth of Totec, says, that a devout woman of the city of Tulan, of the name of Coatlycue, from whom many nations were born, being employed according to custom in sweeping the shrines and holy places of the sacred mountain Coatepec, beheld a ball of feathers falling through the air, which catching in her hands and putting into her bosom she became pregnant... suddenly giving birth to Huitzilopuchtli, he vindicated the honour of his mother and defended her from the violence of her sons, whom, notwithstanding their near relationship, he to a man destroyed. This curious account is detailed at greater length in the twenty-first chapter of the sixth book of Torquemada's Indian Monarchy.

    The interpreter of the paintings contained in the larger Vatican MS. says, that light was obliged to be always kept burning in the Mexican temples, and instancing this and other traits of resemblance between the Mexicans and Jews, he shortly afterwards adds, "From

    (see Simon, pp. 94-95)

    all these circumstances the fact is plain and probable, that this nation descends from the Jews; since all the ceremonies of this chapter are, as it were, according to the text of Leviticus, -- such as that the people should not touch the holy things; and again, as in Exodus, -- that light should be always in the temple, and incense, and the trumpets, and the sacred vestments." How strict was the injunction against the Jewish laity being allowed to touch the holy things, and what dreadful vengeance they might expect in case of disobedience to this command, may be inferred from the following account of David's bringing up the ark from Kirjath-jearim, which is contained in the thirteenth chapter of the First Book of Chronicles; wherein it is said that Uzza, notwithstanding the apparently religious necessity for the act, was struck dead by God for putting forth his hand to prevent the ark from falling on the ground;... The use of the trumpets in the Mexican temples was for the priests to blow in honour of the Deity, and likewise to summon the people to religious worship; and to sound them in a shrill tone on certain festivals of penance and mortification, thereby to excite in the hearts of the people a keener recollection and sense of sorrow for their sins.... Peter Martyr makes express mention, in the tenth chapter of his Seventh Decade, of bells being employed by the Indians of Dabaiba, (who inhabited a country situated at some distance from the province of Darien,) in the religious service of their temples, and to call the people to prayers. "But it is not unfit to be heard after what manner they are called and summoned to their religious and sacred rites, or what instruments they use. One day the cursed thirst of gold provoking thereunto, the Spaniards having levied a strong power of armed men, went to pass through the banks of that river, Dabaiba. Here they light upon a king, whom they overthrew, and had from him about fourteen thousand pensa of gold, brought into divers forms very fairly wrought, among which they found three golden trumpets...


    (pages 67-68 not transcribed)


    ... It is almost superfluous to remark, that the tribe of Levi amongst the Jews constituted the sacerdotal order, and that the priests, in contradistinction to the other Levites, were the immediate descendants of Aaron, who discharged the higher functions of the priesthood. Their occupations were very various: some ministered at the altar and presided at sacrifices; some were musicians; and some, perhaps, counted the hours of the night by the stars, since the first watch, and the second watch, are expressions which occur in the New Testament; and the night appears to have been divided by the Jews into four watches of three hours each, beginning at sunset and ending at sunrise. David ordained that the priests and Levites should senre in courses or in rotation in certain appointed numbers; and the Mexican priests are said not to have fasted all together, but to have fasted in rotation, until the entire number of the priests had fasted; in which may be traced some shadow of the forms prescribed by the Jewish ritual. Amongst the Mexicans, likewise, the high priesthood, or the office of Topilcin, (that is to say of the great high-priest who presided over public sacrifices,) was hereditary in a certain family, as we learn from the eighteenth chapter of Numbers that the Jewish high priesthood was hereditary in that of Aaron: "And the Lord said unto Aaron, Thou, and thy sons, and thy father's house with thee, shall bear the iniquity of the sanctuary: and thou and thy sons with thee shall bear the iniquity of your priesthood." And hence it followed that the seed of Aaron, by prescription, sacrificed and made atonement for the sins of the people and of the Levites. The priests of Huitzilopuchtli, like the Levites, succeeded also to their office by belonging to a certain tribe, as Herrera remarks in the following passage of the fifteenth chapter of the second book of his Third Decade... "The priests of Viztlipuztli were entitled to succeed to their office by being born of families resident in certain suburbs of the city specially marked out for the purpose." Herrera thus describes the duties and the dignity of the office of Topilcin... (Historia de las Indias Occidentales, dec. III. lib. ii. cap. 16.) "The dignity of officiating as sacrificer was supreme, and held in great estimation, and hereditary in the manner of a feudal title; and he who opened the breast of the victim was reverenced as the high priest, and his title was Papa, and Topilcin; his dress was a scarlet vest resembling a robe with open sleeves, to which were fastened fringes as a border."


    (page 70 not transcribed)


    ...Cihnateocalli was the proper name of a Mexican temple, in which may be recognised, as forming a part of the compound name, the word Cihna, which corresponds exactly in sound with Sina, the appellation of the mountain from which God delivered the laws and tables of stone to Moses, the initial letter c having a line under it, and therefore being pronounced in Spanish like s or z. This name is different from that of Cihuateocalli, the signification of which would be the temple if the woman, since its accompanying symbol is not a female head, but two rows as if of arrow-headed characters engraved upon a single table of stone. Similar rows of characters occur in the sixty-fifth and seventy-third pages of the larger Vatican MS., and in the third page of the first part of the Codex Telleriano-Remensis: but in each of these paintings a line seems to divide the square in which they are enclosed, into two equal parts. The expression, arrow-headed characters and table of stone is applied here rather improperly to the above-mentioned symbols, in order to point out the possibility of the enclosed square representing a table of stone, and of the lines which it contains alluding to alphabetical or hieroglyphical writing. All that can with certainty be inferred, is, that this symbol, as applied to one of their temples, and to two of the mythological personages of their calendar, was sacred amongst the Mexicans; and that placed by the side of a particular temple, the name of which was Cinah, it constituted the phonetic hieroglyphic, like the thorn painted near the mezquita Huiznahuac, in the first plate of the second part of the Collection of Mendoza. It is a certain fact, that many Hebrew words are scattered through the American idioms. A respectable writer says, that the inhabitants of Florida made use, in their religious songs, of the exclamation Hosanna, and their priests were named Jouanas....


    (pages 72-76 not transcribed)

    (see Simon, pp. 95 & 117)

    ...The Mexicans when they lost their sacred standard became so terrified at the omen, -- as was the case at the famous battle of Otumba which decided the fate of the Mexican empire, -- that the army invariably disbanded itself, and the soldiers retreated in confusion from ever so inferior a force. The Jews in the same manner were dismayed at seeing the ark fall into the hands of the enemy, which if the Philistines had twice taken, twice would the children of Israel have fled. In modern times, armies being less superstitious, these kinds of divine panics are unknown. It would be wrong to suppose, from the example above mentioned, that valour and not discipline was only prized in the Mexican armies, nor is it probable that the forces of Montezuma were inferior in this latter respect to those of other Indian states. In Peru, on the contrary, military discipline was held in great esteem by the Ingas: and Rosales says that the Indians of Chili, especially the Araucas, highly valued it. In Xalixco likewise it was carefully infused into the troops; and Gomara observes in the following passage, that the chiefs of that province held in their hands during the time of an engagement a baton, in order to maintain it.... "Their arms resemble those of the Mexicans; but their chiefs and generals only carry batons, with which they remove from the ranks those who do not fight, or who disobey orders, or who do not preserve discipline." The Mexican mode of fortification seems chiefly to have consisted in their teocallis or temples, which were also, like the temple of Jerusalem, arsenals; and in the thick walls which surrounded their cities, protected on the outside with a fosse with ramparts above. The streets likewise, from the houses being flat-terraced and covered with battlements, were capable of defence, and Cortes complains of the annoyance which his soldiers experienced from the Mexicans, who fought from the tops of their houses and threw missiles from behind the battlements. It is certainly singular that this curious mode of turreting the roofs of the houses should have existed in Mexico, as it was in strict conformity with the Mosaic law: "When thou buildest a new house, then thou shalt make a battlement for thy roof, that thou bring not blood upon thine house, if any man fall from thence." And perusing a few verses lower down the same twenty-second chapter of Deuteronomy, we come to another precept, which we find from the indubitable testimony of their own paintings that the Mexicans followed more scrupulously than the Jews of the middle ages, who were laughed or persecuted out of some of their prejudices by Christians: "Thou shalt make thee fringes upon the four quarters of thy vesture, wherewith thou coverest thyself." It is not of any signification whether all the Mexican dresses were ornamented with fringes, provided proof may be found in the Mexican paintings that this custom if not universal was general, and sacred and ritual, if not profane and vulgar. From the phrase "the four quarters of thy vesture," which could not apply to the girdle or maxtle, which the Jews wore round their loins, it may be inferred that the square vest or mantle which covered their body is understood; and that was precisely the part of their dress to which the Mexicans fastened fringes. Further arguments may appear unnecessary to establish the fact, that in military matters, as well as in their civil institutions, the Mexicans resembled the Jews: but another analogy may still be pointed out in reference to its being customary with the kings of both nations to entrust to a subject the supreme command of the army, since the title of Tlacatecatl in the Mexican army, seems to have been equivalent to that which Joab and Abner possessed, under Saul and David, in the army of the Jews.


    (pages 78-95 not transcribed)


    ...M. Dupaix observes, that the Mexican temples, or Teocalli, were turned towards the east, or at least that their sides were adjusted to the four cardinal points of the compass, and that the sacellum or sanctuary above faced the east. It will also be seen from his plans, that the ancient subterraneous sepulchres in the province of Mixteca were made in the form of a cross. The sides of the Hebrew tabernacle were likewise turned to the cardinal points of the compass.

    The Jews sometimes burned the bones of the dead, as is evident from the tenth verse of the sixth chapter of the prophet Amos: "And a man's uncle shall take him up, and he that burneth him, to bring out the bones out of the house, and shall say unto him that is by the sides of the house, Is there yet any with thee? and he shall say, No. Then shall he say, Hold thy tongue; for we may not make mention of the name of the Lord. For, behold, the Lord commandeth, and he will smite the great house with breaches, and the little house with clefts." It is singular that many of the temples in the Mexican paintings, especially in the MS. of Vienna, should be represented with breaches and clefts in the roofs or other parts of them. According to Torquemada and Gomara, it was an ancient usage to burn the bodies of the deceased kings of Michuacan (a powerful state bordering on Mexico) with great pomp... And the Scripture informs us, in the Second Book of Chronicles and in the thirty-fourth chapter of Jeremiah, that the funeral rites of the Jewish kings were solemnized with great burnings; whether of the body or of spices only is not clearly explained, since "burying" might apply to the ashes or the bones after they had been reduced to charcoal by the fire. At any rate the Jewish custom might easily, in process of time, have changed into a real burning of the body along with the odoriferous perfumes. The passages of Scripture alluded to are the following: "But thou shalt die in peace: and with the burnings of thy fathers, the former kings which were before thee, so shall they burn odours for thee; and they will lament thee, saying, Ah Lord! for I have pronounced the word, saith the Lord." The king here addressed is Zedekiah king of Jerusalem, to whom the prophet Jeremiah thus speaks. Of Asa it is said: "And they buried him in his own sepulchres, which he had made for himself in the city of David; and laid him in the bed which was filled with sweet odours and divers kinds of spices prepared by the apothecaries' art; and they made a very great burning for him."


    (pages 97-101 not transcribed)

    (see A.L., p. 117)

    ... They celebrated in this month [Panquetzalitzli] the Festival of the Loaf, which was in this manner. They made a large loaf of the seed of bledos, which they called tzoalli, and of honey t; and after having made it, they blessed it in their manner and broke it, and the high priest put it into a very clean vessel, and took a thorn of maguey, with which he with great reverence took up a morsel and put it into the mouths of everyone of the Indians, as if in the manner of a communion. (The Jews are said, in former ages at least, to have celebrated a kind of communion. But we will not revive the calumnies of centuries gone by.)...

    Atemoztli commenced on the twentieth of December. They celebrated in this month the festival of the descent of the waters of the deluge. They kept the festival for this reason: I mean on account of the earth's having become visible, or on their finding themselves secure from the danger of the deluge. Atemoztli signifies the descent of the waters, as it rains surprisingly in this month....


    (pages 103-106 not transcribed)

    (see A.L., p. 117)


    ... Quecalcoatle is he who was born of the virgin, who was called on [earth Chimalman], and in heaven Chalchihuitztli, which means the precious stone of penance or of sacrifice. He was saved in the

    ++ The Messiah is shadowed in the Old Testament under many types; such as those of a lion, a lamb, a roe, the morning star, (or the planet Venus, otherwise called Lucifer,) the sun, light, a rock, a stone, the branch, [1] the vine, wine, bread, water, life, the way, and he is there recognized in the triple character of a king, a priest, and a prophet. It is very extraordinary that Quecalcoatle, whom the Mexicans believed equally to have been a king, a prophet, and a pontiff, should also have been named by them Ceyacatl, or the morning star; Tlavizcalpantecutli, or light; Mexitli, or the vine, (for Torquemada says that the core of the aloe, from which the Mexicans obtained wine, was so called); Votan, or the heart, metaphorically signifying life; and Toyoliatlaquatl, "manjar de nuestra vida," bread, (for his body made of dough was eaten by the Mexicans): and that the signs Ce Mazad, or one stag; Nahui Ollin, four earthquakes; [and Ome Tochtli]...

    1 The branch was a very famous type of the Messiah, which is thus mentioned by the prophet Zechariah, "Hear now, O Joshua, the high priest, thou, and thy fellows that sit before thee; for they are men wondered at: for, behold, I will bring forth my servant, The BRANCH. For behold the stone I have laid before Joshua; upon one stone shall be seven eyes. Behold, I will engrave the graving thereof, saith the Lord of hosts, and I will remove the iniquity of that land in one day." This passage of the third chapter of Zechariah is very remarkable; and it is impossible not to connect the branch here personified, as the branch of the house of Israel, as well as the prophecy of the Lord's slaying the dragon of the sea in the twenty-seventh chapter of Isaiah (which may mean [the leviathan]...

    (see A.L., p. 117)

    deluge, and was born in Zivenavitzcatl, where he resides. They call this the Fast of the Lords; it lasted four days, that is to say, from the first day of Ocelotl * to Four Earthquakes. †

    This fast was a kind of preparation for the arrival of the end of the world, which they said would happen on the day of Four Earthquakes, so that they were thus in daily expectation of that event.

    * Tierra is written under the sign of Ce Ocelotl, or One Tiger, which means that that sign was applied to the earth.

    † The sign of Nahui Ollin, or Four Earthquakes, was dedicated to Quecalcoatle, whose second advent, together with the end of the world, the Mexicans expected would be on the same sign. The sign of the sun in Four Earthquakes, or in its four movements, as later Spanish writers have wrongly explained temblores to signify, is found in the centre of the Mexican calendar which was discovered some years ago in the Plaza Mayor of Mexico, and refers no doubt to that belief.

    and Ome Tochtli, two rabbits, -- should have been dedicated to him. As also that the fables of Quetzalcoatle, preparing the way for Tlaloc (which some Spanish writers understand to allude to wind preceding the fall of rain); and of the flint which was thrown from heaven, which breaking into pieces, the fragments were changed into as many heroes, should have existed amongst the Mexicans, the latter of which assimilates itself to the notion of God's raising up from the stones seed unto Abraham.... Other analogies, extending to all the symbols mentioned above, might be pointed out between the types referring in the Old Testament to Christ, and the epithets bestowed by the Mexicans upon Quecalcoatle, in whose person several of the ancient Hebrew prophecies relating to the Messiah are pretended to have been fulfilled. And if more of his history, and [of the actions]...

    the leviathan, as it seems to be elsewhere called in Scripture; but is certainly not the whale, which is one of the most harmless inhabitants of the ocean), with the paintings contained in the eighty-ninth and ninety-sixth pages of the lesser Vatican MS.: the last of which represents Queca1coatle in the act of slaying some formidable sea-monster covered with scales. The Jews apply the line in Scripture, "He shall slay the dragon which is in the sea," to their expected Messiah; and they believe that that will be his last great exploit, and that the flesh of this sacrificed monster will be eaten at a great feast, to which he will only invite their nation.... The Mexicans, as it appears from the symbol of the city of Tuchconco contained in the fiftieth plate of the Collection of Mendoza, had formed to themselves an idea of an animal with a horn rising from its forehead, that, unlike the unicorn, which is a fabulous creature, between a horse and a deer, seems to have been of the rabbit or of the deer species only. The name of the city, as well as the form of the head of the animal which was its symbol, seems to point out that it belonged to the former class; and the other is merely suggested, because in Mexican paintings the head of the mazatl, or deer, is often very like that of the rabbit; and it is said. on very vague rumour, that in Thibet a species of deer or antelope exists with a single horn which grows from its forehead, which is exceedingly wild and difficult to catch. It must be admitted that the ancient paintings of the Mexicans are replete with Jewish images and conceptions. It has already been observed, that eyes, which are mentioned in several of the prophetical books of the Old Testament as mysteriously belonging to both animate and inanimate objects, are frequently found in these paintings, divested alike of all use and propriety of situation....

    (see A.L., p. 117)

    Quecalcoatle was he who they say created the world; and they bestowed on him the appellation of lord of the wind, because they said that Tonacatecotli, when it appeared good to him, breathed

    of the actions of his life had been preserved, we cannot tell where those analogies would have ceased. Isaiah says, "Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son." The Mexicans asserted that Quecalcoatle was born of the virgin Chimalillan. And he adds, in the verse immediately following; "Butter and honey shall he eat, that he may know to refuse the evil and choose the good:' The cakes, called Uologopale, which were made of honey and eaten on the festival of Quecalcoatle, might bear some allusion to this incomprehensible prediction. From the little that has been preserved of the life of Quecalcoatle, it would appear that he was very anxious to verify, in his own person, some of the ancient prophecies relating to the Messiah; and that for this purpose he went about studiously performing certain actions, by which they might appear to be fulfilled.... "Coming to a place named Quauhtitlan, where was a large, thick and lofty tree, leaning on the trunk of it he desired one of his pages to give him a mirror. which looking into, and perceiving himself older than he before was, he exclaimed, 'I have become old;' whence the place was ever afterwards named Huehuequauhtitlao, which signifies 'close to the old tree, or to the tree of the old man;' and gathering up stones from the ground, he flung them at the tree, and lodged them all in the trunk, where they remained many years. From this place he passed on, and was accompanied on the whole of the way by a great multitude of people, who followed him playing flutes and other instruments. He arrived at another place, which was a hill adjoining the city of Tlalnepantla, two leagues distant from this city of Mexico, where he sat down on a stone, and laid his hands upon it, and left their impression there; the marks of which are at the present day quite visible." -- How many incidents, analogous to those which are related in the Gospels of Christ, occur in this short passage; -- the withered fig tree; the crowd which followed him, strewing branches in his way, and singing hosannas; his custom of sitting down on the ground and discoursing to the people; the disciples by which he was attended; the halt, lame, and deformed persons, who pressed round him to be cured; and his laying on of hands, -- all present themselves to the imagination. The impressions of hands and feet are found in various parts of America engraved upon rocks, and are frequently associated by ancient traditions with the preaching of some religious missionary, who left that sign behind him...   Quecalcoatle is said to have been attended by many deformed persons and crook-backs, corcovados, on his way to Cholula.

    (see A.L., p. 117)

    and begot Quecalcoatle. They erected round temples to him, without any corners. They said that it was he, (who was also the lord of the thirteen signs which are here represented), who formed the [first man]...

    It is highly probable that the mysterious personage who appeared to the Indians of the valley of Taurua was a missionary; but whether he was a Christian missionary or an agent of Jewish proselytism, may be doubted: his pretended miracles were certainly gross frauds upon the credulity of an ignorant and superstitious people. But the story of his kindling fire with his breath, recalls to our recollection a passage in Basnage's History of the Jews, in which that writer says that Barchochobas, the famous Jewish impostor, who lived in the reign of the Emperor Adrian, did precisely the same thing, in order to persuade the Jews that he was the Messiah... He changed his name, and took that of the Son of the Star or Barchochobas, in order to have it believed that he was the star that Balaam had seen afar off. He maintained that he was one of the stars of heaven...

    (see A.L., pp. 117-18)

    first man. They celebrated a festival, on the sign of Four Earthquakes, to the destroyer, with reference to the fate which again awaited the world; for they said that it had undergone four destructions, and that it would again he destroyed.'" He alone had a human body like that of men, the other gods were of an incorporeal nature.

    All will agree with Saint Jerome, that it was no very difficult thing to deceive the people; and certainly, if the Jews had penetrated, as it may be proved to demonstration that they did, in remote ages to the continent of America, it cannot be doubted that they would have found it an easy task to deceive the Indians, and firmly to establish amongst them their exploded rites, and the abolished institutions of the Old Law. But the secret, the consequences of which if openly divulged could not have been calculated, that the Spaniards did discover, on their first arrival in the continent of America, Judaism in a most monstrous form, mixed with all kinds of abominations...


    (page 112 not transcribed)

    (see Simon, p. 219)

    The principal reasons which lead us to the conclusion that the Spaniards on their arrival in America discovered judaism, either moreor less tinctured with other idolatrous rites and ceremonies (to which it seems in the course of ages to have given birth), to have been the prevailing religion of the people of that continent, are the following: First: the admission of the best informed Spanish historians,who were ecclesiastics, that the Indians generally throughout the continent of America had some knowledge of the true God: this was a great admission on their part, because it was opposed to their own prejudices, and to those of the age in which they lived, which was only inclined to view, in the exact resemblance which many of the Indian rites and ceremonies bore to the Levitical institutionsand the ordinances of the old law, an excess of presumption in Satan which could thus lead him to imitate God. It was likewise opposed to the prejudices of former ages; we may even say, to those which Christianity itself had imbibed from Judaism, (which, though forced to admit that in the beginning man was not created without some knowledge of the true God, affirmed at the same time that that knowledge was speedily lost by the other nations of the earth, and only preserved in the line of their own virtuous patriarchs;) for the early fathers would not acknowledge that under the name of Jove, the god to whom the philosophers of Greece and Rome attributed every perfection with which it was possible for human conception to invest divinity, the Supreme Being was really adored; although to surpass the idea which they formed of him, not narratives of miracles and prodigies wrought in favour of one nation in particular, or of all mankind in general, since they would not aggrandize the notion of preconceived omnipotence, but some new idea, according to the theory of Locke, infused into the understanding, would absolutely be requisite. Torquemada affirms in the following passage of the thirty-third chapter of the sixth book of his Indian Monarchy, that the Indians of America had some knowledge of the true God... "This was the fashion of their religion, as regards the gods of all those nations which were worshiped in all the provinces which we have named, and in others which we have omitted to mention, which extend oyer many leagues of territory, until we come to the kingdom of Peru, with some shades of difference; and the greater part of this continent has some knowledge of the true God; but mixed up and obscured with that of the Devil, whom they worshiped and acknowledged as God, in different degrees, accordingly as was permitted by the same true God, our Lord."... He in another chapter incidentally relates a very curious fact, that Cabeca de Vaca and some other Spaniards travelling through some unknown provinces of America, arrived amongst certain Indians, who, on being questioned as to their religion, informed them that they worshiped one God, the Creator of heaven and earth; and being further asked from whom they derived that doctrine, they replied, from their ancestors, who had handed it down by tradition to them...


    (page 114 not transcribed)

    (see A.L., p. 118)

    ...Pedro de Cieça de Leon admits in his Chronicle of Peru, that the Indians had some knowledge of God the Creator, which title he says the all-powerful God did nott permit the Devil to assume.... "Some Indians affirm that this malicious demon Pachacama converses with the oldest amongst them in secret places, who, perceiving that he has lost his credit and authority, and that many of those who were accustomed to serve him, discovering their error, have now adopted a contrary opinion, tells them, that the God whom the Christians preach to them and he, are the same, with other statements which such an adversary chooses to put forth; and with artifices and false appearances he endeavours to prevent their receiving the water of baptism." The extreme pertinacity which the Indians, both of Peru and Mexico, displayed in adhering to their old religion, frequently laying down their lives in its defence, and affirming, when reasoned with upon the subject, that if Christianity was good for the Castilians, their own religion was no less so for them, is a convincing proof that the signs and wonders which the Mexicans believed that Huitzilopuchtli had wrought in their favour, (to which the hand and stretched-out arm so often occurring in Mexican paintings probably alludes,) and the oracles of Pachacama, revered in Peru, maintained the greatest ascendancy over their minds; and in this obstinacy, in blindly persisting in a persuasion which Christians told them was false, it must be confessed that the Indians closely resembled the Jews. The second reason for believing that Judaism was the religion of the Indians is, that they used circumcision. The third, that they expected a Messiah. The fourth, that many words incorporated in their languages and connected with the celebration of their religious rites, were obviously either of Hebrew or of Greek derivation. The fifth, that Las Casas the bishop of Chiapa, who had the best means of verifying the fact, was of this opinion. The sixth, that the Jews themselves, including some of their most eminent rabbis, such as Menasseh Ben Israel and Montecinio, who, though not a rabbi, was a Jew who had visited America, maintained it both by verbal statement and in writing. The seventh is the dilemma in which the most learned Spanish authors, such as Acosta and Torquemada, have placed their readers by leaving them no other alternative than to come to the decision whether the Jews had colonized America and established their rites amongst the Indians, or whether the Devil had counterfeited in the New World the rites and ceremonies which God gave to his chosen

    (see A.L., pp. 118-19)

    people. The eighth is the resemblance which many of the Indian rites and ceremomes bore to those of the Jews. The ninth is the similitude which existed between many of the Indian and many of the Hebrew moral laws. The tenth is the knowledge which the Mexican and Peruvian traditions implied that the Indians possessed of the history contained in the Pentateuch. The eleventh is the Mexican tradition of the Teoamoxtli or divine book of the Tultecas. The twelfth is the Mexican history of their famous migration from Aztlan. The thirteenth is the traces of Jewish superstitions, history, traditions, laws, manners, and customs, which are found in the Mexican paintings. The fourteenth is the frequency of sacrifices amongst the Indians, and the religious consecration of the blood and the fat of the victims. The fifteenth is the style of architecture of their temples. The sixteenth is the fringes which the Mexicans wore fastened to their garments. The seventeenth is a similarity in the manners and customs of Indian tribes far removed from the central monarchies of Mexico and Peru (but still within the pale of religious proselytism) to those of the Jews, which writers who were 1l0t Spaniards have noticed, such as Sir William Pen, who, recognising a probably fanciful likeness between the features of Indian and Jewish children, says,   "When you look upon them, you would think yourself in the Jews' quarter at Londonn. Their eyes are little and black like the Jews. Moreover they reckon by moons; they offer the first fruits; and have a kind feast of tabernacles. It is said their altar stands upon twelve stones. Their mourning lasts a year. The customs of their women are like those of the Jews. Their language is masculine, short, concise, and full of energy, in which it much resembles the Hebrew. One word serves for three, and the rest is supplied by the understanding of the hearers. Lastly, they were to go into a country which was neither planted nor known, and he that imposed this condition upon them, was well able to level their passage thither; for we may go from the eastern extremities of Asia to the western extremities of America." Pen's Letter on the Present State of the Lands of the English in America, p. 156. -- If Sir William Pen had had an opportunity of beholding on what purple thrones the sovereigns of Peru and Mexico sat, he would perhaps have exulted less at the idea of the Jews having miraculously passed from the old continent to the new, either by the division of the waters of the Euphrates, as foretold by Esdras, or of those of old ocean itself, the only remaining obstacle that could stop the march of the chosen people of God. We, for our own part, should be almost tempted at the bare mention of such a prodigy to declare ourselves of the same faith with the Irishman, who, on hearing a similar relation, gaily exclaimed, "I believe it all but the first step," if the subject itself, the credulity of mankind, was not calculated to excite rather our sorrow than our mirth, at beholding reason so fallen from her throne, and the great, the good, and the wise of ancient days deemed nought in comparison with an outcast race of jugglers who still pretend that they have "an oath in heaven," for ever constituting them the favourite people of God, and ratifying for ever the articles of the old covenant, which comprises all the items of the old law which Christians assert has been long since abolished, and which even if Christianity had never been established, or the old superseded by the new covenant, it might be argued on the grounds of fitness ought to have been abolished, since those laws were certainly not fit to be everlasting, some of which God himself declares in the following passage of the Old Testament to have been not good: "Wherefore also I gave them (the Jews) statutes that were not good, and judgments by which they should not live."...

    (see A.L., p. 178)

    ...It says in the eighth chapter of Genesis... sacrifices commenced immediately after the deluge; but sin, according to the notions of the Mexicans, commenced much eariier, for they believed that sin began with time. Noah was called by the Mexicans, Patecatle and Cipaquetona: they said that he invented the art of making wine, which it is generally agreed was not known before the deluge (since the patriarchs Noah and Lot were ignorant of its effects), and that he was preserved with six others in the ahuehuete, or ark of fir, (which is one less than Moses says were saved from the deluge; since eight persons entered the ark,) and that shortly afterwards his descendants built the tower of Tulan Cholula, partly from curiosity to see what was going on in heaven, and partly from fear of another deluge; but that Tonacatecutli, becoming incensed at their presumption, destroyed the tower with lightning, and scattered the workmen. Hence the Mexicans probably bestowed the epithet of Tepeva, or the disperser, on their supreme deity. M. de Humboldt says that "The people of Mechoacan preserved a tradition, according to which Coxcox, whom they named Tezpi, embarked in a large acalli, (a word compounded of atl water, and calli a house,) with his wife, his children, and animals and seeds of various kinds, the preservation of which was valuable to mankind. As soon as the great spirit Tezcatlipoca commanded the waters to retire, Tezpi caused a vulture, the Zopilote, (Vultur aurea,) to leave the bark. This bird, whose food is carrion, did not return, on account of the number of dead bodies with which the earth only just drying was strewed. Tezpi sent other birds, of which the Colibri (or humming-bird) alone returned, bearing in its bill the leafy branch of a tree. Tezpi then perceiving that the earth began to be covered with new verdure, quitted his bark near the mountain of Colhuacan." The ark of Noah rested on Mount Ararat in Armenia. It should further be observed, that the confusion of tongues, as well as the dispersion of tribes, was recorded in the traditions of the New World. In attempting to explain how the Indians could have become acquainted with events of such remote antiquity, coeval with the foundation of the earliest monarchies, it would be absurd to suppose that their annals and native traditions extended backwards to a period unknown to Egyptian, Persian, Greek, or Sanscrit history....

    (see A.L., p. 178)

    Topilcin * Quecalcoatle was born on the day of Seven Canes; and they celebrated on this same day of Seven Canes a great festival in Cholula, † to which they came from all parts of the [country]...

    * Topilcin was a title of Quecalcoatle, originally signifying our son, which in later times was assumed by the priest who presidedat human sacrifices.

    † A famous temple was dedicated in Cholula to Quecalcoatle, which was much frequented by pilgrims. The inhabitants of Cholula entertained the extraordinary superstitious notion, that, if their city was ever taken hostile possession of by a foe, and that they pierced the sides and broke off the plaster of this revered teocalli, water would immediately flow forth and inundate the city so as to destroy the enemy. Accordingly, in the full belief that Quecalcoatle would take speedy vengeance on the Spaniards, they admitted them within their walls and demolished, as Torquemada records in the fourieth chapter of the fourth book of his Indian Monarchy, nearly all the plastering on the sides of the teocalli; but no water flowed forth, and the Spaniards made a dreadful massacre of the priests and the citizens.

    (see A.L., p. 178)

    country and the cities, and brought great presents to the lords and papas of the temple; and they did the same on the day * on which he disappeared or died, which was the day of One Cane. These festivals happened at the expiration of every period of fifty-two years.

    ...They called the lord of these thirteen days Quequecoyotl, which signifies the old fox. They here fasted during the last four days to Quecalcoatle of Tula, who is he who was named after the first Calcoatle; and now they name him One Cane, which is the star Venus, of which they tell the fables accredited amongst them. Quequecoyotl is the same as the tale-bearer, the tempted, or he who suffered himself to be tempted. They here celebrated the Festival of Discord, or rather they implied by this figure the discord which exists amongst mankind....

    (see A.L., p. 178-79)

    ...Ysnextli -- They represented her as EVE, always weeping and looking at her husband ADAM. She is called Ysnextli, which signifies eyes blind with ashes; and this refers to the time subsequent to her sinning by plucking the roses. + They accordingly declare, that they are still unable to look up to heaven; and in recollection of the happy state which she lost, they fasted every eight years on account of this fall, and their fast was on bread and water only. They fasted the eight days preceding this sign of One Rose; and on the arrival of this sign, they prepared to celebrate the festival. They say that all the days of their calendar are applied to this fall, because on such a day sin was committed. They were commanded to bathe themselves in the night, lest they should grow ill.

    Chalchiuhtli, who presided over these thirteen days, saved herself in the deluge. She is the woman who remained after the deluge. Her name signifies, the woman who wears a dress adorned with precious stones... Torquemada says that she was also styled Chalchiuhtlatonac, which name signifies the queen of heaven, and was invoked by the Mexicans at the baptism of their children. Sahagun affirms that she was another Juno: but it is probable that she was the same as Chimalman. The Jews are said, in the eighteenth verse of the seventh chapter of Jeremiah, to have made offerings to the queen of heaven: "Seest thou not what they do in the cities of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem The children gather wood, and the fathers kindle the fire, and the women knead their dough, to make cakes to the queen of heaven."...


    (pages 121-27 not transcribed)


    ...Torquemada compares... Yaoteotle, the God of Armies or of Hosts, which resembles the ineffable name Yah, or Ya, of Jehovah, for teotle simply signifies God, and is added to the proper name Yao, of which it does not form a part.   It deserves to he remarked, that the Mexicans likewise applied the term Ineffable to their supreme god Tonacatecutli: and in the same way as the Jews were accustomed to represent the Deity by the symbol of a human eye within a triangle, so they appear to have typified the divine intelligence by a mirror or an eye placed upon three sticks transversely crossing each other. The Peruvians, whose religion was derived from the same source as that of the Mexicans, believed in one supreme Deity, the sole creator and governor of the universe, whom they named Viracocha, and Pachacamack or Pachayachachik. which signifies the creator of heaven and earth, and called Usapu, or Wonderful; and it is not a little singular, that the Ingas, as Acosta testifies, should have waged sanguinary wars to compel the surrounding nations to acknowledge Viracocha, and to embrace a religion which God himself had revealed...


    (pages 129-30 not transcribed)


    The absurd sense in which some of the Jewish rabbis understand the twenty-second verse of the sixty-fifth chapter of Isaiah, "For as the days of a tree are the days of my people, and mine elect shall long enjoy the work of their hands," affirming that when the restoration of the Jews shall take place, their lives will be lengthened in duration so as to equal that of trees, and that those who die at a hundred will die young, -- makes it probable that if the Jews invented the signs of the Mexican calendar, the sign Malinalli, which is composed of the jaw-bone of a man with grass growing out of it, would refer to the fourteenth verse of the sixty-sixth chapter of Isaiah, which they say alludes to the resurrection, where it says, "Your bones shall flourish like an herb," which verse they commonly repeat at funerals....


    (pages 132-40 not transcribed)


    may be inferred their [ancient Mexican paintings] great scarcity, as well as from the fact of his having undertaken the laborious task of copying out an entire Mexican Calendar, together with so many other historical paintings. Acosta thus describes the proscription which these paintings underwent three hundled years ago in the province of Yucatan, which was equally carried into effect in all the other provinces of South America...


    (pages 142-43 not transcribed)

    (see A.L., p. 178-79)

    ... In the year of Four Houses, or in 1509, they perceived a light by night, which lasted longer than forty days. Those who saw it say that it was discernible throughout all New Spain, and that it was very great and very brilliant; that it was situated in the East; and that, ascending from the earth, it reached the skies. This was one of the prodigies which they beheld before the arrival of the Christians; and they thought that it was Quecalcoatle, whom they expected..... Mexpanitli was the name of that part of the sky where the light appeared. The sky itself is represented by the planets, and the light which they believed to ascend from the earth appears in the painting to proceed from a mountain. The signification of Mexpanitli is the place of Mexi, or Quecalcoatle. With respect to the number of days during which the light was visible, it must be observed that forty was a favourite number with the Jews, because Moses was forty days with God in the mountains in remembrance of whose fasting they occasionally fast, eating very little, for forty days. A fast of this duration was also kept by the Mexicans, which was rigidly observed by Nezahualcoyotl the king of Tezcuco. In inflicting punishment the Jews also have regard to this number, which they take care never to exceed; and therefore stripes must be only thirty-nine. M. de Humboldt, noticing this curious passage of the manuscript of Le Tellier, which the extreme badness of the handwriting might in some places have prevented him from deciphering, says... The appearance of this light might otherwise be accounted for by the eruption of some of those volcanoes with which New Spain abounds.

    It has been observed above that the great light which was visible to the Mexicans some short time previous to the destruction of their city, and which appearing to ascend from the earth reached the skies, and lasted, as the Spaniards pretend, for the exact space of forty days, was probably some volcanic eruption, which was afterwards converted into a prodigy, portending the approaching destruction of the Mexican empire. In order to show the probability of this supposition, the following account of the volcano of Masaya, situated in the province of Nicaraugua, is here inserted, from the fourteenth book of Torquemada's Indian Monarchy. This province can hardly be considered a part of New Spain, although contiguous to it: but a traveller, in a recent narrative of a Land Journey from Vera Cruz to Mexico, states, that he observed in the whole progress of it indications that the soil of New Spain had been the frequent theatre of mighty volcanic eruptions, as the rocks themselves seemed in many places to be merely lava. Many other prodigies are related to have preceded the fall of Mexico, equal both in number, in magnitude, and in impossibility, to those declared by Josephus to have attended the destruction of Jerusalem. Strange voices are said to have been heard in the air, and the serene vault of heaven to have been disturbed by the mimic combats of armed hosts. The sister of Montezuma, who was dead and buried, is pretended to have come to life, and many other signs and wonders to have happened. In general, nothing is more easy than to relate a prodigy or to attest one, and nothing more rare than to witness one....


    (pages 145-58 not transcribed)


    ...A distinguished writer also of the present age, the Baron de Humboldt, says that the Muyscas, the ancient inhabitants of the plains of Bogota, likewise believed in the existence of a Trinity....

    The reason which this learned writer assigns for the Indians more readily allowing themselves to be converted to Christianity, reminds us of the argument which the Apostles chiefly used with the Jews to induce them to accept the new covenant and to become Christians: viz. that the burthen imposed upon them by the old law was intolerable. With respect to the dreams, visions, and apparitions which are said to have been so frequent amongst the Indians, they furnish strong evidence of what hold Jewish superstitions had taken of their minds; for what nation ever dreamed like the Jews, or beheld such numerous visions? It cannot either be doubted that if the Jews had succeeded in establishing their institutions in America and reviving the old law, reducing at the same time a great portion of the Indian population under their domination, and thus restoring the sceptre to Judah, that their rabbis would have taken care that this new order of things should be accompanied with all the signs which the prophet Joel had foretold in his second chapter should mark the Jewish millennium. "And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions. And also upon the servants and upon the handmaids in those days will I pour out my spirit. And I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth, blood, and fire, and pillars of smoke. The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and the terrible day of the Lord come." It is remarkable that the figure of the sun and moon turned into blood frequently occurs in the Mexican paintings. A material difference in sentiment prevails between Jews and Christians, as to the period when this gift of prophecying and seeing visions was to be conferred; the Jews affirm that it will be in the latter days, and that it is to come; Christians, that it was in the apostolic age, and is past...


    (pages 160-63 not transcribed)

    (see A.L., p. 178-79)

    ...Further proofs of the doctrine of the Trinity having been known in America, and of Christianity having been established in that continent before the arrival of the Spaniards, may be found in the fifth book of Acosta's Natural History of the Indies, and especially in the twenty-eighth chapter...

    "It is not known with certainty that the annunciation of the Gospel had crossed over to enlighten the people of America before that continent became known to the Spaniards. If any thing is calculated to produce astonishment, it is the particular belief which the Indians of Yucathan, above all the other nations of these extensive kingdoms, entertained; which renders it at least very difficult to comprehend how that was possible, without the mysteries of the evangelical law having been preached to them; in proof of which I shall cite what Father Remesal relates in his History. He affirms then, that when the Bishop Don Bartholomew de las Casas proceeded to his bishoprick, which as has been observed in the third book was in fifteen hundred and forty-five, he commissioned an ecclesiastic whom he found in Campeche, whose name was Francis Hernandez, (who is the person who is mentioned in the chapter which treats of the foundation of the city of Merida and in other chapters,) who was well acquainted with the language of the Indians, to visit them, carrying with him a sort of catechism of what he was about to preach to them; and that nearly at the end of a year the ecclesiastic wrote to him that he had met with a principal lord, who, on being questioned respecting the ancient religion which they professed, told him that they knew and believed in the God who was in heaven, and that this God was the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, and that the Father was named Yzona, who had created men; and that the Son was called Bacab, who was born of a virgin of the name of Chiribirias, and that the mother of Chiribirias was named Yxchel, and that the Holy Ghost was called Echvah. Of Bacab, the Son, they said that he was put to death, and scourged and crowned with thorns, and placed with his arms extended upon a beam of wood, to which they did not suppose that he had been nailed, but that he was tied, where be died, and remained dead dUling three days, and on the third day came to life and ascended into heaven, where he is with his Father; and that immediately afterwards Echvah, who is the Holy Ghost, came and filled the earth...


    (pages 165-74 not transcribed)

    (see A.L., pp. 265)

    These miserable men hence invented certain dreams, the result of their own blindness, relating that a god of the name of Citlallatonac, which is the sign seen in heaven called Saint James's or the Milky Way, sent an ambassador from heaven on an embassy to a virgin of Tulan called [Chimalman]...

    (see A.L., pp. 265-66)

    Chimalman... to whom the ambassador announced that it was the will of this god that she should conceive a son; and having delivered to her the message, he rose and left the house: and as soon as he had left it, she conceived a son, without connection with man, who was called Quetzalcoatle, who they say is the god of air; and his temples are round in the manner of churches, although till that time such was not the fashion of their temples: he was the inventor of temples of this form, as we shall show. He it was, as they say, who caused hurricanes, and in my opinion was the god who was called Citaladuali, and it was he who destroyed the world by winds.... as soon as this son of the Virgin was born he possessed the use of reason. The son of the Virgin, Topilcin Quecalcoatle, knowing that the vices of men were necessarily the cause of the troubles of the world, determined on asking the goddess Chalchiuitlicue, who is she who remained after the deluge with the man in the tree, and is the mother of the god Tlaloque, whom they have made goddess of water, that they might obtain rain when they stood in need of it; and accordingly Quecalcoatle commenced offering sacrifices to obtain rain, as a period of four years had elapsed since The proper name Sochiquetzal is here interpreted the lifting up of roses. A curious tradition of the Mahometans respecting the birth of Christ may here be noticed: they say that he was the last of the prophets who was sent by God to prepare the way for Mahomet, and that he was born of the Virgin by the smelling of a rose. The interpreter of the Codex Vaticanus has made a mistake in calculating the number of years signified by the Mexican symbols; these symbols added together amount exactly to five thousand two hundred and six years. It is singular that this famine, by which may be meant generally a state of suffering and affiiction, from which, according to the belief of the Mexicans, mankind were relieved by the coming of Queca1coatle, should have nearly conesponded in its duration with the period of time which, according to the Septuagint, intervened between Adam and the birth of Christ....

    The painting represents the ambassador or angel announcing this message to Suchiquecal, who was Eve, or the woman, whose seed was to bruise the serpent's head, which prediction seems to be alluded to in the seventy.fourth page of the lesser Vatican MS., which immediately follows another, representing Quecalcoatle slaying the beast whose power was in its tail. It is singular that Suchiquecal should appear to be receiving a nosegay from the ambassador; since the Mahometans have a tradition that Christ was born of the Virgin Mary by the smelling of a rose....

    (see A.L., p. 266)

    ...The said Quetzalcoatletopiltzin, (which name means Our Dearly Beloved Son) perceiving that neither sin nor the troubles of the world ceased, they affirm of him, that in the same way as he was the first who commenced offering up prayers to the gods and performing sacrifices to them, so likewise that he was the first who did penance, in order to propitiate the gods to pardon his people. They say that he sacrificed himself, drawing forth his own blood with thorns, as a new kind of penance. He was accustomed to throw into the flames gold, gems, and incense; as it appeared to him that, since the troubles of his people had ensued from the little reverence which men felt towards the gods, as not only did they not serve them or offer to them such things as are held in estimation in the world, but that their intent was to give themselves up to the pleasures and recreations of this life, and to commit many other sins, contrariwise it might be possible for him to appease them by means of these sacrifices, and above all, by his own blood....

    The Mexican religion was peculiarly austere: unlike the religion. of antiquity, and those which still prevail in Asia, with the exception of the Lamaism of Thibet, which some learned men have supposed to be an offshoot of Nestorianism it permitted not even the slightest levity in the service of the gods; cruel and sanguinary in the extreme, it notwithstanding professed to inculcate rigid morality.

    (see A.L., p. 266)

    ... The Mexicans, like the Jews, manifested a predilection for certain numbers. These numbers were 4, 5, 8, 9, 13, 18, 20, 40, and 52. Amongst the Chiapanese the number 7 was held in high esteem, and their week consisted of that number of days.

    It is a remarkable fact, that the Brazen Altar in Leviticus, an engraving of which may be found in the old editions of Prideaux's Connection, is a model in miniature of the Mexican Teocallis: they are quite alike, except that the ascent to the Teocallis was by stairs consisting of steps, and the ascent to the Brazen Altar was by an inclined plane....


    (pages 179-80 not transcribed)

    (see Simon, pp. 89-90)

    The dress and costumes of the Mexicans, and their sandals, resemble the apparel and sandals worn in the early ages 
    in the East, especially by the Jews: and the serpent with which the Mexican priests ornamented their heads and 
    persons, was perhaps a fashion introduced from Egypt into the New World ... 
    VI 181
    The following passage, translated from the second section of the seventh chapter of the Third Book of Garcia's, 
    Origin of the Indians, shows that the attention of that learned writer had been drawn to this coincidence: 
    'In New Spain the word Mesico is found, which as Brother Stephen de Salacar remarks, is Hebrew, and is therefore 
    introduced in the second Psalm, and signifies His anointed ... since the leader who conducted those who peopled 
    Mexico was named Mesi, or as others write Mexi; and the city and nation were afterward called after him, in the 
    same way as we see that many cities, provinces and nations have been named after those who peopled or founded them, 
    or to whom they owed their origin, as we shall presently point out. The word Mesi should be noted as being really 
    Hebrew, and it agrees surprisingly with the name of the chief, head, or captain of the Mexicans.'
    (Lost Tribe Info note ... according to modern Jewish interpretation, the word, Mesi, may bear a relationship to 
    the word Moshiach) 
    VI 186
    It may be here observed, that the particle, teo, in the Mexican language prefixed to the names of persons, places 
    and nations, and meaning divine, as in Teocipactli, Teochichimeca, corresponds exactly with, jeru, in Hebrew, 
    which signifies, in the same manner, holy or divine. 
    VI 186
    The Jews considered the brazen serpent which Moses lifted up in the wilderness as a type of the coming of their future 
    Messiah; and since the Mexicans were so well acquainted with the early history of the Pentateuch, and with the signs 
    and wonders which Moses performed in Egypt by uplifting his rod, which became a serpent, it is probable that they were 
    not ignorant of the history of the brazen serpent, and that Quecalcoatle (which proper name signifies the precious 
    feathered serpent) was so named after the memorable prodigy of the serpent in the wilderness, the feathers perhaps 
    alluding to the rabbinical tradition that the fiery serpents which bit the children of Israel, and which God 
    sent suddenly against them, were of a winged species. 
    VI 207, 208 [cf. AL 322]
    Isaiah, whose Prophecies the Mexicans were acquainted with by paintings and tradition ... 
    VI 216
    It may be remarked , that most of the speeches in the above mentioned book (Sahagun's History of New Spain - 6th book) 
    have a strong tincture of Jewish rhetoric, the same complacent mode of speaking of themselves as God's peculiar people, 
    the same familiar converse with the Deity, beginning frequently as in Abraham's dialogue with God, with the word 
    'Peradventure' (Por Ventura); the same unceasing solicitude after dreams, visions, and inspirations; the same manner 
    of addressing each other by the appellation of Brethren; and finally the same choice of metaphors distinguish the 
    composition of the Jews and the Mexicans ... 
    VI 221
    The Jews believe that the shrill sound of the horn or the trumpet stirs the soul to repentance ... It is singular that 
    the Mexicans should have entertained the same notion. 
    VI 223
    It is true, as a general remark, that both nations [[Mexicans and Jews]], in their costumes and the external decorations 
    of their persons and buildings, nearly resembled each other... The same custom prevailed amongst the Mexicans; on whose 
    persons, as represented in their ancient paintings, we  recognize all the ornaments mentioned in the Old Testament as 
    worn by the Jews ... 
    VI 229 [cf Simon, 93]
    From the sixth verse of the eighth chapter of the Song of Solomon, "Set me a seal upon thine heart, as a seal upon 
    thine arm," it appears that the Jews wore their seals fastened to their arms. And it is very singular since there was 
    something peculiar in the Hebrew fashion, that this should have been a Mexican custom likewise; as we learn from Cortes, 
    Torquemada, and Bernard Diaz, [that it was]. --- Torquemeda says, in the 20th chapter of the 8th book of his "
    Indian Monarchy," that the priests and ministers who lived in the great Temple of Mexico, were more than five thousand, 
    who resided by day and by night within its walls, occupied in the service of the Temple. These priests are constantly 
    named Levites by Acosta, and certainly that learned author may be excused for giving them that appellation, as the Temple 
    service of the Mexicans was in reality very like that of the Jews.
    VI 229 [cf Simon, 93-94]
    The entire of Garcia's third book of the, Origin of the Indians, treats accordingly the likeness, which in their 
    laws, their, ancestors, their moral qualities and habits, their ceremonies, their sacrifices, their mutual 
    inclination to idolatry, and even in their early history,- the two nations bore to each other ... In the seventh 
    he compares the Hebrew language with some of the American idioms ... 
    VI 235
    The interpreter of the Codex Vaticanus is of the opinion that the ceremonies of the Mexicans, as well as their 
    sacrifices, may be urged as proof of their being descended from the Jews. 
    VI 235
    The extreme aversion which the North American Indians felt for swine, and the opprobrious term of Shukapa, or swine 
    eaters, which they bestowed on Europeans because they perceived that ate the flesh of that animal, have already been 
    noticed by Adair in the twelfth Argument of his treatise on the descent of the American Indians from the Jews. 
    Whether, however, the fact of no mention being made by any Spanish authors of the flesh of the pecari, or Mexican hog, 
    being eaten by the Mexicans, or that animal being domesticated among them or sacrificed in their temples, or even 
    offered as provision to the Spanish soldiers, before whom they placed all other kinds of food when on the marches 
    through their country, can be a considered a negative proof of the Mexicans entertaining the same aversion for swine 
    as the more northern Indian tribes, we shall leave it to others to determine. 
    VI 236
    ... the various marvels which Gomara, Torquemada, Acosta, and Herrera testify that the Mexicans believed to have 
    occurred in the course of their pilgrimage from Aztlan, -- such as heaven raining bread; water flowing at the command of 
    their god from a dry rock; a small brook suddenly overflowing its banks, and causing the enemy to flee before them; the 
    punishment of those who murmured against the will of Huitzlopochtli, and wished to remain in Tulan instead of proceeding 
    onwards to the promised land; the frequent consultations the priests held with their god, and the answers which they 
    received .... 
    VI 244
    ... since the national unity of the Mexicans must have been so highly flattered at believing themselves to be the 
    chosen people of God, who ha wrought the most extraordinary miracles in their favour on their quitting Aztlan, Himself 
    forsaking heaven to be present at their camp, as their legislator and the guide of their way, and assuming the titles 
    of Tetzauhtectl (the God of armies, and the terrible God to strike fear and dismay into the breasts of other enemies) ... 
    VI 244
    from the Idea de una Nueva Historia ... "original Tultec map recorded events of the greatest antiquity, especially 
    the confusion of tongues which took place at the time of the Tower of Babel ... on which occasion seven Tultecas, 
    who assisted in the building of said tower, perceiving that they could not understand the others, separated themselves, 
    together with their wives and sons ... 
    VI 245
    The Tultecas [Toltecas?] were most probably Jews who had colonized America in very early ages, bringing along with them 
    the knowledge of of various mechanical arts, and instructing the Indians in them; but especially propagating amongst 
    them their own religious doctrines, rites, ceremonies, and superstitions, which seem to have pervaded the New World 
    from one end of that vast continent to the other; and to have extended to some of the islands in the Pacific Ocean;  
    for we read in Captain Cook's Voyages of the rite of tabooing, or consecrating and putting apart, or making unclean 
    for a definite period of time, both animate and inanimate things; and also that the natives of some of those islands, 
    which are probably peopled from America, practised circimcision. 
    VI 255, 256 [cf AL 322 rite of tatooing?]
    Azcatlxochitl a Tultec princess ... seems to be a snycope for Aztecatlxochitl, a name which would signify The Rose Of 
    the Aztecs ... it would afford grounds for supposing that the Tultecas were also called Aztecas, and that they 
    proceeded from Aztlan ... 
    VI 256
    The reason for supposing that the domination of the Tultecas had rather merged in that of the Chichimecas ... is the 
    estimation in which they were held long after their empire had passed away; and the pride which the chichimecan 
    sovereigns felt in being descended from them ... 
    VI 256
    ... how to account for an extreme similarity which their history, their laws, their rites, ceremonies, and superstitions 
    present to those of the Jews,- would be found in the fact that the Tultecas were Jews who had colonized America ... 
    from whom likewise many of the Indian tribes might with much probability have a borrowed a portion of their early 
    history, especially the account of their pretended migration. 
    VI 256
    The Peruvians when first discovered by the Spaniards had already attained a high degree of civilization; 
    and it would appear from a passage of Gomara's History of the Indies, that the Spaniards were struck by 
    the resemblance of some of the tribes of Indians in that part of America to Jews. 
    VI 271
    It will be remarked that Gumilla says the Salivas circumcised their children on the eighth day after their birth; 
    and by the covenant which God made with abraham, the Jews circumcised their children on the same day ... 
    VI 272
    Amongst the Jews, all wars, not excepting their civil ones, bore a religious character, &c. and in the twelfth chapter 
    of Deuteronomy, directions are given to the priests to accompany and exhort the soldiers to battle. The interpreter of 
    the collection of Mendoza says, that priests likewise followed the Mexican armies, not only for the purpose of joining 
    the combatants, but also to perform certain religious ceremonies, in which some analogy is discovered between the customs 
    of the two nations." --- "It has already been observed, that many analogies might be pointed out, in the usages of the 
    Mexicans and Jews, in reference to their treatment of their kings. But omitting, in this place, to notice the oath which 
    was administered to the kings of Mexico, at their coronation, by the high priest, (which is described by Gomara, p. 122, 
    of his History of the Conquest of Mexico, in which the kings made a covenant with the people to protect the established
    religion, to preserve the laws, and to maintain justice, reminding us of what David did, on a similar occasion, as
    recorded by Samuel -- "So all the elders of Israel came to the king to Hebron, &c." and the great burning of spices and 
    other odoriferous substances, which took place at the funerals of the kings of Mexico, which was also customary at the 
    funerals of the Jewish kings, we shall remark that the regalia, worn by the kings of both nations, were nearly the same. 
    Amongst the Jews, they consisted of a crown and bracelets, as is evident from 2 Sam. i. 18, where the Amalekite announces 
    to David the death of Saul, bringing him, not his sword and armour, but what he thought would be a more agreeable present 
    to an aspirant to the throne, the royal insignia. A sceptre was also part of the Jewish regalia, and a mantle. The crown 
    of the Jewish king more nearly resembled a mitre than the crown worn by emperors and monarchs. A crown and bracelets, 
    sceptre and mantle constituted, though not the entire, the principal part of the royal costume of the Mexican kings. The 
    crown was named Teocatli represented in the 57th plate, in the collection of Mendoza, as forming a specimen of the dress 
    worn by the Mexican kings, since the regal apparel of Montezuma differed but slightly from that of Moquihuix. It is true 
    as a general remark, that both nations, in their costume and the external decoration of their persons and buildings, 
    nearly resembled each other. "Set me as a seal upon thine heart, as a seal upon thine arm," and it is very singular since 
    there was something peculiar in the Hebrew fashion, that this should have been a Mexican custom likewise, as we learn from 
    Cortez, Torquemeda, and Bernal Diaz." --- "Torquemeda says, in the 20th chapter of the 8th book of his "Indian Monarchy," 
    that the priests and ministers who lived in the great Temple of Mexico, were more than five thousand, who resided by day 
    and by night within its walls, occupied in the service of the Temple. These priests are constantly named Levites by 
    Acosta, and certainly that learned author may be excused for giving them that appellation, as the Temple service of the 
    Mexicans was in realityvery like that of the Jews. ... 
    VI 281 - cf Simon 92-94]
    In the tenth chapter of his twelfth book, Torquemeda affirms, that the Devil counterfeited amongst the Indians the Feast 
    of Passover. This third month of the Mexicans commenced on the fifteenth of March, which like the solemn Passover of the 
    Jews, lasted eight days, when they offered the first fruits. The ripe grain and the ears, it was unlawful for them to 
    taste before they had presented the said first fruits to the priests. The Indians observed the same custom on this third 
    month, (the Pasqua) which they celebrated in honor of their (ancients or lords.) Before the arrival of the day appointed 
    for carrying these first fruits to the temples and altars, no one dared to  smell them, for they were forbidden to do so 
    by an express law; as the Jews were forbidden to taste the ears of corn; and (adds the complacent,son of the church,) 
    "It might well provoke a hearty laugh from Christians, to see that the Devil wished to constitute himself the god of the 
    first fruits," &c. ... 
    VI 282 [cf Simon 145]
    ... the Mexicans in their dress, in the domestic economy of their house (which had flat roofs or terraces like those 
    of the Jews), in their mode of receiving guests and saluting strangers, in their respect for the old (rising up on their 
    approach), and in the pains which they bestowed on the education of their children ... strongly remind us of the Jews 
    VI 276
    The celebrated Las Casas entertained no doubt that the continent of America had in early ages been 
    colonized by the Jews; and he goes so far as to say that the language of the Island of Saint Domingo 
    was "corrupt Hebrew."
    VI 282 [cf Simon p. 3 -- need to copy]
    The Mexican priests, like the Levites, bathed and made frequent use of ablutions in their religious ceremonies: some 
    of them like the Jewish Nazarites, permitted their hair to grow without ever cutting it. 
    VI 292
    In the same way as amongst the Jews none were permitted except the Levites to enter the secret place of sanctuary, 
    so the Mexican ritual forbade any but the priests to enter the sanctuary of Tetzcatlipoca. 
    VI 292 (see also below)
    It is said in the thirty-fifth chapter of Exodus, of the Israelites: "And they came ... and brought bracelets, and 
    ear-rings, and rings, and tablets, all jewels of gold: and every man that offered, offered an offering of gold unto 
    the Lord." ... the Mexicans were accustomed to present at the shrines of their gods jewels of gold, bracelets, and 
    necklaces ... 
    VI 292
    Returning to the consideration of other Hebrew analogies in the Indian rites and ceremonies, -- having already mentioned 
    the temple of Mexico, the fire that was continually burning in it, the celebration of the festivals of the new moons 
    and the offering of first-fruits at stated seasons of the year; we may further observe, that the Mexicans in other 
    parts of their temple service resembled the Jews. Like the Jews, besides sacrifices, they offered incense, flowers, 
    and golden chains and jewels ... It is unnecessary to quote Scripture to show that to offer incense in their temple 
    was a Jewish custom, since no nation except the Indians ever came near the Jews in their prodigality in making this 
    offering to the Deity ... 
    VI 292
    that the Jews were expressly commanded, in the fortieth verse of the twenty-third chapter of Leviticus, to carry boughs 
    and branches of trees in their hands as a religious ceremony ... The Mexicans were accustomed to decorate profusely their 
    temples with branches of trees and flowers, and to carry them in their hands in certain festive processions. 
    VI 292
    The purple veil said to have been spread before the shrine of Tezcatlipoca, and to have been painted with skulls and 
    bones, recalls to our recollection the 35th verse of the 36th chapter of Exodus, in which mention is made of the veil 
    of the tabernacle. Torquemeda says " that the skulls and bones which occupied the place of the Cherubims in the temple 
    of Tezcatlipoca, signified that God possessed equal power over life and death." --- " In the same way as amongst the 
    Jews, none were permitted except the Levites to enter the place of the Sanctuary, so the Mexican ritual forbade any but 
    the priests to enter the Sanctuary of Tezcatlipoca." Acosta, describing the temple of that god in the 13th of the 5th 
    book, says: --- "As the Temple in Jerusalem contained great store of gold and silver vessels which the king of Babylon 
    pillaged, so the Peruvian temples were excessively rich in precious vases, especially that of Pachacamac, near Lima, 
    from which Acosta observes Francis Pizarro and his soldiers obtained immense quantities of gold and silver vases." It 
    was customary among the Jews to summon the people to worship by the sounding of horns; and to blow trumpets, was a 
    religious ceremony which Moses declared in the 23d chapter of Leviticus, that God himself appointed. "And the LORD spake 
    unto Moses, saying, speak unto the children of Israel, saying, in the seventh month, in the first day of the month, 
    shall ye have a sabbath, a memorial of blowing of trumpets, an holy convocation: "and again in the 29th chapter of 
    Numbers, "In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall ye have a sabbath, a memorial of blowing of the 
    trumpets unto you." It is not a little curious that according to Torquemeda, the Mexicans should have been summoned to 
    prayer at stated hours by the blowing of horns, in the same way as the Jews, although they were acquainted with bells; 
    and that according to Garcia, they should have approached the temple with the same reverential custom oÝ pulling off 
    their sandals when within a certain number of paces distant from it. See Exodus iii. They have likewise imitated the 
    Jews in their sacerdotal costume, and Garcia, in the 2nd chapter of the 36th of the account of the Indians, treating of 
    the resemblance of the Indian dress to that of the Jews, says, "Father Augustin Dovila, Arcopisco de St. Domingo, 
    ressere on su Historia Dominicana del Nuevo Mondo, como en un pueblo, llamado Tamaculapa que es en la Misteca de Nallaron 
    unas vestiduras sagradas de al que ellos teieen por escondidas los Indios." The Arcopisco of St. Domingo, relates in his 
    Historia Dominicana of the New World, that some sacred vestments were discovered in a town called Tecpati, in Mexico, 
    which had belonged to the person whom they considered the High Priest, which nearly resembled those worn by the High 
    Priest of the Mexican nation, which vestments the Indians kept concealed.
    VI 292-293 [cf Simon, 99; and Gazetteer of the Old and New Testaments, 71]
    ... according to Garcia, they should have approached their temple with the same reverential custom of pulling off 
    their sandals when within a certain number of paces distant from it. 
    VI 293
    Garcia, in the second chapter of the third book of the, Origin of the Indians ... "Fr. Agustin Davila, Arcobispo de 
    Santo Domingo, refiere en su Historia Dominica del Nuevo Mundo, como un pueblo llamado Tamaculpa, que es en la Misteca, 
    se halloran unas vestiuras Sagrados de el que ellos tenian por summo sacerdote, muy semejantes a la que se ponian los 
    pontificos maximos de la lei de Moises ..." -- "Brother Augustin Davila, the archbishop of Santo Domingo, relates in 
    his Dominican History of the New World, that some sacerdotal vestments were discovered in a town called Tamaculapa, 
    in Misteca, which had belonged to the person whom they considered their high priest, which nearly resembled those 
    worn by the high priests of the Mosaic law ... 
    VI 293
    It was customary among the Jews to summon the people to the synagogue by the sounding of horns; and to blow trumpets 
    was a religious ceremony, which Moses declares, in the twenty-third chapter of Leviticus ... It is certainly not a 
    little curious that, according to Torquemada, the Mexicans should have been summoned to prayers at stated hours by 
    the blowing of horns, in the same way as the Jews ... 
    VI 293 [cf Simon, 99]
    their sandals when within a certain number of paces distant from it. See Exodus iii. They [[Peruvians]] seem likewise 
    to have imitated the Jews in their sacerdotal costume. 
    VI 293 [cf Simon, 100 -- more to copy]
    It would appear from what Garcia asserts, ... that the dress of the Peruvians was more like that of the Jews than was 
    the Mexicans, whilst the sandals of the people of New Spain were strictly in the Hebrew fashion. [We know, from the 
    expression of John the Baptist, "There cometh one mightier than I after me, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy 
    to stoop down and unloose," the nature of the Hebrew sandals, which probably exactly resembled those worn by the 
    VI 295 [cf Simon, 100 -- more to copy]
    The natives of Peru in ancient times allowed their hair to grow long like the Nazarites, with the exception of that 
    class called Orezonia; and those who are yet unconquered, wear at the present day the hair in this fashion. That this 
    was the dress and costume of the Hebrews, is evident, as well from their histories, as from their ancient paintings, 
    which represent them habited in this apparel: and this kind of dress and sandals was worn by the Apostles. ... no Hebrew 
    fashion was wanting in the New World.
    VI 295 [cf Simon, 100 -- more to copy]
    Garcia says, in the last section of the second chapter of the third book of his, Origin of the Indians, "If the dress 
    which the Indians wear is duly considered, particularly the Peruvian, it will be found very like that worn by the 
    Jews; for they use a tunic or shift, which resembles a surplice without sleeves, and over it they wrap a mantle. 
    They substitute sandals in the place of shoes ... 
    VI 295 [cf Simon 99-100 -- need to check]
    It is certainly surprising to see how nearly the Jewish costume is imitated in some of the Mexican paintings. 
    VI 296 [cf AL 322]
    It is evident, from the passage of Exodus (29:6) ... that the holy crown was distinct from the mitre: it consisted of 
    a plate of gold, that was tied with a blue lace over the mitre ... it says, in the thirty-sixth and following verses of 
    the same chapter: "And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and grave upon it, like the engravings of a signet, 
    Holiness to the Lord. And thou shalt put it on blue lace, that it may be upon the mitre; upon the forefront of the 
    mitre it shall be. And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead ..." Three things deserved to be noticed in the Mexican mitre. 
    It frequently consisted of a plate of gold on a blue ground; it was tied to the head by a lace or ribbon; it was 
    peculiarly worn on the forehead of the king or the priest. 
    VI 296 [cf AL 323 -- more to copy]
    In Peru ... some of the Ingas wore a crown more nearly resembling an episcopal mitre ... 
    VI 297 [see below]
    From the forty-second verse of the twenty-eighth chapter of Exodus: "And thou shall make them linen breeches to cover 
    their nakedness: from the loins even unto the thighs they shall reach." It would appear that the mantle, worn from a 
    sense of decency by the Mexican priests round their loins, very  much resembled the breeches which Moses made for 
    Aaron and his sons.... 
    VI 298 [cf AL 324]
    Sahgun says in mentioning in the fourteenth chapter of his first book the festival of Xochilhuitl ... that the Mexicans 
    ate on one of their feasts unleavened bread. 
    VI 307
    A curious parallel of the Jewish and Indian moral laws may be found in that chapter of the third book of Garcia's Origin 
    of the Indians, which he has entitled, "Como los Indios guardaron los Preceptos del Decalogo." "How the Indians obeyed 
    the Ten Commandments"! 
    VI 331
    The words of Las Casas, "Loquela tua manifestun te facit," "Your speech betrays you," in reference to the Mexicans, 
    or some other tribe of Indians, whom he took to be real Jews ..." 
    VI 332
    With respect to circimcision, Peter Martyr and Gomara, whose veracity as historians has never been doubted both 
    affirm that the Indians were circumcised. 
    VI 334
    ... from the writings of Acosta himself, as well as from the works of Sahgun (previous Lost Tribes Info excerpt, 
    notwithstanding) and Torquemada, and the commentary of the anonymous interpreter of the Vatican MS., that the Indians 
    of New Spain did expect a Messiah whom they even named Mexi, which name exactly resembles the Hebrew, whose advent 
    they expected in the year of the Cane, or the year of the Lord ... 
    VI 338
    It is very extraordinary that the Mexicans should have assigned to the serpent the same quality of superior wisdom 
    as the Jews did, since we read of no other nations except the Jews and the Mexicans who believed in that fact in 
    natural history. 
    VI 356
    In a Mexican painting in the Bodleian library at Oxford is a symbol very much resembling the jaw-bone of an ass, 
    from the side of which water seems to flow forth; which night allude to the story of Samson slaying a thousand of 
    the Philistines with such a bone, which remained miraculously unbroken in his hands, and from which he afterwards 
    quenched his thirst. 
    VI 361 [cf Bancroft, Native Races, 90]
    In Exodus xix. 6, God commands Moses to address the following language to the Hebrews, "Ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of 
    priests, an holy nation." The Mexicans  resembled the Hebrews in being a nation of priests, &c. Jeremiah's apostrophe, 
    "I am called by Thy Name, O LORD God of Hosts." This text may receive some illustration from the following curious 
    passage of Sahagun's History, in which that learned author gives some account of the ancient Toitecas, "they were very 
    religious and much addicted to prayer, they worship one God only whom they name Quetzalcoatl, whose priests bore likewise 
    the same appellation." Of a particular person with whom the author had conversation, he goes on to say, "He was 
    frequently accustomed to declare that there was one God only, and Lord, whose name was Quetzalcoatl, and that he requires 
    no other sacrifices than snakes and butterflies." We here only wish to refer to the thirty-sixth page of the present 
    work, in order to point out the probability that God's promise to Jeremiah, "Thou shalt be as my mouth," was known to the 
    Mexicans; since the newly elected king of Mexico, in a prayer of Thanksgiving to Tezcatlipoca, there emphatically says 
    of kings in general, "Vuestros instrumentos y vuestras imagenes para regir vuestros reynos, estando dentro de ellos y 
    hablando por su boca, y pronunciando ellos vuestras palabras." --- "They are thine instruments and thine images to 
    govern thy kingdoms, thou being in them, and speaking through their mouth, and they pronouncing thy words." &c.
    VI 371 [cf Simon, 111]
    Both nations, Hebrews and Mexicans, were most punctual in the payment of their religious offerings and first-fruits. 
    The Mexicans, as Montezuma informed Cortes, feared that if they failed in this part of their religious duties, they 
    would incur the most severe vengeance. The paintings of the Mexicans show that censers were used in profusion in the 
    ceremonies of their religion. The priests lodged round the temples in chambers built for the express purpose; and 
    it is stated in the Book of Chronicles that a certain portion of the Levites lodged round the Temple built by Solomon. 
    The Mexican temples contained fountains in the courts in which the priests performed their ablutions, and Solomon is 
    said to have made a molten sea, which contained two thousand baths for the same purpose, and stood in the court of the 
    Temple. Many passages of Scripture lead us to imagine that the ground-plan of the great temple of Mexico resembled that 
    of Jerusalem ... "And Moses [said] unto Korah, Be thou and all thy company before the Lord, thou, and they, and Aaron, 
    tomorrow: and take every man his censer, and put incense in them, and bring ye before the Lord every man his censer, 
    two hundred and fifty censers; thou also, and Aaron, each of you his censer." 
    VI 376, 377 [cf A gazetteer of the Old and New Testaments p. 71]
    The Mexicans were accustomed [to show] their respect for the persons of ambassadors by burning odoriferous perfumes in 
    censers before them ... Daniel 2:46 "Then the king Nebuchadnezzar fell upon his face, and worshipped Daniel, and commanded 
    that they should offer an oblation and sweet odours to him." 
    VI 377
    The Mexicans to decorate the inner walls of their temples and palaces with figures painted in vermilion. ... twenty-third 
    chapter of Ezekiel "When she saw men portrayed upon the wall, the images of Chaldeans portrayed with vermilion ..." 
    VI 377
    Every thing that related to the preserving unextinguished the sacred fires which burnt in their temples, was considered 
    by the Mexicans as a matter of the utmost consequence. --- 2 Maccabees 1 "For when our fathers were led into Persia, 
    the priests that were then devout took the fire of the altar privily, and hid it in a hollow place of a pit without 
    water, where they kept it sure, so that the place was unknown to all men ..." 
    VI 377
    8 The Mexican priests lodged round their temples in chambers built for the express purpose ... Chronicles 9:27 "And 
    they lodged round about the house of God, because the charge was upon them, and the opening thereof every morning 
    pertained to them ..." 
    VI 377
    Many passages in the Old Testament would lead us to imagine that the grand plan, at least, of the greater temple 
    of Mexico resembled that of the temple of Jerusalem ... 
    VI 377, 378
    Both nations [[viz. Hebrews and Mexicans]] were most punctual in the payment of their religious offerings, and first 
    fruits, &c. The Mexicans, as Montezuma informed Cortez, feared if they failed in this part of their religious duties 
    that they would incur the severest vengeance, &c. And the prophet Malachi, or rather God speaking through the mouth 
    of that prophet, assures the Jews that they were under a peculiar blessing promised in the third chapter of the book
    of Malachi." * * * "The paintings of the Mexicans shew that censers were used in profusion in the ceremonies of their 
    religion. The priests lodged round the temples in chambers built for the express purpose, and it appears from the 
    twenty-seventh verse of the ninth chapter of Chronicles, that a certain portion of the LÚvites lodged round the Temple 
    built by Solomon. The Mexican temples contained fountains in the courts, in which t he priests performed their ablutions, 
    and Solomon is said to have made a molten-sea which contained two thousand baths, which served the same purpose, and 
    stood in the court of the Temple. Every thing relating to preserving unextinguished the sacred fire which burnt in the 
    Temple, was considered by the Mexicans as a matter of the utmost consequence. The manner in which they kindled the 
    sacred fire is not precisely known: that it was a religious rite accompanied with certain ceremonies, cannot be doubted; 
    and we may even be permitted to believe from an expression in the fourteenth verse of the nineteenth chapter of Ezekiel: 
    "And fire has gone forth from a rod of her branches, which hath devoured her fruits," that they were acquainted with 
    the Mexican method of kindling fire by wood." --- "Many passages of scripture lead us to imagine that the ground-plan 
    of the great Temple of Mexico resembled that of Jerusalem.
    VI 377-78 [cf Simon 104] 
    The walls of the Mexican temples were delicately plastered, and frequently ornamented with stucco, especially the 
    temple of Palenque ... Ecclesiasticus 22:17 "A heart settled upon a thought of understanding is a fair plastering on 
    the wall of a gallery." 
    VI 380
    M. Dupaix, in describing the figures in plaster upon the walls of the temple of Palenque, notices a peculiarity in 
    them all, the excessive size of the nose. He did not perhaps know that Solomon ascribed beauty and majesty to 
    countenances distinguished by that characteristic ... an exaggeration of the Hebrew line of beauty ... 
    VI 380
    ... the Tultecas actually built towers in memory of the Tower of Babel. 
    VI 387, 388
    Bouturini ... "The Indians likewise celebrated their sad origin in ancient songs, and retained such perfect 
    recollection of the Tower of Babel, that they sought to imitate it in various monstrous edifices of the New world." --- 
    "Celecraron assimismo los Indios su dicho origen en antiques cantares, y tuvieron tan viva la memoria de la Torre de 
    Babel, que la quisieron imitar en America con varios monstruosos edificios." 
    VI 388
    ... It is not too much to suppose, that the Hebrews [Jews?] did, on their arrival in Cuzco [America?], and on 
    their acquiring wealth and power a the country, determine to commemorate their ancient temple, by building there 
    other temples of great magnificence in imitation of it; such as were the temple of Pachacama, (or of the Creator) 
    situated at the distance of four miles from the city of Lima; and the great[er] temple of Mexico. The foundation 
    stones of the former of these Temples, are said by some Spanish writers to have been soldered together with gold 
    and silver, and the interior plated with gold, as was also those of the famous Temple of Cuzco, which was likewise 
    dedicated to the worship of Pachacamac, who, as the priests pretended, delivered oracular answers to those who 
    came to inquire of Him..... The Toltecas," who were great artists, and who excelled in working jewellery, probably 
    recollected the words of David -- "If I forget thee, O Jerusalem!" and it is a fact notorious to all, that wherever 
    Jews exist the recollection of the Temple and of its destruction (to preserve among them the coming of the Messiah, 
    and their own restoration to the New Jerusalem, and rebuilding of the Temple) continually occupy their thoughts." 
    --- "The retrospect, however, of the city and the Holy hill, which their ancestors seem to have founded in the new 
    world and called Churula, after Jerusalem, and Tlactichualtepetc (or the hill of sacrifice) after Mount Zion, 
    will not be so agreeable to the Jews of the present day as the prospect of the sceptre returning to Judah.
    VI 388 [cf Simon 217, 194]
    The names of the Chiapanese chiefs whose heads are found on the calendar, bear a considerable resemblance to Hebrew 
    proper names; and even the signs of the Mexican calendar seem to have some reference to the emblems under which 
    Jacob, when dying, predicted the destinies of his posterity. 
    VI 388
    Many customs of the Mexicans, strongly savouring at [of?]Judaism, besides that of circumcision, having already been 
    noticed: such as their wearing fringes fastened to their garments, practising frequent ablutions; attending constantly 
    public places of worship, to which they were summoned by the blowing of horns, as the Jews are to the synagogues; 
    anointing themselves with oils; addressing each other with the appellation of Brother and Sister; their priests 
    allowing their hair to grow long like Nazarites, though some were tonsured; their frequently doing penance, strewing 
    dust on their heads, and blackening themselves with ashes as a sign of mortification, and eating earth (Isaiah 49:23) 
    at the festival of Tetzcatlipoca. 
    VI 388, 389
    ... that it is singular that the Spanish Inquisition should have crossed St. Andrew's crosses to be painted upon the 
    dresses of Jews sentenced to be burnt at the solemnization of acts of faith ... since that symbol as well as a cross 
    resembling in shape the Greek letter T, which was in Naples a badge of disgrace which the Jews were compelled to wear 
    to distinguish them from the rest of the community, is not of unusual occurrence in Mexican paintings. 
    VI 389
    but the Zemes, or charms which Peter Martyr says that ... were pieces of paper containing written portions of the law ... 
    the Indians of Haiti and Santo Domingo bound on their foreheads when they went to war ... the Jews ... that which was 
    placed between their eyes ... phylacteries ... 
    VI 391
    Captain Cook also discovered the that circumcision had extended itself to the Islands of the South Sea. How, to use 
    the words of Gumilla, are these moral phaenomena to be explained? 
    VI 392
    It is certainly very extraordinary to find from the "Oronco Illustrated" of Gumilla, and Coreat's Voyages to the 
    West Indies, that Indian nations so remote from each other as those of the Oronco and the tribes who lived on the 
    confines of Peru on the banks the La Plata, as well, as the Chalchaques, a people situated between Peru Tucuman, 
    all used circumcision, and strictly abstained from the flesh of the swine. 
    VI 392
    Whether the Indians of the Islands of St. Domingo and Cuba, whose language is said to have been half Hebrew, and who, 
    in many of their customs, nearly resembled the Jews, practised the same rites as those in use among the Indians of the 
    continent, it would be difficult to say, but that they possessed traditions in common with them evidently derived from a 
    Hebrew source, is plain from the following relation of Torquemeda, which we cannot refrain from inserting: 
    "Verdad es que los de los Indios de la Isla Cuba dicen que tuvieron conocimiento que havia sido el cielo 
    y las otras cosas criadas; y decian que por tres personas, y que la una vino por tal parte, y las otras dos de otras;y 
    que tuvierongran noticiadel diluvio, y que se havia perdido el mundo por mucha agua; y decian los viejos de mas de 
    setenta y ochenta anos, luego al principio que entraron los nuestros en equella isla, que un viejo sabiendo que havia 
    de venir el diluvio, hico una grande nao, y se metio en ella con su casa y muchos animales, y queembio un cuervo, y 
    no bolvio por comer de los cuerpos muertas, y que despues embio una paloma, la qual bolvio cantando, y trajo una rama 
    con hoja que paracia hobo, pero que no era hobo; el qual salio del navio, y hico vino de las parras monteses, y se 
    embriago..." -- "It is true that the Indians of of the Island of Cuba say that they knew that the heaven and other 
    things had been created; and they affirm by three persons, one of whom came from such a part, and the other two from 
    other parts; and that they were perfectly informed also of the deluge, and that the world had been destroyed by a 
    quantity of water. The old men above seventy and eighty years of age reported, when first our countrymen settled in 
    that island, that an old man knowing that the deluge was about to happen, built a large ship, in which he embarked 
    with his household and many animals, and that he dispatched from thence a crow, which did not return, staying to prey 
    upon the dead caucuses; and that afterwards sent a dove; which came back cooing, bringing a leafy branch which 
    resembled a hop, although not one: on which he quitted the ship, and made wine of mountain grapes and became drunk 
    and having two sons, one of them laughed, and said to the other, "Turn him into jest; "but the other reproved him, and 
    covered his father, who, having slept off the effects of the wine, and knowing the impudence of his son, cursed him, 
    and pronounced a blessing on the other, and from the former the Indians of these countries were descended."
    VI 393 [cf Simon, 184-5]
    The tradition of the inhabitants of Cuba certainly deserves to be compared with those of the people of Michuacan and 
    Nicaragua, who also approximated to the Mosaic history in their accounts of the Deluge; although the former of the 
    last-mentioned nations believed that it was the colibri, or the humming-bird, and not the dove, that returned with 
    the branch of the tree. 
    VI 394
    The Indians of Chili, according to Rosales, had likewise a tradition of the Deluge; but he observes, that shells and 
    other fossil remains discovered in abundance on the highest ranges of mountains, might have suggested that to them. 
    VI 394
    [But the Mexican tradition of the Deluge is that which bears the most unequivocal marks of having been derived from a 
    Hebrew source.] --- This tradition records that a few persons escaped in the Ahuchueti, or Ark of fir, when the earth was 
    swallowed up by the deluge, the chief of whom was Palecath [Patecatle?], or Cipaquetona, that he invented the art of 
    making wine; that Xelua, one of his descendants was present at the building of a high Tower which the succeeding 
    generation constructed  with a view of escaping from the deluge should it again occur; that Tonacatecutli, incensed at 
    their presumption, destroyed the Tower with lightning, confounded their language and dispersed them. This age, called 
    by them Atonatiali, or the age of water, closely bordered upon that of the Tzocuillicxeque, or age of giants; and it will 
    be recollected that the age of the Flood in Scripture  was that of the giants also. --- The fact of the Mexicans recording 
    both in their paintings and songs, the Deluge, the building the tower of Babel, the confusion of tongues, and the 
    dispersion, &c. being generally admitted by the Spanish writers on America, it is almost unnecessary to refer to the 
    authority of any particular author [writer?], to prove what no one will deny; since Gomara, in his history of the Indians, 
    describing the conference of Nicaragua with Gil Goncales and the Calezcasters, introduces this chief as putting a variety 
    of questions to the Spaniards. The first of which was, whether they were acquainted with the deluge, and others no less 
    curious, showing that the Indians were not unaccustomed to abstruse speculation, and that besides the knowledge of many 
    traditions contained in the Old Testament, they possessed some information respecting the New....
    VI 401, 402 [cf Simon, 182-3]
    From this account it will be perceived, that as not only in New Spain and in Peru, but likewise in Nicaragua, the 
    tradition of the Deluge was generally received among the Indians; and that the temptation of Eve, of the fall of man, 
    and of the loss of Paradise, was no less general in the New World. --- Torquemada, in his thirty-first chapter of the sixth 
    book of his [Indian Monarchy], gives this description of the goddess Cihuacohuatl, who is named by many writers the 
    Aztec or Mexican Eve: "One of the goddesses greatly esteemed by the natives of New Spain was Cihuacohuatl, which name 
    signifies "the woman serpent"; * * * This woman or goddess who they named Cihuacohuatl, was according to the etymology 
    of the name, as Father Bernard de Shagun says, the first woman who existed in the world, the mother of the whole of the 
    human race, who it is true was tempted by the serpent who appeared to her in the terrestial Paradise, and discoursed 
    with her to persuade her to transgress the command of God, and that is likewise true, that after having committed sin, 
    &c. she bore a son, and a daughter at the same birth, and that the son was named Cain and the daughter Calmana, --  and 
    that afterwards she brought forth at a second birth, Abel, and his sister, Delborah, so that she bore them by twin births. 
    The Mexicans therefore designated her for these two properties, Cihuacohuatl, which signifies the woman serpent, that 
    is to say, whom the serpent tempted, and which also signified the woman who brought forth twins, a boy and a girl; for 
    they call infants born at the same birth, Cocohua, or serpents, born from the woman serpent." * * * This appears to be 
    a confused knowledge, which they had  received by tradition, of the ancient truth of the origin of the human race, and 
    of the temptation of the serpent. The above account of Torquemada (or rather of Sahagun's whose authority he cites), 
    is very curious...
    VI 402 [cf Paul M. Hanson's Jesus Christ Among the Ancient Americans in Relation to the Book of Mormon, pp. 174-5]
    which deserves to be considered in connection with the Peruvian tradition of men having been created by Viracocha, 
    after the likeness of images made by himself .... 
    VI 403 [cf Simon 217 -- need to copy]
    Mexican traditions seem also to refer to the creation of the one sex from the bone of the other, as recorded in the 
    second chapter of Genesis ... since the Mexicans believed that both sexes had been created from a bone ... 
    VI 403
    it may be inferred that altars of single stones were very common amongst the Jews, as they were also amongst the Mexicans....
    VI 492
    Another remarkable proof of the predilection which the Jews and the Mexicans manifested ... celebrating a year of 
    jubilee at the expiration of every period of fifty years (Jews), and ... at the expiration of every fifty-two years 
    VI 505
    Piedrahita, in the third chapter of the first book of his History of the Conquest of New Granada, describes the 
    stranger who preached to the Mozcas, or Indians of Bogota,-whom some named Nemquetheba, others Bechicha, and others 
    Zuhe,- as wearing a kind of phylactery on his forehead, in imitation of which the Indians of that province of South 
    America continued to wear roses made of feathers hanging over their eyebrows, until the conquest of the territory 
    by the Spaniards. 
    VI 518
    ... the Mexicans believed, like the Jews, that God was omnipresent both in heaven and in hell ... 
    VI 518
    The omnipresence of the Deity is so often insisted upon in the prayers which the Mexicans addressed to Tezcatlipoca, 
    that it is difficult to imagine but that they must have borrowed that notion from the Jews; for the ancient 
    philosophers did not imagine that their idea of the Deity was heightened by adding to omnipotence and omniscience 
    the attribute of omnipresence, but, on the contrary, that it was materialized and debased by it ... 
    VI 518
    Balboa, in the eighteenth chapter of his inedited History of Peru, to which he has given the title of "Miscellanea 
    Antartica," mentions along with the tassel, a sceptre, a mantle, and sandals as composing the regalia of the Ingas ... 
    VI 519
    Captain Cook in the narrative of his Voyage to the Pacific Ocean ... the men of Tongataboo were all circumcised, ... 
    the rite of 'taboo matee' or 'purifying from uncleanliness' contracted by the touch of a dead body, which was strictly 
    enjoined by Moses to the Jews in the nineteenth chapter of the Book of numbers ... 
    VI 520, 521
    ... and it is singular enough that the phrase 'taboo matee' should so nearly resemble the Hebrew expression ... 
    VI 521
    The trophy of a hand borne upon the top of a staff was used by the ancient Mexicans, and is sometimes represented in 
    their mythological paintings. It is singular that a hand elevated aloft should also have been a Hebrew trophy ... 
    VI 530
    Sahagun, describing in the first paragraph in the twenty-ninth chapter of the tenth book of his History of New Spain 
    the manners of the Tultecas, says, "La manera de cortarse el cabelloera segun su uso pulido que traian los cabellos 
    desde la media cabeza otras." --- "They cut their hair in such a manner as to wear it agreeably to their refined 
    fashion, only on the hinder half of their head." 
    VI 535
    That precisely the same custom (from previous excerpt) prevailed among the Jews, we learn from the following verse 
    from the poet Nonnus's Paraphrase of the Gospel of St. John: "Christ, an invited guest, sat in company with the 
    revelling crew, who were bald except at the back of their heads." 
    VI 535


    Transcriber's Comments

    Lord Kingsborough's
    Mexican Antiquities

    (under construction)


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