José de Acosta
Natural & Moral History
(London: Blount & Aspley, 1604)
NATURALL and MORALL
H I S T O R I E
Of the East and West Indies.
J O S E P H A C O S T A.
Translated by E. G.
[By Val. Sims for Edward Blount and William Aspley.]
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Your Lordships most devoted,
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the Indians themselves: the which most of them that have treated of the Indies could not doe, either not understanding the language or not curious in the search of their Antiquities: so as they have beene contented to handle those things which have beene most common and superficiall. Desiring, therefore, to have some more particular knowledge thereof, I have beene carefull to learne from men of greatest experience and best seene in these matters, and to gather from their discourses and relations what I have thought fit to give knowledge of the deedes and custome of these people. And for that which concernes the nature of those Countries and their properties, I have learned it by the experience of many friends, and by my dilligence to search, discover, and conferre with men of judgement and knowledge. In my opinion, there are many advertisements which may serve and benefit better wits for the seaching out of the truth, or, to proceede farther, in finding that pleasing which is conteined herein. So as although this new World be not new, but old, in respect of the much which hath beene written thereof; yet this historic may, in some sort, be held for new; for it is partly historicall and partly philosophicall, as well for that they are the workes of nature as of free will, which are the deedes and customes of men, the which hath caused mee to name it the Naturall and Morall Historie of the Indies. Containing these two things: In the first two bookes mention is made of that which concernes the heavens, temperature and habitation of the world, which books I had first written in Latine, and now I have translated them into Spanish, using more the liberty of an author then the strict bonds of a translator, to apply my self the better to those for whom it is written in the vulgar tong. In the two following books is treated of that which concernes the Elements and naturall mixtures, as Mettalls, Plants, Beasts, and what else is remarkable at the Indies. The
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rest of the bookes relate what I could certainely discover, and what I thought worthie memory of the Indians themselves, their Ceremonies, Customs, Governments, Wars, and Adventures. In the same Historie shall be spoken (as I could learne and comprehend,) of the figures of the antient Indians, seeing they had no writing nor characters as we have, which is no small industry to have preserved their Antiquities without the use of letters. To conclude, the scope of this worke is, that having knowledge of the workes of nature, which the wise Author of all nature made, we may praise and glorifie the high God, who is wonderfull in all things and all places. And having knowledge of the Indians customes, we may helpe them more easily to follow and persevere in the high vocation of the Gospel; to the knowledge whereof the Lord would draw this blinde nation in these latter daies. Besides all these things, every one may sucke out some profit for himselfe; for that the wise do alwaies draw forth some good out of the smallest subject, as we finde deepe Philosophie in the least and basest creatures. I must only advertise the Reader, that the two first bookes of this historie or discourse were written in Peru, and the other five since in Europe, dutie binding me to returne into these partes: so as some speake of matters of the Indies as of things present, and others as being absent. And therefore I have thought it good to advertise the Reader heereof that this diversitie of speach may not be troublesome unto him.
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The Ancients were so farre from conceypt that this new-found world was peopled by any Nation, that many of them could not imagine there was any land on that part; and (which is more worthie of admiration) some have flatly denyed that the Heavens (which we now beholde) could extend thither. For although the greatest part (yea, the most famous among the Philosophers) have well knowne that the Heaven was round (as in effect it is) and by that meanes did compasse and comprehend within it self the whole earth: yet many, (yea, of the holy doctors of greatest authoritie)
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have disagreed in opinion upon this point; supposing the frame of this universall world to bee fashioned like unto a house; whereas the roofe that covers it invirons onely the upper part and not the rest; inferring by their reasons, that the earth should else hang in the middest of the ayre, the which seemed unto them voyd of sense. For as we see in every building, the ground-worke and foundation on the one side, and the cover opposite unto it, even so in this great building of the world, the Heaven should remaine above on the one part, and the earth under it. The glorious Chrysostome (a man better seene in the studie of holy Scriptures, then in the knowledge of Philosophic) seemes to be of this opinion, when in his Commentaries upon the Epistle to the Hebrewes, he doth laugh at those which hold the heavens to be round. And it seemes, the holy Scripture doth inferre as much, terming the Heavens a Tabernacle or Frame built by the hand of God. And hee passeth farther upon this point, saying, that which mooves and goes, is not the Heaven, but the Sunne, Moone, and Starres which moove in the heaven, even as Sparrowes and otner birds moove in the ayre: contrary to that, which the Philosophers hold, that they turne with the Heaven it selfe, as the armes of a wheele doe with the wheele.
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 3
should hang in the ayre, as is before sayde. By which his opinion he is conformable unto Epicurus, who holdeth, that on the other part of the earth there is nothing but a Chaos and infinite gulph. And it seemeth that S. Jerome draweth neere to this opinion, writing upon the Epistle to the Ephesians in these wordes. The naturall Philosopher by his contemplation pierceth to the height of heaven, and on the other part he findeth a great vast in the depth and bowels of the earth. Some likewise say that Procopius affirmes (the which I have not seene) upon the booke of Genesis, that the opinion of Aristotle, touching the forme and circular motion of the Heaven, is contrarie and repugnant to the holy Scriptures. But whatsoever the Ancients say or holde touching this point, it must not trouble us, for that it is wel knowne and verified, that they have not beene so studious in the knowledge and demonstrations of Philosophie, being busied in other studies of farre greater importance. But that which is more to be admired, is, that S. Augustine himselfe, so well seene in all naturall Sciences, yea, very learned in Astrologie and Physicke, remaynes yet still in doubt, not able to resolve, whether the Heaven did compasse in the earth on all parts. What care I (saith he) if we suppose the Heaven doth inviron the earth on all parts like unto a bowle, beeing in the middest of the world, as a bottome is compassed with threed: or that we say it is not so, and that the Heaven covereth the earth of one part onely, as a great Basin that hangs over it. In the same place he seemeth to shew (nay, hee speaketh plainely) that there is no certaine demonstration to proove the figure of the world to be round, but onely by simple conjectures. In which places cited and others; they hold the circular motion of the Heaven very doubtfull.
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But wee ought not to take it offencively, nor esteeme lesse of the Doctors of the holy Church, if in some points of Philosophie and naturall knowledge, they have varied in opinion from that which is helde for good philosophie; seeing all their studie hath been to know, preach, and serve the Creator of all things, wherein they have bin excellent, and having well imployed their studies in causes of greater waight, it is a small matter in them not to have knowen all particularities concerning the creatures. But those vaine Philosophers of our age are much more to bee blamed who, having attayned to the knowledge of the being and order of the creatures, and of the course and motion of the Heavens, have not yet learned (wretched as they are) to knowe the Creator of all things, but busying themselves wholly in his workes, have not yet mounted by their imaginations to the knowledge of the Soveraigne Author thereof as the holy Scripture teacheth us: or if they have knowne him, they have not served and glorified him as they ought, blinded with their imaginations, whereof the Apostle doth accuse and blame them.
That the Heaven is round on all parts, mooving in his
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 5
is so perfectly true, as we which doe now live in Peru see it visibly. Wherin experience should be of more force then all Philosophicall demonstrations, being sufficient to proove that the Heaven is round, and comprehends and contaynes the earth within it of al parts. And to cleere any doubt that might grow, it sufficeth that I have seene in this our Hemisphere that part of Heaven which turnes about this earth, the which was unknowne to the Ancients: and have observed the two Poles, whereon the Heavens turne, as upon their Axeltrees. I say, the Articke, or North Pole, which those of Europe beholde, and the other Antarticke or Southerne Pole (whereof saint Augustine is in doubt), the which we change and take for the North here at Peru) having passed the Equinoctiall line. Finally, it sufficeth that I have sayled neere 70 degrees from North to South, that is, forty of the one side of the line and 23 on the other, omitting at this present the testimony of others which have sayled much farther then my selfe, & in a greater height, comming neere 70 degrees towards the South. Who will not confesse but the ship called the Victorie (worthie doubtlesse of eternall memorie) hath wonne the honor and praise to have best discovered and compassed the round earth, yea, that great Chaos and infinite Vast which the ancient Philosophers affirmed to bee under the earth, having compassed about the worlde and circled the vastnesse of the great Oceans. Who is hee then that will not confesse by this Navigation, but the whole earth (although it were bigger then it is described) is subiect to the feet of man, seeing he may measure it? Thus, without doubt, the Heaven is of a round and perfect figure; and the earth likewise
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imbracing and joyning with the water, makes one globe or round bowle framed of these two elements, having their bounds and limits within their own roundnes & greatnes. The which may be sufficiently proved by reasons of Philosophie and Astrologie, leaving al subtil definitions commonly obiected. That, to the most perfect body (which is the Heaven), we must give the most perfect figure, which, without doubt, is round, whose circular motion could not be firme nor equall in it selfe, if it had any corner or nooke of any side, or if it were crooked, (as of necessitie it must be), if the Sun, Moone & stars, made not their course about the whole world. But leaving all these reasons, it seemes that the Moone is sufficient in this case as a faithfull witnesse of the Heaven it selfe, seeing that her Eclypse happens, but when as the roundnesse of the earth opposeth it selfe diarnetrally betwixt her and the Sunne, and by that meanes keepes the Sunnebeames from shining on her. The which could not chance if the earth were not in the midst of the world, compassed in and invironed by the whole Heaven. Some have doubted whether the light of the Moone were borrowed from the brightnes of the Sunne: but it is needlesse, seeing there can bee found no other cause of the Eclipses, full, and quarters of the Moone, but the communication of the beames which proceed from the Sunne. In like sort, if wee will carefully examine this matter, we shall finde that the darkenesse of the night proceedes from no other cause but from the shadow which the earth makes, not suffering the light of he sunne to passe to the other parte of the heaven, where his beames shine not. If then it be so, that the sunne passeth no farther, neyther doth cast his beames
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 7
on the other part of the earth, but onely turnes about, and returnes to his setting, making a ridge upon the earth by his turning, (the which he must of force confesse that shall denie the roundnes of the heaven, seeing (according to their saying) the heaven as a bason doth onely couer the face of the earth,) it should then plainly follow that wee could not observe the difference betwixt the daies and nights, the which in some regions be short and long according to the seasons, and in some are alwaies equall: the which S. Augustine noteth in his bookes De Genes. ad litteram. That we may easily comprehend the oppositions, conversions, elevations, descents, and all other aspects and dispositions of Planets and starres, when we shall understand they move, and yet notwithstanding the heaven remaines firme and immoveable. The which seemeth to me easie to comprehend, and will be to all others, if it may be lawfull to imagine that which my fancy doth conceive: for if we suppose that every star and planet be a body of it selfe, & that it be led & guided by an Angell, as Habacuc was carried into Babilon, who I pray you is so blind, but seeth that all the diverse aspects which we see appeare in planets & starres may proceede from the diversity of motion which he that guides them doth voluntarily give them. We cannot then with any reason affirme, but that this space & region by which they faine that stars do continually march and rowle, is elementarie and corruptible, seeing it divides it selfe when they pass, the which undoubtedly do not passe by any void place. If then the region wherein the starres and planets move, be corruptible, the stars and planets of their owne motion should be, by reason likewise corruptible, and so by consequence they must
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alter, change, and be finally extinct: for naturally that which is conteined is no more durable then that which conteineth. And to say that the Celestiall bodies be corruptible, it agreeth not with the psalme, That God made them for ever: And it is lesse conformable to the order & preservation of this universall world. I say moreover, to confirme this truth, that the heavens move, and in them the starres march in turning, the which we cannot easily discerne with our eyes, seeing we see that not onely the starres do move, but also the regions & whole parts of heaven: I speake not onely of the shining and most resplendent parts, as of that which we call Via lactea, and the vulgar S. Jaques way, but also of the darker and obscurer parts of heaven. For there we see really, as it were spots and darkenes, which are most apparent: the which I remember not to have seene at any time in Europe, but at Peru, and in this other Hemisphere I have often seene them very apparant. These spots are in colour and forme like unto the Eclips of the Moone, and are like unto it in blacknes and darkenes: they march, fixed to the same starres, alwaies of one forme and bignes, as we have noted by infallible observation. It may be this will seeme strange to some, & they will demand whence these spots in heaven should grow? To the which I cannot answere otherwise at this time, but (as the Philosophers do affirme) that this Via lactea, or milken way, is compounded of the thickest parts of the heaven: and for this cause it receiues the greater light, and contrariwise, there are other parts very thinne and transparent, the which receiving lesse light seeme more blacke and obscure. Whether this be the true reason or no, I dare not certenly affirme. Yet is it true that, according to the figure these spots have in heaven, they move with the same
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 9
proportion with their starres without any separation, the which is a true, certaine, and often noted experience. It followeth then by all that we have said, that the heaven containeth in it all the parts of the earth, circling continually about it, without any more doubt.
How the holy Scripture teacheth us that the earth is in
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earth were not invironed with the heaven. And so S. Jerome doth understand it, writing upon the Epistle to the Ephesians, in this sort, The most common opinion affirm:es (agreeing with Ecclesiastes) that the heaven is round, mooving circularly like unto a bowle. And it is most certaine, that no round figure conteyneth in it, eyther longitude, latitude, heigth, or depth, for that all parts are equall. Whereby it appeares, according to S. Jerome, That those which hold the heaven to be round, are not repugnant to the holy Scripture, but conformable to the same. And although that S. Basile especially, and S. Ambrose (who doth vsually imitate him in his bookes called Hexameron) soeme somewhat doubtfull of this point: yet in the end they grant that the world is round. It is true that S. Ambrose doth not yeelde to this quintessence, which Aristotle attributes to the heavens: without doubt it is a goodly thing to see with what a grace and excellent stile the holy Scripture treates of the scituation and firmenes of the earth, to breed in us a wonderfull admiration, and no lesse content to behold the unspeakable power and wisedome of the Creator. For that in one place God himselfe saies, that it was hee which planted the pillers which support the earth: giving us to understand (as S. Ambrose doth well expound it) that the unmeasurable weight of the whole earth is held up by the hands of the divine power. The holy Scripture doth commonly so call them, and useth this phrase, naming them the pillers of heaven and earth: not those of Atlas, as the Poets faine: but of the eternall word of God, who by his vertue supports both heaven and earth. Moreover, the holy Scripture in an other place teacheth, that the earth, or a great part thereof, is joyned to, and compassed in by the Element
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 11
of water, speaking generally, that God placed the earth upon the waters. And in another place, that hee framed the roundnes of the earth upon the Sea. And although S. Augustine doth not conclude upon this text, as a matter of faith, that the earth and the water make one globe in the midst of the world, pretending by this meanes to give another exposition to the words of the Psalme; yet notwithstanding it is most certaine, that by the words of the psalme we are given to understand, that we have no other reason to imagine any other ciment or uniting to the earth then the Element of water, the which although it be pliant and moveable, yet doth it support and inviron this great masse of the earth, the which was wrought by the wisedome of that great Architect. They say, the earth is built upon the waters and upon the sea: but contrariwise, the earth is rather under the waters: for according to common judgement and imagination, that which is on the other part of the earth which we inhabite, seemes to be under the earth, and so by the same reason, the waters and sea which doe compasse in the earth on the other part, should be underneath, and the earth above: yet the very truth is, that what is properly beneath, that is alwaies in the midst of the universall: but the holy scripture frames it selfe to our manner of conceiving and speaking. Some may demaund (seeing the earth is set upon the waters, as the scripture sayeth,) whereon the waters are placed, and what support have they? And if the earth and the water make one round globe, how can all this monstrous masse be sustayned? To this the holy scripture answereth them in another place, giving us greatest cause to admire the power of the Creator: and saith in these wordes: The earth extends towards the North
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upon the Vast, and stayes hanging upon nothing. The which in trueth is very well spoken, for that really it seemes this heape of earth and water is set upon nothing, when we describe it in the middest of the ayre, as in trueth it is. But this wonder, which men so much admire, God himselfe hath not layd open, demanding of the same Job in these termes Tell mee if thou canst, who hath layd the lyne or cast the lead for the building of the world, and with what morter the foundations have beene layed and joyned. Finally, to make us understand the fashion and modell of this admirable frame of the world, the Prophet David, accustomed to sing and praise his divine works, saies very well in a Psalme made of this subiect in these wordes,
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 13
this point) often in my travell passing the great gulfes of the Ocean, and marching by other regions of so strange lands, staying to behold and consider the greatnes of these workes of the Lord, I felt a wonderfull consolation of the soveraigne wisedonie and greatnes of the Creator, who shines in his works: in comparison whereof, all the Pallaces, Castells, and princely buildings, together with all the inventions of man, seeme nothing, yea, are base and contemptible in respect thereof. O how often hath come into my minde and mouth that place of the Psalme, which sayeth thus Great comfort hast thou given me, Lord, by thy workes: I will not cease to reioyce in the contemplation of the workes of thy hands. Really and in truth the workes of God have (I know not what) secret & hidden grace and vertue: the which although they be often beheld, yet do they still cause a new taste and content: whereas contrariwise, the workes of man, although they be built with exquisite art, yet often seene, they are no more esteemed, but breede a distaste: be they most pleasant Gardins, Pallaces, or stately Temples, be they Piramides of proud buildings, Pictures, carved images, or stones of rare worke and invention, or whatsoever else adorned with all the beauties possible: Yet is it most certen that viewing them twice or thrice with attention, the eye presently turnes away, being glutted with the sight thereof. But if you beholde the sea with attention, or some steepe mountaine growing from a plaine to a strange heigth, or the fieldes clad in their naturall verdure with pleasant flowres, or the raging course of some river, beating continually against the rocks: finally, what worke of nature soever, although it be often viewed, yet doth it still breede a new content, and never
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gluttes the sight: the which is like unto a stately bancket of the divine wisedom, which doth alwaies cause a new consideration without any lothing.
Containing an answere to that which is objected out of the
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that whereunto they are applyed, as the happy Crysostome hath learnedly spoken upon this point. The other authoritie (which S. Augustine saies is alleaged of some to shew that the heaven is not round) is this, The heavens stretch forth like unto a skin. Whereby he concludes that it is not round, but flat on the upper part, whereunto the same Doctor doth answere verie well and familiarly, giving us to understand that that place of the Psalme, is not properly to be understood of the figure of heaven, but onely to shew with what facilitie God built so great a heaven, being no more painefull for him to build so huge a cover as the heaven is, then to unfould a double skin. Or else the Psalmist pretending to shew us the great majesty of God, to whome the heaven, with his greatnes and beautie, doth serve in like manner, as our tents and pavilions in the field. The which was well expressed by a Poet calling it, The Tent of the cleere heaven. In like sort, the place of Isaii, which sayeth, Heaven serves mee as a chaire, and the earth for a foote-stoole. But if wee follow the error of the Antromorphites, which did atribute corporall members unto God, according to his divinitie: we should haue occasion uppon this last text, to examine how it were possible the earth should be a foote-stoole to Gods feete, and how the same God could hold his feete of the one part and the other, and many heads round about, seeing that hee is in all partes of the world, which were a vaine and ridiculous thing. Wee must therefore conclude, that in the holy scriptures we ought not to follow the letter which killes, but the spirit which quickneth, as saith S. Paul.
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Of the fashion and forme of Heaven, at the new found
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 17
at the foot of the Crosse, distant from the true and fixed Pole Antarticke thirtie degrees, as the North starre is distant from the Pole Articke three degrees or little more. And so it is more difficult to take the heigth in those parts, for that the sayd starre at the foote of the Crosse must bee right, the which chanceth but in one houre of the night; which is in divers seasons of the yeere in divers houres, and often times it appeareth not in the whole night, so as it is very difficult to take the heigth. And therefore the most expert Pilots regard not the Crosse, taking the heigth of the Sunne by the Astrolabe, by which they know in what height they are: wherein commonly the Portugals are more expert, as a Nation that hath more discourse in the Arte of Navigation then any other. There are also other starres in these southerne parts, which in some sort resemble those of the North. That which they call the Milken way, is larger and more resplendent in the south parts, appearing therein those admirable blacke spots, whereof wee have made mention. As for other particularities, let others speake of them with greater curiositie, and let this which wee have sayd suffice for this time.
That there is Land and Sea under the two Poles.
18 The Naturall and Morallas in Europe, Asia, and Affricke. And this point serveth often against many Spaniards, who beeing here, sigh for Spaine, having no discourse, but of their countrie, They wonder, yea, they grow discontented with us, imagining that we have forgotten & make small accompt of our native soyle. To whom we answere, that the desire to returne into Spaine doth nothing trouble us, being as neere unto Heaven at Peru, as in Spaine: as saint Jerome saith well, writing unto Paulinus; That the gates of Heaven are as neere unto Brittanie, as to Jerusalem. But although the Heaven doth compasse in the world of all parts, yet must we not imagine that there is land necessarily on all parts of the world. For being so, that the two elements of earth and water make one globe or bowle, according to the opinion of the most renowned ancient Authors, (as Plutarch testifieth) and as it is prooved by most certaine demonstrations, wee may coniecture, that the sea doth occupie all this part, which is under the Antartike or southerne Pole, so as there should not remaine any place in these partes for the earth, the which saint Augustine doth very learnedly hold against them that maintaine the Antipodes, saying, that although it bee prooved, and wee beleeve that the worlde is round like to a bowle, wee may not therefore inferre, that in this other part of the worlde, the earth is uncovered, and without water. Without doubt, saint Augustine speakes well upon this point; and as the contrary is not prooved, so doth it not follow, that there is any land discovered at the Antarticke Pole. The which experience hath now plainely taught us, for although the greatest part of the world under the Pole Antarticke be sea, yet is it not altogether, but there is likewise land, so as in all parts of the world, the earth
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 19
and water imbrace one another, which truely is a thing to make us admire and glorifie the Arte of the soveraigne Creator. We know then by the holy Scripture, that in the beginning of the worlde, the waters were gathered together in one place, so as the earth remayned uncovered. Moreover, the same holy Writte doth teach us, that these gatherings together of the water were called Sea; and as there be many, so of necessitie there must be many Seas. And this diversitie of seas is not onely in the Mediterranean Sea, whereas one is called Euxine, another the Caspian, an other the Erythrean or redde Sea, another the Persian, an other of Italie, and so many others. But also in the great Ocean, which the holy Scripture doth usually call a gulph: although really and in trueth it be but a Sea, yet in many and divers manners: as in respect of Peru and all America, the one is called the North Sea, the other the South; and at the East Indies, the one is called the Indian sea, the other that of China. And I have observed, as well by my owne navigation, as by the relation of others, that the Sea is never divided from the Lande above a thousand Leagues. And although the great Ocean stretcheth farre, yet doth it never passe this measure. I will not for all this affirme that wee sayle not above a thousand leagues in the Ocean, which were repugnant to trueth, being well knowne that the shippes of Portugal have sailed foure times as much and more; and that the whole world may bee compassed about by sea, as wee have seene in these dayes, without any further doubt. But I say and affirme, that of that which is at this day discovered, there is no land distant from any other firme land, by direct line, or from some Islands neere unto it above a thousand leagues, and so betwixt two firme lands
20 The Naturall and Morallthere is no greater distance of sea, accompting from the neerest parts of both the lands: for from the ends of Europe or Affricke and their coastes, to the Canaries, the Isles of Azores, Cape Verd and others in the like degree, are not above three hundred leagues, or five hundred from the Mayne land. From the saide Islands running along to the West Indies, there are scant nine hundred leagues, to the Ilands of saint Dominick, the Virgins, the Happy Ilandes and the rest; and the same Ilands runne along in order to the Ilandes of Barlovent which are Cuba, Hispaniola, and Boriquen; from the same Ilands unto the Mayne land are scarce two or three hundred leagues, & in the neerest part farre lesse. The firme land runnes an infinite space; from Terra Florida to the land of Patagones, and on the other side of the South, from the Straight of Magellan, to the Cape of Mendoce, there runnes a long Continent but not very large; for the largest is the Traverse of Peru, which is distant from Brasil about a thousand leagues. In this South Sea, although they have not yet discovered the ende towards the West, yet of late they have found out the Ilands which they call Salomon, the which are many and great, distant from Peru about eyght hundred leagues. And for that wee finde by observation, that whereas there bee many and great Ilandes, so there is some firme Land not farre off, I my selfe with many others doe beleeve, that there is some firme land neere unto the Ilands of Salomon, the which doth answere unto our America on the West part, and possibly might runne by the heigth of the South, to the Straightes of Magellan. Some hold, that Nova Guinea is firme Land, and some learned men describe it neere to the Ilands of Salomon; so as it is likely, a good parte of the world
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 21
is not yet discovered, seeing at this day our men sayle in the South Sea unto China and the Philippines: and wee say, that to go from Peru to those parts, they passe a greater Sea, then in going from Spaine to Peru. Moreover, wee know, that by that famous Straight of Magellan these two Seas doe joyne and continue one with an other (I say the South sea with that of the North) by that part of the Antarticke Pole, which is in fiftie one degrees of [latitude]. But it is a great question, wherein many have busied themselves, whether these two Seas joyne together in the North part: but I have not heard that any unto this day, could attayne unto this point, but by certaine likelihoods and conjectures, some affirme there is an other Straight under the North, opposite to that of Magellan. But it sufficeth for our subject, to knowe, that there is a firme Land on this Southerne part, as bigge as all Europe, Asia, and Affricke: that under both the Poles we finde both land and sea, one imbracing an other. "Whereof the Ancients might stand in doubt, and contradict it for want of experience.
To confute the opinion of Lactantius, who holdes there be
22 The Naturall and Morall(which is as much to say, as men marching with their feete opposite to ours). But although these two authors agree in theis ieasts, yet doe they differ much in their reasons and opinions, as they were of very divers spirits and judgements. Lactantius followes the vulgar, seeming ridiculous unto him that the heaven should be round, and that the earth should bee compassed in the midst thereof, like unto a ball, whereof he writes in these tearmes, What reason is therefor some to affirme that there are Antipodes, whose steppes are opposite to ours? Is it possible that any should bee so grosse and simple as to beleeve there were a people or nation marching with their feete upwardes, and their heades downwardes, and that thinges which are placed heere of one sort, are in that other part hanging topsie turvie: that trees and corne growe downwards, and that raine, snow, and haile, fall from the earth upward. Then, after some other discourse, the same Lactantius useth these words, The imagination and conceit which some have had, supposing the heaven to be round, hath bene the cause to invent these Antipodes hanging in the aire. So as I knowe not what to say of such Philosophers, whoe having once erred, continue still obstinately in their opinions defending one another. But whatsoever he saieth, wee that live now at Peru, and inhabite that part of the world which is opposite to Asia and their Antipodes (as the Cosmographers do teach us) finde not our selves to bee hanging in the aire, our heades downward, and our feete on high. Truly it is strange to consider that the spirit and uriderstanding of man cannot attaine unto the trueth, without the use of imagination: and on the other part, it were impossible but he should erre and be deceived, if hee should wholy forbeare
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 23
it. We cannot comprehend the heaven to be round as it is, and the earth to bee in the middest of it, without imagination. But if this imagination were not controuled and reformed by reason, in the end wee should be deceiued; whereby we may certainely conclude, that in our soules there is a certaine light of heaven, whereby wee see and judge of the interior formes which present themselves unto us, and by the same we alow of, or reject that which imagination doth offer unto us. Hereby we see that the rationall soule is above all corporall powers: and as the force and eternall vigour of truth doth rule in the most eminent part of man: yea, we plainely see that this pure light is participant and proceedes from that first great light, that whoso knoweth not this, or doubteth thereof, we may well say that he is ignorant, or doubtes whether he be a man or no. So, if we shall demaund of our imagination what it thinkes of the roundnes of heaven, without doubt she will answere us as Lactantius doth, That if the heaven were round, the Sun & starres should fall, when as they move and change their places, rising towards the South. Even so, if the earth did hang in the ayre, those which inhabite the other part, should go with their feete upwardss, and their heades downward, and the raine which falles from above, should mount upward, with many other ridiculous deformities. But if we consult with the force of reason, she will make small accoumpt of all these vaine imaginations, nor suffer us to beleeve them no more than a foolish dreame. But Reason will answer with this her integritie and gravitie, that it were a very grosse error, to imagine the whole world to be like unto a house, placing the earth for the foundation, and the heaven for
24 The Naturall and Morallthe covering. Moreover she will say, that as in all creatures the head is the highest part and most elevated, although all creatures have not heades placed in one and the same situation, some being in the highest part, as man, some athwart, as sheepe, others in the middest, as spiders, even so the heaven, in what part soever it be, remaines above, and the earth likewise in what part soever, remaines underneath. Our imagination therefore is grounded upon time and place, the which she cannot comprehend nor conceive in generall, but in particular. It followeth, that when wee shall raise it to the consideration of things which exceed the time and place which are knowne unto her, then presently she shrinkes and cannot subsist, if reason doth not support her. In like sort wee see, upon the discourse of the creation of the worlde, our imagination straies to seeke out a time before the creation thereof, and to build the world: she discribes a place, but shee comes not to consider that the worlde might bee made after another fashion. Notwithstanding, reason doth teach us, that there was no time before there was a motion, whereof time is the measure, neyther was there any place before the universall, which comprehendes within it all place. Wherein the excellent Philosopher Aristotle doth plainely satisfie, (and in a few wordes) that argument made against the place of the earth, helping himselfe with our use of imagination, when hee sayeth, and with trueth, That in the world the same place of the earth is in the midst and beneath, and the more a thing is in the middest, the more it is underneath. The which answer being produced by Lactantius Firmian, yet hee doth passe it over without confutation,
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 25
by reason, saying that he cannot stay theron, and omitte the handling of other matters.
Therefore why S. Augustine denied the Antipodes.
26 The Naturall and MorallAnd for that wee meane heereafter to intreat briefly of this subject, it shall be fit now to understand what the holy Doctor Augustine disputes uppon this matter in his bookes of the cittie of God, It is no point that we ought to beleeve (as some affirme) that there are Antipodes, that is to say, men which inhabite that other part of the earth, in whose region the Sunne riseth when it sets with us, and that their steppes be opposite and contrarie to ours, seeing they affirme not this by any certaine revelation which they have, but onely by a Philosophicall discourse they make, whereby they conclude that the earth being in the middest of the world, invironed of all parts and covered equallie with the heaven, of necessitie that must be in the lowest place which is in the midst of the world. Afterwards hee continues in these words, The holie Scripture doth not erre, neither is deceived in anie sort: the truth whereof is well approved in that which it propoundeth of things which are passed, for as much as that which hath bene fore-told, hath succeeded in every point, as we see: And it is a thing void of all sense to say that men could passe from this continent to the new found world & cut through the Vast Ocean, seeing it were impossible for men to passe into those parts any other way, being most certain that al men desc'ed from the first man. Wherein we see, that all the difficultie S. Augustine hath found, was nothing else but the incomparable greatnes of this vast Ocean. Gregorie Nazianzene was of the same opinion, assuring (as a matter without any doubt) that it was not possible to saile beyond the Straights of Gibraltar: and upon this subiect he writes in an Epistle of his: I agree well with the saying of Pindarus, That past Cadiz, that Sea is not navigable. And hee himselfe in the funerall Sermon he made for saint Basil saith: It was not tollerable for anie one sailing on the Sea to passe the Straight
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 27
of Gibraltar. And it is true, that this place of Pindarus, where he saith, That it is not lawfull, neyther for wise men nor fooles, to know what is beyond the Straight of Gibraltar, hath beene taken for a Proverbe. Thus we see by the beginning of this Proverbe, how the Ancients were obstinately setled in this opinion; as also by the bookes of Poets, Historiographers, and ancient Cosmographers, that the end and bounds of the earth were set at Cadiz in Spaine, where they plant the pillars of Hercules: there they set the limits of the Romane Empire, and there they describe the boundes of the world. And not onely prophane writers speake in this sort, but also the holy Scripture, to apply it selfe to our phrase saith, That the edict of Augustus Ca3sar was published, to the end that all the world should be taxed: and of Alexander the great, that he stretched forth his Empire even to the end and uttermost bounds of the earth. And in another place they say, that the Gospell did flourish and increase through the universall world. For the holy Scripture by an usuall phrase, calleth all the woride, that which is the greatest part thereof, and was at that time discovered and knowne. And the Ancients were ignorant that the East Indian Sea, and that of the West were navigable, wherin they have generally agreed. By reason whereof, Plinie writes as a a certain e trueth, that the seas which are betwixt two lands, takes from us a just moitie of the habitable earth. For, saith he, we cannot passe thither, neyther they come hither. Finally, Tullie, Macrobius, Pomponius Mela, and the ancient Writers, hold the same opinion.
28 The Naturall and Morall
Of Aristotles opinion, touching the new Worlde, and
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 29
from the South, or from the other Pole contrary to the North, and writes in these termes. Reason teacheth us that the latitude and largenesse of the habitable earth hath her boundes and limits, and yet all this habitable earth cannot bee united and joyned one to the other, by reason the middle Region is so intemperate. For it is certain that in her longitude, which is from East to West, there is no immoderate cold nor heate, but in her latitude and heigth, which is from the Pole to the Equinoctiall Line. So as we may well passe the whole earth in her longitude, if the greatnesse of the Sea, which joynes lands together, were no hinderance. Hitherto there is no contradicting of Aristotle, who hath great reason to affirme that the earth in her longitude, which is from East to West, runnes more equally, & is more proper for the life and habitation of man, then in her latitude from North to South. The which is true, not onely for this foresaid reason of Aristotle, that there is alwayes one temperature of the Heavens from East to West, being equally distant both from the Northerne colde and the Southerne heate. But also for an other reason, for that travelling alwayes in longitude we see the dayes and nights succeed one another by course, the which falleth not out going in her latitude: for of necessitie wee must come to that Region under the Pole, whereas there is continuall night for sixe Moneths, a very inconvenient thing for the life of man. The Philosopher passeth on further, reprooving the Geographers, which described the earth in his time, and saith thus: Wee may discerne the trueth of that which I have sayd, by the passages which may be made by land, and the navigations by sea, for there is a great difference betwixt the longitude and the latitude, for the distance from the pillars of Hercules at the Straight of Gibraltar,
30 The Naturall and Morallunto the East Indies, exceeds the proportion of about five to three, the passage which is from Ethiopia to the lake of Meotis in the farthest confines of Scythia, the which is confirmed by the account of journeys by land, & by sayling, as we do now know by experience: we have also knowledge of the habitable earth, even unto those partes which are inhabitable. And truely in this point wee must pardon Aristotle, seeing that in his time they had not discovered beyond the first Ethiopia, called the exterior, joyning to Arabia and Affricke, the other Ethiopia being wholy unknowne in his age: Yea, all that great Land, which we now call the Land of Prete Ian, neyther had they any knowledge of the rest that lyes under the Equinoctiall, and runnes beyond the Tropicke of Capricorne unto the Cape of good Hope, so famous and well knowne by the navigation of Portugals; so as if wee measure the Land from this Cape unto Scythia and Tartaria, there is no doubt, but this distance and latitude, will proove as great as the longitude, which is from Gibraltar unto the East Indies. It is certaine the Ancients had no knowledge of the springs of Nilus, nor of the ende of Ethiopia, and therefore Lucan reprooves the curiositie of Julius Caesar, searching out the springs of Nilus in these verses;
In search of Niles first source thy selfe to gravell.
Nile, what thou art, is from the world concealed.
But by the holy scripture we may conceive that this land is habitable: for if it were not, the Prophet Sophonias would not say (speaking of these nations called to the Gospell,) The children of my dispersed (so he calleth
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 31
the Apostles) shall bring me presents from beyond the bancks of Ethiopia. Yet (as I have said) there is reason to pardon the Philosopher, who beleeved the writers and Cosmographers of his time. Let us continue and examine what followes of the same Aristotle: One part of the world (saith he) which lieth towards the North, beyond the temperate zone, is inhabitable for the exceeding cold: the other part upon the South is likewise inhabitable beyond the Tropicke for the extreame heate. But the partes of the world lying beyond India on the one side, and the pillars of Hercules on the other, without doubt cannot bee joyned and continued one with the other; so as all the habitable earth is not conteined in one continent, by reason of the sea which divides it. In this last point he speakes truth: then hee continues touching the other partes of the world, saying, It is necessarie the earth should have the same proportion with the Pole Antarticke, as this our part which is habitable hath with the North: and there is no doubt, but in that other world all things should be ordred as in ours, especially in the growing and order of the winds. And having alleaged other reasons to no purpose, he concludes, saying, We must confesse of necessity that the Southerne wind is that which blowes and comes from the burning zone, the which being so neere the sunne, wantes water and pastures. This is Aristotles opinion, and in truth, mans conjecture can hardly passe any farther. So as I do often consider (with a Christian contemplation) how weake the Philosophie of the wise of this world hath beene in the search of divine things, seeing in humaine things (wherein they seeme so well read) they often erre. Aristotle holds that the habitable earth of the Pole Antartike, in longitude from East to West is very great, and in latitude from the Pole Antartike to
32 The Naturall and Morallthe Equinoctiall is very small: the which is so contrary to the truth, that in a maner all the habitation on this side the Pole Antartike is in latitude, (I meane from the Pole to the line) and in longitude from East to West it is so small, as the latitude exceede it three partes or more. In his other opinion he affirmes, that the middle region is inhabitable, being under the burning zone, burnt up by the excessive heate caused by the neereness of the sunne, and by this reason hath neither waters nor pastures. The which is in like sort contrary: for the greatest part of this new world is scituated betwixt the two Tropickes under the burning zone, and yet it is found very well peopled arid inhabited by men and other sortes of creatures, being a region of all the world the most fruitfull of waters and pastures, and very temperate in the greatest part, which the will of God hath so appointed, to shew that even in naturall things he hath confounded the wisedome of this world. To conclude, wee must beleeve that the burning zone is well inhabited, although the auncients have held it impossible. But the other zone or region, which lyeth betwixt the burning zone and that of the Pole Anturtike, although it bee in a climate more commodious for the life of man, yet it is smally peopled and inhabited, seeing wee know no other dwelling in it but the Kingdom of Chile and a small portion joyning to the Cape of good Hope, The rest is possessed by the Ocean. Although many be of opinion (the which I likewise hold) that there is much more land not yet discovered, the which should be firme land opposite to the Kingdom of Chile, which runnes beyond the circle or Tropicke of capricorne. And if there be any: without doubt it is a land of an excellent
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 33
temper, being in the midst of two extreames, and scituate in the same climate with the best regions in Europe. And in this regard Aristotles conjecture was good. But speaking of what is discovered at this day in this zone, it is little in regard of the large countries inhabited under the burning zone.
That Plinie and the auncients held the same opinion
Which still the sunne burnes, makes tlie earth below
With flames intempestiue red hotte to glow.
Whose quarter under that large zone is set
Amidst foure others by the sunne enlightned.
And another Poet speakes more plainely,
34 The Naturall and Morall
As are in heaven, wherein fine parts are found,
Whereof the midst, through heate raisd from the rayes
Of scorching sunne, inhabitable staies.
The Auncients have grounded their generall opinion upon one reason, which seemed to them certaine and not to be confuted: for finding that the more a region drew neere unto the South, the hotter it was: the proofe whereof was so infallible in those regions, as by the same reason in Italie, Apulia is hotter then Tuscane, and in Spaine Andaluzia then Biscaie. A thing so apparent, that although there bee but eight degrees difference or lesse betwixt the one and the other, yet do wee finde the one extreame hotte, and the other very colde, whereby they did inferre that the region so neere the South, having the sunne so directly for zenith, must of necessity bee continually scorched with heate. They did likewise see, that the divers seasons of the yeere, as the Spring, Summer, Autumne & Winter, were caused by the neerenes and distance of the sunne, finding also that although they were farre from the Tropicke, by which the sunne doth passe in summer, yet when it approached neere unto them, at the same season they felt great heate. Whereby they did coniecture that if they had had the sunne so neere unto them as to go directly over their heads, the heate would have bene so insupportable, as it would burne and consume men with the vehemency thereof. The same reason moved the Auncients to thinke that the middle region was not habitable, and therefore they called it the burning zone. And in truth, if visible experience did not unfold this doubt, we should yet confesse, that this reason were very peremptorie and
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 35
Mathematicall: whereby we may see how weake our understanding is, to comprehend these naturall things. But wee may say, it is fallen out to the great good and happiness of our age, to have the knowledge of these two great wonders, that is, to know how easily we may saile through the great Ocean, and that under the burning zone men injoy a very temperate heaven, the which the Auncients could never beleeve. Of the last of these two wonders, touching the qualitie and habitation of the burning zone, by the grace of God we will discourse amply thereof in the next book. I thinke it therefore fit in this booke to treat of the maner of sailing through the Ocean, for that it imports us much for the subiect of this worke. But before wee come to this point, it shall be good to shew what the Auncients thought of these new men, whome we call Indians.
That in ancient Bookes we finde some knowledge of
36 The Naturall and Moralland the other. But many through curiositie may demaund, if the Ancients had no knowledge of this trueth, which to us is now so apparent: seeing that in trueth it seemeth very strange, that this newe worlde which is so spacious as we doe visibly see it, should be hidden from the Ancients by so many ages. But some at this day, seeking to obscure the felicitie of this age, and the glory of our Nation, strive to proove, that the new-found world was knowne to the Ancients. And in trueth wee cannot deny but there was some apparency. S. Jerome writing upon the Epistle to the Ephesians, sayth We seeke with reason what the Apostle meaneth in these wordes, where he saith: you have walked for a season according to the course of this world, whether he would have us to understand that there is an other world, which neither is nor depends of this world: but other worldes, whereof Clement writes in his Epistle, the Ocean and the worldes which are beyond the Ocean. These are the wordes of S. Jerome, but in trueth I cannot finde this Epistle of S. Clement cited by S. Jerome, yet I beleeve undoubtedly, that S. Clement hath written it, seeing S. Jerome maketh mention thereof. And with reason saint Clement saith, that beyond the Ocean there is an other worlde, yea, many worldes, as in trueth there is; seeing there is so great distance from one newe worlde to an other new world: (I meane from Peru and the West Indies, to China and the East Indies.) Moreover, Plinie, who hath beene so curious a searcher out of strange things, reportes in his naturall Historie, that Hannon, a Captaine of the Carthaginians, sayled through the Ocean, from the Straight of Gibraltar, coasting alongst the land, even unto the confines of Arabia, and that hee left this his Navigation in writing. If it bee as Plinie writes,
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 37
it followes that Hannon sayled as farre as the Portugals do at this day, passing twice under the Equinoctiall, which is a fearefull thing. And the same Plinie reports of Cornelius Nepos a very grave Authour, who saith, that the same course hath beene sayled by an other man, called Eudoxus, but by contrary wayes: for this Eudoxus, flying from the King of Latyres, passed by the redde sea into the Ocean; and turning backe, came to the Straight of Gibraltar, the which Cornelius Nepos affirmes to have happened in his time. And also other grave Authors do write, that a ship of Carthage driven by force of winde into the Ocean, came to a Land which untill then was unknowne: and returning to Carthage, kindled a great desire in the Citizens to discover and people this land: the which the Senate perceyving, did forbid this navigation by a rigorous decree, fearing that with the desire of new lands, they should leave to love their owne Countrie. By all this wee may gather that the Ancients had some knowledge of the new world: yet shall you hardly finde in the bookes of Ancient writers, any thing written of our America and all the West Indies: but of the East Indies (I say) there is sufficient testimonie, not only of that on the other side, but also of that on this side, which then was farthest off, going thither by a contrary way to that at this day. Is it not easie to find Malaca in ancient bookes, which they called the golden Chersonese: the Cape of Comorin, which was called the Promontorie of Coci, & that great & famous Iland of Sumatra, so well knowne by the ancient name of Taprobana. What shall wee say of the two Ethiopiaes, the Brachmanes, and that great Land of the Chinaes? Who doubtes, but there was often mention made thereof in
38 The Naturall and Morallancient bookes? But of the West Indies, we find not in Plinie, that in this navigation they passed the Ilands of the Canaries, which he calleth Fortunate: the principal whereof is sayd to be called Canarie, for the multitude of dogs which are in it. But there is scarce any mention in ancient books of the voyages which are made at this day beyond the Canaries, by the Gulph which with reason they call great. Yet many hold opinion that Seneca the Tragedian did prophecie of the West Indies, in his Tragedie of Medea, which translated, saith thus;
Blessedly strange and strangely blest,
When our Sea farre and neere or prest,
His shoare shall farther yet extend.
Descryed then shall a large Land be,
By this profound Seas navigation,
An other World, an other nation,
All men shall then discovered see.
Thule accounted heretofore
The worldes extreme, the Northerne bound,
Shall be when Southwest parts be found,
A neerer Isle, a neighbour shoare.
This, Seneca reports in these verses; & we cannot wel deny, but (understanding it litterally) it is very true: for if we reckon the many yeeres he speakes of, beginning from the time of the Tragedian, it is above a thousand and foure hundred yeeres past: and if it were from the time of Medea, it is above two thousand yeeres, the which we see plainely now accomplished: seeing the passage of the Ocean so long time hidden, hath beene found out, and that they have discovered a great land and a new world inhabited, more spatious then
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 39all the Continent of Europe and Asia. But therein may a question with reason be made, whether Seneca spake this by divination, or poetically and by chance. And to speeke my opinion, I beleeve hee did divine, after the manner of wise men and well advised; for that in his time they undertooke newe voyages and navigations by sea, hee knew well, like a Philosopher, that there was an other land contrary and opposite unto us, which they call Antichthon. And by this ground he might conceyve, that the industrie and courage of man might in the ende passe the Ocean, and discover new lands and another world, for that in Senecas time they had knowledge of the Voyage which Plinie speaketh of, whereby they passed the great Ocean. The which seemes to bee the motive of Senecas prophecie, as he giveth us to understand by these former verses, after the which having described the carefull life of the Ancients; free from malice, he followeth thus:
For whether the Ocean will or nill,
He traverst is by hardy will:
Which pastime makes time so to passe.
On surging Seas, fearing no wracke:
Passengers seeking what they lacke,
So long a voyage thinke but short.
Nothing is no we more to discover,
No place is now left to surprise,
Townes now that for defence devise,
With new fortifications cover.
All in the world turn'd round about,
No thing in place as twas enured,
40 The Naturall and Morall
This Circle universe throughout.
The Indian, whom at home heate fries,
Drinkes of Araxis waters cold:
The Persian, rich in gems and gold,
Wash in the Rhine and Elbe likewise.
Seneca did coniecture this by the great courage of men, as that which shall happen last, saying, It shall fall out in the latter age, etc., as hath bin before mentioned.
Of the opinion which Plato held of the West
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 41neere unto this great one, are those which wee now call the Ilands of Barlovante; that is, Cuba, Hispaniola, S. John de Port ricco, Jamaica, and other Ilands of that Countrie: and that the maine Land whereof hee maketh mention, is the same wee now call firme Land, that is, Peru and America; and that Sea, which he sayth is adjoyning to the firme Land, is the South Sea, the which he calleth the very Sea, for that in comparison of her greatnesse, all other Seas, both Mediterranean, yea and the Atlantike Sea, are small in regard thereof. Hereby in trueth they give a cunning and wittie interpretation to these words of Plato. But whether this interpretation should be held for true or not, I am resolved to declare in another place.
That some have held opinion that in places of holy Scripture,
42 The Naturall and Morallothers which affirme that our Peru is Ophir, deriving one name from another, who beleeve that when as the booke of Paralipomenon was written, they called it Peru, grounding it upon that which the holy scripture saith, that they brought from Ophir pure gold, precious stones, and wood which was rare and goodly: which things abound in Peru, as they say. But in my opinion it is farre from the truth, that Peru should be Ophir so famous in the Bible. For although in this Peru there be good store of gold, yet is there not yet such aboundance as it may be equalled with the fame of the riches that was in auncient time at the East Indies. I finde not that in Peru there are such precious stones, or such exquisite woods, as the like have not been seene at Jerusalem. For although there be exquisite Emeralds, and some hard trees of Aromaticall wood, yet do I not finde any thing of so great commendation as the scripture giveth unto Ophir. Moreover it seemes not likely that Solomon would leave the East Indies (most rich and plentifull) to send his fleetes to this farther land: whether if they had come so often (as it is written,) we had surely found more signes and testimonies thereof. Moreover the Etimologie of the name of Ophir, and the change or reduction thereof to Peru, seemes to me of small consideration, being most certaine that the name of Peru is not very auncient, nor common to all that countrie. It hath beene usuall in the discoverie of the new world, to give names to lands and portes of the sea, according to the occasions presented at their arivall: and I beleeve that the name of Peru hath bene so found out, and put in practice: for we find heere that the name hath bene given to all the countrie of Peru, by reason of a river so called
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 43by the inhabitants of the countrie, where the Spaniards arrived upon their first discoverie. Whereby we maintaine that the Indians themselves bee ignorant, and do not use this name and appellation to signifie their land. It seemeth moreover, the same Authors will say, that Sepher spoken of in the scripture, is that which we now call Andes, which are most high mountaines in Peru. But this resemblance of names and appellations is no sufficient proofe. If that were of force, we might as well say, that Yectan is Jecsan mentioned in the holy scripture. Neither may we say, that the names of Titus and Paul, which the Kings Inguas of Peru do use, come from the Romans or Christians, seeing it is too weake an argument to draw a conclusion of great matters. We see plainely that it is contrarie to the intention of the holy scriptures, which some have written, that Tharsis and Ophir were one and the same Province, [or were reached in the same voyage,] conferring the 22 chapter of the 4 booke of the Kings, with the 20 chapter of the second booke of Paralipomenon, for that in the booke of the Kings, it is said, that Josaphat prepared a fleete of shippes in Asiongaber to fetch golde at Ophir, and in Paralipomenon, it is written, that the same fleete was furnished to go unto Tharsis. Whereby it may be supposed that in these fore-said bookes, where the scripture speakes of Tharsis and Ophir, that it meanes one thing. Some one may demaund, what region or Province that Ophir was, whether Solomons fleete went with the Mariners of Hyram King of Tyre and Sidon to fetch gold. And whether King Josaphats fleete, pretending to go, did suffer shipwracke and perish in Asiongaber, as the holy scripture doth testifie. In this I do willingly agree with the opinion of Josephus, in his books of
44 The Naturall and MorallAntiquities, where he saith, that it is a Province of the East Indies, the which was found by that Ophir the sonne of Jectan, whereof mention is made in the 10 of Genesis; and that Province did abound with most fine gold. Thereof it comes, they did so much extol the gold of Ophir or of Ophas, or as some wil say, this word of Obrise, is the same with Ophrise, for finding there seven sortes or kindes of gold (as S. Jerome reportes, that of Ophir was held for the most fine, as heere we esteeme the gold of Valdivia and Caramaya. The chiefest reason which moves me to thinke that Ophir is at the East Indies and not in the West, is, for that Solomons fleete could not come hither without passing the East Indies, all China, and a great part of the sea: being unlikely they would passe all over the world to come thither for gold, that continent especially lying in that sort, as they could not come to the knowledge thereof by any voiage by land. And hereafter we wil shew that the Ancients had never knowledge in the arte of Navigation, without the which they could not runne so farre into the sea. Finally, in these matters (when as there appeares no certaine proofes, but onely light coniectures,) we are not bound to beleeve but what we shall thinke good.
What Tharsis and Ophir signifie in the holy Scripture.
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 45generall to the Hebrewes, as in our vulgar tongue this word of Indies is generall unto us in our usuall maner of speech: for wee meane by the Indies those rich countries which are farre off, and strange unto us. So we Spaniards do indifferently call Indies, the countries of Peru, Mexico, China, Malaca, and Bresil: and from what parts soever of these any letters come, wee say they bee from the Indies, which countries be farre distant and different one from another. Yet we cannot denie but that name of Indies, is properly to be understood of the East Indies. And for that in olde time they did speake of these Indies as of a countrie farre off, so likewise in the discoverie of other remote lands, they have given them the names of Indies, being distant from the rest, and held as the end of the world. Even so, in my judgement, Tharsis in the holy scripture doth not signifie any certaine and determined place, but onely regions a farre off, and (according to the vulgar opinion,) very rich and strange: for that which Josephus and some others would affirme, that Tharsis is Tarso, according to the meaning of the scripture, in my opinion hath bene well refuted by S. Jerome: not onely for that these wordes are written with divers letters, the one with an aspiration, the other without: but also that many things are written of Tharsis, which cannot agree with Tarso, a Citie in Cilicia. It is true, that in some places of the scripture, Tharsis is said to be in Cilicia, the which you shall find in the booke of Judith, speaking of Holophernes, who having passed the limits of Assyria, he came to the great mountaines of Ange, (which perchance is Taurus,) which hilles be on the left hand of Cilicia, and that he entred into all the Castells, where he assembled all
46 The Naturall and Morallhis forces, having destroyed that famous Citie of Melithi, he ruined all the children of Tharsis and of Israell, which were joyning unto the desart, and those which were in the South, towards the land of Cellon, and from thence passed Euphrates: but as I have saide, that which is so written of Tharsis, cannot be applied to the Citie of Tharso. Theodoret and some others, following the interpretation of the 70 [septuagint] in some places they set Tharsis in Affrike, saying it was the same Citie which was aunciently called Carthage, and is now the kingdome of Thunis: and they say, that Jonas ment to go thether, when as the scripture reports, that he fled from the Lord into Tharsis. Others pretend that Tharsis is a certaine countrie of the Indies: whereunto it seemes that S. Jerome is inclined. I will not now decide these opinions, but I holde that in this case the scripture doth not alwaies signifie one region or certaine part of the world. It is true, that the wise men or Kings that came to worshippe Christ, were of the East: and the scripture saith, they were of Saba, Esia, and Madiem. And some learned men holde that they were of Ethiopia, Arabia, and Persia: and yet the Psalmist and the Church sings of them: The Kings of Tharsis shall bring presents. Wee agree then with S. Jerome, that Tharsis, is a word that hath many and divers significations in the scripture. Sometimes it signifies the Crisolite, or lacinth stone, sometimes a certaine region of the Indies, sometimes the sea, which is of the colour of a lacinth by the reverberation of the sunne. But the same Doctor doth with reason deny that Tharsis is any region of the Indies whither Jonas would fly, seeing that parting from Joppa, it had beene impossible to saile unto the Indies by that sea, for that Joppa, (which at this day
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 47wee call Jaffe, is no port of the red Sea, joyning to the East Indian Sea, but of the Mediterranean Sea, which hath no issue into the Indian. Whereby it doeth plainely appeare that the voyage which Solomons Fleet made, parting from Asiongaber (whereas the shippes of king Josophat were lost) went by the redde Sea to Tharsis and Ophir, the which is directly testified in the Scripture. The which voyage was very different from that which Jonas pretended to Tharsis: seeing that Asiongaber is the port of a Cittie of Idumea, seated upon the Straight, whereas the red sea joynes with the great Ocean. From this Ophir and this Tharsis they brought to Salomon gold, silver, Elephants teeth, Monkies, Indian Cocks, and their voyage was of three yeeres: all which without doubt ought to bee understood of the East Indies, which is fruitfull and aboundant of all these thinges, as Plinie testifieth, and our owne experience doth witnes. From our Peru doubtlesse they could not bring any Elephants teeth, those beastes beeing unknowne there; but they might well bring gold, silver, and pleasant monkies. Finally, the holy Scripture, in my opinion, doth commonly understand by this word of Tharsis, eyther the great Sea, or farre and strange Regions. So as he supposeth that the prophecies which speake of Tharsis (seeing the spirit of Prophecie may comprehend all things) may often be applied to things of our new world.
 The Naturall and Morall
Of the Propliecie of Abdias, which some doe interpret to
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. is there to beleeve, that the citties of the South or of Megeb (as the 70 write) be those of this new world? Moreover, what need is there to beleeve and to take the Spanish Nation for the transmigration from Jerusalem to Sapharad, unlesse we will understand Jerusalem spiritually, and thereby the Church? So as by the transmigration from Jerusalem to Sapharad, the holy spirite shewes us the children of the holy Church, which inhabit the ends of the earth,& the banks of the Sea, for so is Sapharad understood in the Syrian tongue, and doth well agree with our Spaine, which according to the Ancients is the ende of the earth, beeing in a manner all invironed with Sea. And by the Citties of the South we may well understand these Indies, seeing the greatest part of this newe worlde is seated in the South; and the better part looks to the Pole Antartike. That which followeth is easie to interpret, viz. They which procure Salvation, shall ascend the hill of Sion, to judge the mount of Esau. For wee may say, they unite themselves to the doctrine and strength of the holy Church, which seeke to breake and disperse the prophane errors of the Gentiles, for that may be interpreted to judge the mount of Esau, whereby it followes, that in those daies the Realme shall neyther bee for the Spaniards nor for them of Europe, but for Jesus Christ our Saviour. Whosoever shall expound the Prophecie of Abdias in this sort, ought not to be blamed; being most certaine, that the holy Spirit did understand all secrets long before. And it seemes there is great reason to beleeve, that mention is made in the holy Scripture of a matter of such importance, as the discoverie of the Indies, of the new world, and their conversion to the faith. Isai. saith in these wordes; Oh the wings
50 The Naturall and Morallof ships which come from the other part of Ethiopia. Many learned Authors hold, that al this Chapter is understood of the Indies: and that same Prophet in an other place saith; Those which shall escape out of Israel shal goe farre off to Tharsis and to remote Ilands, where they shal convert many Nations unto the Lorde. Amongest the which hee names Greece, Italie, Affricke, with many others: the which without doubt may well bee applied unto the conversion of the Indies. Being most certaine that the Gospel shall be preached generally throughout the world, as our Saviour hath promised, and then the ende of the world shall come. It followes then, and so we ought to understand it, that there be many Nations upon the face of the earth to whom Jesus Christ hath not yet been preached. Whereby we may gather, that there remained a great part of the world unknowne to the Ancients, and that yet at this day, there is a good part to discover.
By what meanes the first men might come to the Indies,
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 51the first man, without doubt we shall be forced to beleeve and confesse, that men have passed hither from Europe, Asia, or Affricke, yet must wee discover by what meanes they could passe. It is not likely that there was an other Noes Arke by the which men might be transported into the Indies, and much lesse any Angell to carie the first man to this new world, holding him by the haire of the head, like to the Prophet Abacuc: for we intreat not of the mightie power of God, but only of that which is conformable unto reason, & the order and disposition of humane things. Wherefore these two things ought to be held for wonderfull and worthie of admiration, yea, to bee numbred among the secrets of God. The one is; how man could passe so huge a passage by Sea and Lande. The other is; that there beeing such multitudes of people, they have yet beene unknowne so many ages. For this cause I demaund, by what resolution, force or industrie, the Indians could passe so large a Sea, and who might be the Inventer of so strange a passage? Truely I have often times considered thereof with my selfe, as many others have done, but never could I finde any thing to satisfie mee. Yet will I say what I have conceived, and what comes presently into my minde, seeing that testimonies faile mee, whom I might follow, suffering myselfe to be guided by the rule of reason, (although it be very subtill.) It is most certaine, that the first men came to this land of Peru by one of these two meanes, either by land or by sea. If they came by sea, it was casually, and by chance, or willingly, & of purpose. I understand by chance, being cast by force of some storme or tempest, as it happens in tempestuous times. I meane done of purpose, when they prepared fleetes to discover new lands.
52 The Naturall and MorallBesides these two meanes I see it is not possible to find out any other, if wee will follow the course of humane things, and not devise fabulous and poeticall fictions; for no man may thinke to finde another Eagle as that of Ganimede, or a flying Horse like unto Perseus, that should carie the Indians through the aire; or that peradventure those first men have used fishes, as Mirtnaids, or the fish called a Nicholas, to passe them thither. But laying aside these imaginations and fopperies, let us examine these two meanes, the which will bee both pleasant and profitable. First in my judgement, it were not farre from reason to say that the first and auncient people of these Indies, have dipcovered and peopled after the same sort as wee do at this day, that is, by the Arte of Navigation and aide of Pilots, the which guide themselves by the heigth and knowledge of the heavens, and by their industrie in handling and changing of their sailes according to the season. Why might not this well be? Must we beleeve that we alone, and in this our age, have onely the Arte and knowledge to saile through the Ocean? Wee see even now that they cut through the Ocean to discover new lands, as not long since Alvaro Mendana and his companions did, who parting from the Port of Lima came alongst the West to discover the land which lieth Eastward from Peru; and at the end of three moneths they discovered the Ilands which they call the Ilands of Salomon, which are many and very great, and by all likelehood, they lie adioyning to new Guinnie, or else are very neere to some other firme land. And even now by commandernent from the King and his Counsell they are resolved to prepare a new fleete for these Ilands. Seeing it is thus, why may we not suppose that the Ancients had the courage
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 53and resolution to travell by sea, with the same intent to discover the land, which they call Anticthon, opposite to theirs, and that (according to the discourse of their Philosophie) it should be with an intent not to rest untill they came in view of the landes they sought? Surely there is no repugnancie or contrarietie in that which wee see happen at this day, and that of former ages, seeing that the holy scripture doth witnes that Solomon tooke Masters and Pilots from Tyre and Sidon, men very expert in Navigation, who by their industry performed this voiage in three yeeres. To what end thinke you doth it note the Arte of Mariners and their knowledge, with their long voiage of three yeeres, but to give us to understand that Solomons fleete sailed through the great Ocean? Many are of this opinion, which thinke that S. Augustine had small reason to wonder at the greatnes of the Ocean, who might well conjecture that it was not so difficult to saile through, considering what hath been spoken of Solomons Navigation. But to say the truth, I am of a contrary opinion, neither can I perswade my selfe that the first Indians came to this new world of purpose, by a determined voiage; neither will I yeeld, that the Ancients had knowledge in the Art of Navigation, whereby men at this day passe the Ocean, from one part to another, where they please, the which they performe with an incredible swiftnes and resolution; neither do I finde in all Antiquities any markes or testimonies of so notable a thing and of so great importance. Besides, I finde not that in ancient bookes there is any mention made of the use of the Adamant or Loadstone, nor of the Compasse to saile by: yea, I beleeve they had no knowledge thereof. And if we take away the
54 The Naturall and Morallknowledge of the compasse to saile by, we shall easily judge how impossible it was for them to passe the great Ocean. Such as have any knowledge of the sea understand me well: for that it is as easie to beleeve that a Mariner in full sea can direct his course where hee please without a compasse, as for a blinde man to shew with his finger any thing, be it neere or farre off. And it is strange that the Ancients have been so long ignorant of this excellent propertie of the Adamant stone: for Plinie, who was so curious in naturall causes, writing of this Adament stone, speakes nothing of that vertue and propertie it hath, alwaies to turne the iron which it toucheth towards the North: the which is the most admirable vertue it hath. Aristotle, Theophrastus, Dioscorides, Lucretius, nor any other Writers, or naturall Philosophers that I have seene, make any mention thereof, although they treat of the stone. Saint Augustine, writing many and sundry properties and excellencies of the Adamant stone, in his bookes of the Citie of God, speakes nothing thereof. And without doubt, all the excellencies spoken of this stone, are nothing in respect of this strange propertie, looking alwaies towards the North, which is a great wonder of nature. There is yet another argument, for Plinie, treating of the first inventers of Navigation, and naming all the instruments, yet he speakes nothing of the compasse to saile by, nor of the Adament stone. I say onely, that the art to know the starres was invented by the Phoeniciens. And there is no doubt but whatsoever the Ancients knew of the Art of Navigation was onely in regard of the starres, and observing the Shoares, Capes, and differences of landes. And if tbey had once lost the sight of land, they knew not
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 55which way to direct their course, but by the Stars, Sunne, and Moone: and that failing (as it doth often in a darke and cloudie season,) they did governe themselves by the qualitie of the winds, and by conjecture of the waies which they had passed. Finally, they went as they were guided by their owne motions. As at the Indies, the Indians saile a long way by sea, guided onely by their owne industrie & natural instinct. And it serves greatly to purpose, that which Plinie writes of the Ilandlers of Taprobana, (which at this day we call Sumatra,) speaking in this sort, when as he treates of the art and Industrie they use in sailing. Those of Taprobana see not the North to saile by: which defect they supply with certaine small birdes they carrie with them, the which they often let flie, and as those birdes by a naturall instinct flie alwaies towards the land, so the Mariners direct their course after them. Who doubtes then if they had had any knowledge of the compasse they would not have used these little birdes for their guides to discover the Land. To conclude, this sufficeth to shew that the Ancients had no knowledge of the secrets of the Loadstone: seeing that for so notable a thing there is no proper word in Latine, Greeke, or Hebrew: for a thing of such importance could not have wanted a name in these tongues if they had knowne it. Whereupon the Pilots at this day, to direct him his course that holds the helme, sit aloft in the poope of the Shippe, the better to observe the compasse; whereas in olde time they sat in the prow of the Shippe to marke the differences of lands and seas, from which place they commaunded the Helme: as they use at this day at the entrie or going out of any Port or haven: and therefore the Greekes called
56 The Naturall and MorallPilots Proritas, for that they remained still in the prow.
Of the properties and admirable vertue of the Adamant
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 57consideration of these wonders, to praise the power and greatnes of the Almightie, and reioyce in the contemplation of his admirable workes, and to say with Solomon, speaking upon this subiect, O father whose providence governes and maintaines a peece of wood, giving it an assured way upon the sea, and in the midst of the swelling waves, to shew that in the like sort thou canst save and deliver man from all perill and shipwracke; yea, although he were in the midst of the sea without shippe. But for that thy works are full of wisedome, men hazard their lives in a small peece of wood, and passe through the sea in a shippe and are saved. And upon the same subject the Psalmist saieth, They which go to the sea in shippes, and trafficke by the great waters, have seene the workes of the Lord, and his wonders in the depth of the sea. And in truth, it is not one of the least wonders of God, that the force of so small a stone should command the sea, and force the infinite depth thereof to obey him, and follow his commandement. But for that it is an usuall thing, and seernes easie, men do not admire it nor take any great regard thereof: and for that his bountie is such, the ignorant make lesse account thereof. Notwithstanding, such as will duly consider it, are led by reason to blesse the wisedome of God, and to give him thankes for so great a benefite. Being then decreed in heaven that these nations of the Indies which have lyen so long hidden, should bee knowne and discovered, and that this rowt should be frequented to the end so many soules should come to the knowledge of Jesus Christ and winne eternall life. There was an assured guide provided for such as travell that way, that is, the Compasse to saile by, and the vertue of the Adamant stone. Wee doe not certainely know at what time this Art of sailing was brought to light.
58 The Naturall and MorallBut for my part I hold for certaine, that it is not verie ancient, for besides the reasons alleadged in the former chapter, I have not read in any ancient Author, treating of dialles, any mention made of the Adamant. And yet, undoubtedly, the principall and most necessarie instrument for sunne dialls which we use at this day, is the needle of iron touched with the Adamant stone. Some approved Authors write in the Historie of the East Indies that the first which began to discover this secret was upon the sea was Vascor da Gama, who,, in the heigth of Mosambique, met with certaine Mariners Moores, which used this compasse or needle to saile by, and by the meanes thereof he sailed through those seas: yet they write not from whom they learned this Art. And some amongst them are of our opinion, that the Ancients were ignorant of this secret. Moreover, I will shew a greater wonder of the needle to saile by, which we might hold incredible, if we had not proofe thereof by undoubted experience. The iron touched or rubbed with that part of the Adamant stone which is towards the South, hath this vertue, to turne alwaies and in all places to the contrarie, which is the North. Yet doth it not in all places directly regard it, but hath certaine points and climats, where it directly regardes the North and their staies: but changing this climate, it inclines a little, either to the East, or to the West, the farther it goes from this climat, which the Mariners cal North-east, or North-west, which is to say, coasting or inclining to the East or to the West. And it is a thing; of such consequence to understand this declining or coasting of the needle, that if they observe it not advisedly, although it bee small, they shall stray wonderfully in their course, and arrive in another
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 59place then where they pretended to go. Once a very expert Pilot of Portugal told mee that there were foure poyntes in all the world, whereas the needle looked directly towards the North, the which hee named, but I do not well remember them. One is in the height of the Iland of Corvo at the Terceres or Acores, which is very well knowne to all men: but passing to a greater altitude, it declines to the West, and contrariwise, drawing to a lesse altitude towardes the Equinoctiall it leanes to the East. The masters of this Arte can well tell how farre and how much. For my part, I would gladly know, of such as presume to knowe all thinges, what should bee the cause of this effect, and for what reason a little yron touched with the Adamant stone receyves such vertue as to looke alwayes towards the North, and with such dexteritie, that it understandeth the sundry Climates and scituations of the world, and which way it should turn and incline, as well as any Philosopher or Cosmographer whatsoever. And seeing wee cannot well discover the causes and reasons of these thinges which wee see dayly, without doubt they were very hard to beleeve, if they were not apparent. Herein we discover our follie and vanitie, to make ourselves judges and to subiect divine and high things to our reason and discourse. It is therefore better, as S. Gregorie the divine sayth, to subiect reason unto faith, for that in her owne mansion she hath no governernent. But this shall suffice. Let us returne to our purpose, and conclude that the use of the needle to sayle by, was unknowne to the Ancients, whereby we may resolve that it was impossible to make a determined voyage, parting from the other world, to come to this by the Ocean.
60 The Naturall and Morall
Wherein an answere is made to them that say, that in
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 61
That we may conjecture, how the first inhabitants of the
62 The Naturall and Morallof Spanish shippes that had perished. And after he saith: Nepos reportes of the Northerne circuite, that they brought to Quintus Metellus Caeler, companion in the Consulship to Caius Affranius (the same Metellus being then Proconsull in Gaule) certaine Indians which had beene presented by the King of Sueden: the which Indians, sailing from India, for their trafficke, were cast upon Germanie by force of tempest. Doubtles, if Plinie speaketh truth, the Portugales in these daies, saile no further then they did in those two shipwrackes, the one from Spaine to the Red Sea, the other from the East Indies to Germanie. The same Author writes in another place that a servant of Annius Plocanius, who farmed the customes of the Red Sea, sailing the course of Arabia, there came so furious a Northerne wind, that in fifteene daies he passed Caramania and discovered Hippuros, a port in Taprobane, which at this day we call Sumatra. And they report of a shippe of Carthage, which was driven out of the Mediterranean Sea by a Northerne wind, to the view of this new world. The which is no strange thing to such as have any knowledge of the sea, to know that sometimes a storme continues long and furious, without any intermission. I my selfe going to the Indies, parting from the Canaries, have in fifteene daies discovered the first land peopled by the Spaniards. And without doubt this voiage had been shorter, if the Mariners had set up all their sailes to the Northerne winds that blew. It seemes therefore likely to me that, in times past, men came to the Indies against their wills, driven by the furie of the winds. In Peru, they make great mention of certaine Giants, which have been in those parts, whose bones are yet seene at Manta and Port Vieil, of a huge greatnes, and by their proportion they
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 63should be thrice as big as the Indians. At this day they report that the Giants came by sea, to make warre with those of the Countrie, and that they made goodly buildings, whereof at this day they shew a well, built with stones of great price. They say moreover, that these men committing abominable sinnes, especially against nature, were consumed by fire from heaven. In like sort, the Indians of Yea and Arica report, that in old time they were wont to saile farre to the Ilands of the West, and made their voiages in Seales skinnes blowne up. So as there wants no witnesses to prove that they sailed in the South sea before the Spaniards came thither. Thus we may well conjecture, that the new world began to be inhabited by men that have been cast upon that coast by the violence of the Northerne winds, as wee have seene in our age. So it is, (being a matter verie considerable) that the workes of nature of greatest importance, for the most part have been found out accidentally, and not by the Industrie and diligence of man. The greatest part of phisicall hearbes, of Stones, Plants, Mettalls, Perle, gold, Adamant, Amber, Diamont, and the most part of such like things, with their properties and vertues, have rather come to the knowledge of men by chance, then by art or industrie, to the end wee may know that the glorie & praise of such wonders, should be attributed to the providence of the Creator, and not to mans understanding: for that which we thinke to happen accidently, proceedes alwaies from the ordinance and disposition of God, who does all things with reason.
64 The Naturall and Morall
Notwithstanding all that hath bene said, it is more likely
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 65serve man to use, have been expresly carried in shippes, as we see at this day brought from the East into Europe, and transported from Europe to Peru, although the voiages be verie long. And by what meanes these beastes which yeeld no profit, but are very hurtefull (as Wolves and others of that wilde nature) should passe to the Indies, supposing, as it is certaine, that the deluge drowned all the earth. In which Treatie, this learned & holy man laboures to free himselfe of these difficulties, saying that they might swim unto these Olands, or that some have carried them thither for their delight in hunting: or that, by the will of God, they had been newly created of the earth, after the same maner of the first creation, when God said, Let the earth bring forth everie living thing according to his kinde, Cattle, and creeping Wormes, and the beastes of the field, every one in his kinde. But if we shall apply this solution to our purpose the matter will remaine more doubtfull: for beginning at the last point, it is not likely, according to the order of Nature, nor conformable to the order of government established by God, that perfect creatures, as Lions, Tigers, and Wolves, should be engendered of the earth, as we see that Rattes, Frogges, Bees, and other imperfect creatures are commonly engendered. Moreover, to what purpose is that which the scripture saieth, and doth so often repeate, Thou shalt take of all the beastes and birdes of the aire, seven and seven, male and female, to maintaine generation upon earth; if such beasts after the deluge should be created againe after a new kinde of creation, without conjunction of male and female. And heereupon might grow another question: Seeing such crea tures are breeding on the earth (according to this opinion) wherefore are they not likewise in all
66 The Naturall and Morallother partes of the maine Land, and in many Ilandes, seeing wee must not regarde the naturall order of generation, but the bountie of the Creator. On the other part, I will not hold it for a thing incredible, that they have carried some of these beastes for the pleasure of hunting: for that we often see Princes and great men keepe and nourish in their cages, (onely for their pleasure and greatnesse) both Lyons, Beares, and other savage beastes, especially when they are brought from farre Countries; but to speake that of Woolves, Foxes, and other beasts which yeeld no profite, and have nothing rare and excellent in them, but to hurt the cattell; and to say also that they have carried them by sea for hunting, truely it is a thing that hath no sense. Who can imagine, that in so long a voyage men would take the paynes to carrie Foxes to Peru, especially of that kind which they call Anas, which is the filthiest that I have seene? Who woould likewise say that they have carried Tygers and Lyons? Truely it were a thing worthy the laughing at, to thinke so. It was sufficient, (yea, very much) for men, driven against their willes by tempest, in so long and unknowne a voyage, to escape the danger of the Sea with theyr own lives, without busying themselves to carrie Woolves and Foxes, and to nourish them at Sea. If these beasts then came by Sea, wee must beleeve it was by swimming, which may happen in some Ilands not farre distant from others, or from the mayne Land, the which wee cannot denie, seeing the experience wee have, and that wee see these beasts, beeing prest to swimme day and night without wearinesse, and so to escape. But this is to be understood in smal Straights and passages: for in our Ocean, they would mocke at such swimmers,
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 67when as birds faile in their flight, yea, those of the greatest wing, upon the passage of so great a Gulph. And although we finde small birdes, which flie above one hundred leagues, as we have often seene in our travel, yet it is a matter impossible, at the least very difficult, for birdes to passe all the Ocean. All this beeing true which wee have spoken, what way shall wee make for beastes and birdes to goe to the Indies? and how can I say, they passed from one worlde to an other? I coniecture then, by the discourse I have made, that the new world, which we call Indies, is not altogether severed and disioyned from the other world: and to speake my opinion, I have long beleeved, that the one and the other world are joyned and continued one with another in some part, or at the least are very neere. And yet to this day there is no certaine knowledge of the contrary. For towards the Articke or Northerne Pole, all the longitude of the earth is not discovered, and many hold that above Florida the Land runnes out very large towards the North, and as they say, joynes with the Scithike or Germane Sea. Others affirme, that a Ship sayling in that Sea, reported to have seene the coast of Bacalaos, which stretcheth almost to the confines of Europe. ^Moreover, no man knowes how farre the land runnes beyond the Cape of Mendoca in the South sea, but that they affirme it is a great Continent, which runnes an infinite length: and returning to the Southerne Pole, no man knowes the lands on the other part of the Straight of Magellan. A ship belonging to the Bishoppe of Plaisance, which passed the Straight, reports to have sayled alwayes within sight of Land: the like Hernando Lamero a Pilot doth affirme, who (forced by foule weather) passed two or three degrees
68 The Naturall and Morallabove the sayd Straight. So as there is no reason or experience that doth contradict my conceit and opinion; which is, that the whole earth is united and joyned in some part, or at the least, the one approcheth neere unto the other. If this be true, (as in effect there is some likelyhood,) the answere is easie to the doubt we have propounded, how the first Inhabitants could passe to the Indies: For that wee must beleeve they could not so conveniently come thither by Sea, as travelling by Land, which might be done without consideration, in changing by little and little their lands and habitations. Some peopling the lands they found, and others seeking for newe; in time they came to inhabite and people the Indies, with so many nations, people, and tongues as we see.
By what meanes tame Beasts passed to the Indies.
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 69without apparent danger of ship-wracke: and although their shippes had been sufficient, yet had they no knowledge of the Astrolabe or Compasse. If then they had beene but eight or tenne dayes at Sea without sight of land, they must of necessitie loose themselves, having no knowledge where they were: Wee know many Ilandes well peopled with Indians, and their usuall navigations, the which was such, as they may well performe in Canoes and boats, without any Compasse to sayle by. Whenas the Indians of Peru, which remayne at Tombes, did see our first Spanish shippes sayling to Peru, and viewed the greatnesse of their sailes, being spread, and of the bodies of the ships, they stood greatly amazed, not beeing able to perswade themselves that they were shippes, having never seene any of the like forme and greatnesse, they supposed they had beene rockes. But, seeing them advance, and not to sincke, they stood transported with amazement, intill that, beholding them neerer, they discovered men with beards that walked in them, whom then they held for some gods or heavenly creatures. Whereby it appears how strange it was to the Indians to have great Ships. There is yet an other reason, which confirmes us in the foresayd opinion, which is, that these beastes (which we say are not likely to have been transported by Sea to the Indies,) remayne onely on the maine Land, and not in any Ilands foure dayes jorney from the maine Land. I have made this search for proofe thereof, for that it seems to me a point of great importance, to confirme me in mine opinion, that the confines of the Indies, Europe, Asia, and Affricke have some communication one with another, or at the least, approch very neere together. There are in America and
70 The Naturall and MorallPeru many wilde beastes, as Lyons, although they be not like in greatnesse, fiercenesse, nor of the same colour, redde, to the renowned Lyons of Affrica. There are also many Tygers, very cruell, and more to the Indians then to the Spaniardes: there are likewise Beares, but in no great aboundance: of Boares and Foxes an infinite number. And yet if wee shall seeke for all these kindes of beastes in the Ilands of Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Marguerita, or Dominica, you shall not finde any. So as in the sayde Ilands, although they were very fertile, and of a great circuit, yet was there not any kind of beastes for service when the Spaniards arrived, but at this day there are so great troopes of Horses, Oxen, Kyne, Dogs, and Hogges, which have multiplied in such abundance, as now the Kine have no certaine master, but belong to him that shal first kil them, be it on the mountaines or on the plaines; which the Indians do, onely to save their hides, whereof they make great traffick, without any regard of the flesh to eate it. Dogges have so increased, as they march by troopes, and endammage the cattel no lesse than wolves, which is a great inconvenience in these Ilands. There wants not onely beastes in these Ilands, but also birdes, both great and small. As for Parrets, there are many that flie by flockes, but, as I have said, there are few of any other kinde. I have not seene nor heard of any Partriges there, as in Peru. Likewise, there are few of those beastes, which at Peru they call Guanacos, and vicunas, like to wilde Goates, very swifte, in whose stomacke they find the Beezars stone, which many do greatly value: sometimes you shall finde them as bigge as a hens egge, yea, halfe as bigge againe. They have no other kinde of beastes, but such as we call Indian sheepe,
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 71the which (besides their wooll and flesh, wherewith they clothe and feede themselves,) do serve them as Asses to beare their burthens. They carrie halfe as much as a mule, and are of small charge to their masters, having neede neither of shooes, saddle, nor oates to live by, nor of any furniture, for that Nature hath provided them of all these, wherein she seemes to have favoured these poore Indians. Of all these creatures, and of many other sortes, whereof I will make mention, the maine land at the Indies aboundes. But in the Ilands there are not any found, but such as the Spaniards have brought. It is true, that once one of our Friars did see a Tigre in an Iland, as hee reported unto us upon the discourse of his peregrination and shipwracke; but being demanded how farre it was from the maine land, he answered, sixe or eight leagues at the most; which passage Tigres might easily swimme over. We may easily inferre by these arguments, and others like, that the first Indians went to inhabit the Indies more by land then by sea; or if there were any navigation, it was neither great nor difficult, being an indubitable thing, that the one world is continued and joyned with the other, or at the least they approach one neerer unto another in some parts.
That the lineage of the Indies hath not passed by the Atlantike
72 The Naturall and Moralluntill they came to the maine land of the Indies, for that Critias of Plato in his time [sic - Timeus?] discourseth in this maner: If the Atlantike Iland were as great as all Asia and Affrike together, or greater, as Plato saies, it should of necessitie containe all the Atlantike Ocean, and stretch even unto the Ilands of the new world. And Plato saieth moreover, that by a great and strange deluge, the Atlantike Iland was drowned, and by that meanes the sea was made unnavigable, through the aboundance of banckes, rockes, and roughnesse of the waves, which were yet in his time. But in the end, the ruines of this drowned Iland were setled, which made this sea navigable. This hath been curiously handled and discoursed of by some learned men of good judgement; and yet (to speak the truth) being well considered, they are ridiculous things, resembling rather to Ovids tales, then a Historie or Philosophie, worthy of accoumpt. The greatest part of Platoes Interpreters, affirme that it is a true Historie, whatsoever Critias reports of the strange beginning of the Atlantike Iland, of the greatnes thereof, of the warres they had against them of Europe, with many other things. That which gives it the more credite of a true Historie, be the wordes of Critias, (whom Plato brings in in his time [sic - Timeus],), saying, that the subject he means to treat of, is of strange things, but yet true. The other disciples of Plato, considering that this discourse hath more shew of a fable, then of a true Historie, say, that we must take it as an allegorie, and that such was the intention of their divine Philosopher. Of this opinion is Procles and Porphire, yea, and Origene, who so much regardes the writings of Plato, as when they speake thereof, they seeme to bee the bookes of Moses or of Esdras, and whereas
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 73they thinke the writings of Plato have no shew of truth, they say they are to be understood mystically, and in allegories. But, to say the truth, I do not so much respect the authoritie of Plato, (whom they call Divine,) as I wil beleeve he could write these things of the Atlantike Iland for a true Historie, the which are but meere fables, seeing hee confesseth that hee learned them of Critias, being a little childe, who (among other songs,) sung that of the Atlantike Iland. But whether that Plato did write it for a true Historie or a fable, for my part, I beleeve that all which he hath written of this Iland, beginning at the Dialogue of Time, and continuing to that of Critias, cannot be held for true, but among children and old folkes. Who will not accoumpt it a fable, to say that Neptune fell in love with Clite, and had of her five paire of twinnes at one birth? And that out of one mountaine, hee drew three round balles of water, and two of earth, which did so well resemble, as you would have judged them all one bowell? What shall wee say, moreover, of that Temple of a thousand pace[s] long, and five hundred broade, whose walles without were all covered with silver, the seeling of gold, and within ivorie, indented and inlaied with gold, silver, and pearle? In the end, speaking of the ruine thereof, he concludes thus in his time, In one day, and one night, came a great deluge, whereby all our souldiers were swallowed by heapes within the earth, and in this sort the Atlantike Iland being drowned, it vanished in the Sea. Without doubt it fell out happily, that this Iland vanished so suddenly, seeing it was bigger than Asia and Affrike: and that it was made by enchantment. It is in like sort all one to say, that the ruines of this so great an Iland, are seene in the bottome of the sea, and that the
74 The Naturall and MorallMariners which see them, cannot saile that way. Then he addes, For this cause unto this day, that Sea is not navigable, by reason of the bancke which by little & little has growne in that drowned Iland. I would willingly demand what Sea could swallow up so infinite a continent of land, greater then Asia and Affrike, whose confines stretched unto the Indies, and to swallow it up in such sort, as there should at this day remaine no signes nor markes thereof, whatsoever: seeing it is well kuowne by experience, that the Mariners finde no bottomo in the Sea, where they say this Iland was. Notwithstanding, it may seeme indiscreete and farre from reason, to dispute seriously of those things which are reported at pleasure, or if we shall give that respect to the authoritie of Plato (as it is reason,) we must rather understand them to signifie simply, (as in a picture) the prosperitie of a Citie, and withall, the ruine thereof. For the argument they make, to prove that this Atlantike Iland hath been really and indeede, saying that the sea in those parts, doth at this day beare the name of Atlantike is of small importance, for that wee knowe Mount Atlas, whereof Plinie says this sea tooke the name, is upon the confines of the Mediterranean Sea. And the same Plinie reportes that joyning to the said Mount, there is an Iland called Atlantike, which he reports to be little and of small accompt.
That the opinion of many which holde, that the first
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 75Iland, there are others holde opinion, that they tooke the way, whereof Esdras speakesin his fourth booke, in this manner: And whereas thou sawest that he gathered an other peaceable troope unto him, thou shalt know, those are the ten tribes, which were carried away captives out of their own land, in the time of king Ozeas, whom Salmanazar, king of the Assyrians tooke captives, and ledde them beyond the river, so were they brought into an other land: but they tooke this counsell to themselves, to leave the multitude of the heathen, and go forth into a farther countrie, where never mankind dwelt, that they might there observe their statutes, which they could not keepe in their owne land: and they entred by the narrowe passages of the river Euphrates, for then God shewed his wonders, and stayed the springs of the flood, untill they were passed over: for the way unto that countrie is very long, yea, of a yeere and a halfe, and this Region is called Arsareth, then dwelt they there untill the latter time, and when they come forth againe, the most Mightie shall hold still the springs of the river againe, that they may goe through; for this cause sawest thou this multitude peaceable. Some will apply this text of Esdras to the Indies, saying, they were guided by God, whereas never mankinde dwelt, and that the land where they dwelt is so farre off, as it requires a yeere and a halfe to performe the voyage, beeiiig by nature very peaceable. And that there are great signes and arguments amongst the common sort of the Indians, to breed a beleefe, that they are descended from the Jews: for commonly you shall see them fearefull, submisse, ceremonious, and subtill in lying. And moreover they say their habites are like unto those the Jewes used; for they weare a short coat or waste-coat, and a cloake imbroidered all about; they goe bare-footed, or with soles tied
76 The Naturall and Morallwith latchets over the foot, which they call Oiatas. And they say, that it appears by their Histories, as also by their ancient pictures, which represent them in this fashion, that this attire was the ancient habite of the Hebrewes, and that these two kinds of garments, which the Indians onely use, were used by Samson, which the Scripture calleth Tunicam, and Sindonem: beeing the same which the Indians terme waste-coat and cloake. But all these conjectures are light, and rather against them then with them; for wee know well, that the Hebrewes used letters, whereof there is no shew among the Indians; they were great lovers of silver, these make no care of it: the Jewes, if they were not circumcised, held not themselves for Jewes, and contrariwise the Indians are not at all, neyther did they ever use any ceremonie neere it, as many in the East have done. But what reason of conjecture is there in this, seeing the Jewes are so careful to preserve their language and Antiquities, so as in all parts of the world they differ and are known from others, and yet at the Indies alone, they have forgotten their Lineage, their Law, their Ceremonies, their Messias; and, finally, their whole Judaisme. And whereas they say, the Indians are feareful cowards, superstitious, and subtill in lying; for the first, it is not common to all, there are some nations among the Barbarians free from these vices, there are some valiant and hardy, there are some blunt and dull of understanding. As for ceremonies and superstitions, the Heathen have alwayes used them much; the manner of habites described which they use, being the plainest and most simple in the world; without Arte, the which hath been common, not onely to the Hebrewes, but to all other Nations; seeing that the very History of Esdras (if wee shall
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 77beleeve the Scriptures that bee Apocrypha) make more against them then for their purpose: for hee saith in that place, that the ten tribes went from the multitude of the Heathen, to keepe their faith and ceremonies, and we see the Indians given to all the Idolatries in the world. And those which holde this opinion, see well if the entries of the River Euphrates stretch to the Indies, and whether it be necessary for the Indies to repasse that way, as it is written. Besides, I know not how you can name them peaceable, seeing they be alwaies in warre amongst themselves. To conclude, I cannot see how that Euphrates in Esdras Apocrypha, should be a more convenient passage to goe to the new world, then the inchanted and fabulous Atlantike Iland of Plato.
The reason why we can find no beginning of the Indians.
78 The Naturall and Morallseemes to mee the meanes whereby they came, and not that they prepared any armie to goe thither of purpose: neyther that they have been caried thither by any ship-wracke or tempest, although some of these things may chance in some part of the Indies; for these Regions being so great, as they containe Nations without number, we may beleeve, that some came to inhabite after one sort, and some after an other. But in the ende I resolve upon this point, that the true and principall cause to people the Indies, was, that the lands and limits thereof are joyned and continued in some extremities of the world, or at the least were very neere. And I beleeve, it is not many thousand yeeres past, since men first inhabited this new world and West Indies, and that the first men that entred, were rather savage men and hunters, then bredde up in civill and well governed Common-weales: and that they came to this new world, having lost their owne land, or being in too great numbers, they were forced of necessitio to seeke some other habitations; the which having found, they beganne by little and little to plant, having no other law, but some instinct of nature, and that very darke, and some customes remayning of their first Countries. And although they came from Countries well governed, yet is it not incredible to thinke that they had forgotten all through the tract of time and want of use, seeing that in Spaine and Italie we find companies of men, which have nothing but the shape and countenance onely, whereby we may conjecturc in what sort this new world grew so barbarous and uncivill.
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 79
What the Indians report of their beginning.
80 The Naturall and Morallof that race, and that from him sprang two families or linages, the one of Havan Cusco, the other of Urin Cusco. They say moreover, that when the Kings Inquas attempted warre and conquered sundrie Provinces, they gave a colour and made a pretext of their enterprise, saying, that all the world ought to acknowledge them; for that all the world was renued by their race and Countrie: and also that the true religion had been revelled to them from heaven. But what availeth it to speake more, seeing that all is full of lies and vanitie, and farre from reason? Some learned men write, that all which the Indians make mention of, is not above 400 yeeres old, and whatsoever they speake of former ages, is but a confusion full of obscuritie, wherein we find no truth. The which may not seeme strange, they having no use of bookes, or writing; in steede whereof they use counting with their Quipucamayes, the which is peculiar unto them. By which reckoning all they can report is not past 400 yeeres. Instructing my selfe carefully of them, to know from what land and what nation they passed, to that where they now live, I have found them so farre unable to give any reason thereof, as they beleeve confidently, that they were created at their first beginning at this new world, where they now dwell. But we have freed thern of this error by pur faith, which teacheth us that all men came from the first man. There are great and apparant conjectures, that these men for a long time had neither Kings nor common weales, but lived in troupes, as they do at this day in Florida, the Chiriguanas, those of Bresill, and many other nations, which have no certaine Kings, but as occasion is offered in peace or warre, they choose their Captaines as they please. But some men excelling others
Historie of the Indies. lib. I. 81in force and wit, began in time to rule and domineere as Nembroth did: so increasing by little and little, they erected the kingdomes of Peru and Mexico, which our Spaniards found: and although they were barbarous, yet did they farre surpasse all the other Indians. Behold how the foresaid reason doth teach us that the Indians began to multiply, for the most part, by savage men and fugitives, which may suffice touching the beginning of these men we speake of, leaving the rest, untill we treate of their Historie more at large.
[ 329 ]
The Pride and presumption of the Divell is so great & obstinate, that always hee seekes and strives to be honoured as God: and doth arrogate to himselfe all hee can, whatsoever doth appertaine to the most high God, hee ceaseth not to abuse the blinde Nations of the world, upon whom the cleere light of the holy Gospel hath not yet shone. Wee read in Job of this prowd tyrant, who settes his eyes aloft, and amongst all the sons of pride, he is the King. The holy Scripture instructes us plainely of his vile intentions, and his overweening treason, whereby he hath pretended to make his Throne equall unto Gods, saying in Esay, Thou diddest say within thy selfe, I will mount up to heaven and
330 The Naturall and Morallset my chaire upon all the starres of heaven, and I will sit upon the toppe of the Firmament, and in the sides of the North, I will ascend above the height of the cloudes, and will be like to the most high. And in Ezechiel, Thy heart was lifted up, and thou hast said, I am God, and have set in the chaire of God in the midst of the sea. Thus doth Sathan continually persist in this wicked desire, to make himselfe God. And although the just and severe chastisement of the most high hath spoiled him of all his pompe and beautie, which made him grow prowd, being intreated as his fellonie and indiscretion had deserved, as it is written by the same Prophets; yet hath he left nothing of his wickedness and perverse practises, the which he hath made manifest by all meanes possible, like a mad doggo that bites the sword wherewith he is strucken. For as it is written, the pride of such as hate God, doth alwaies increase. Hence comes the continuall and strange care which this enemie of God hath alwaies had, to make him to b worshipt of men, inventing so many kinds of Idolatries, whereby he hath so long held the gretest part of the world in subjection; so as there scarce remaines any one corner for God & his people of Israel. And since the power of the Gospel hath vanquished and disarmed him, and that by the force of the Crosse, hee hath broken and ruined the most important and puissant places of his kingdome with the like tyrannie, hoe hath begunno to assaile the barbarous people and Nations farthest off, striving to maintaine amongst them his false and lying divinitie,ethe which the Sonno of God had taken from him in his Church, tying him with chaines as in a cage or prison, like a furious beast to his great confusion, & rejoycing of the servants of God, as he doth signify in Job.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 331But in the end, although idolatrie had beene rooted out of the best and most notable partes of the worlde, yet he hath retired himself into the most remote parts, and hath ruled in that other part of the worlde which, although it be much inferiour in nobilitie, yet is it not of less compasse. There are two causes and chiefe motives, for the which the divell hath so much laboured to plant idolatry and all infidelity, so as you shall hardly finde any Nation where there is not some markes thereof. The one is this great presumption and pride, which is such, that whoso would consider, how hee durst affront the very Sonne of God, and true God, in saying impudently, that he should fall downe and worship him: the which he did, although he knew not certainely that this was the very God, yet had he some opinion that it was the Sonne of God. A most cruell and horrible pride to dare thus impudently affront his God; truely wee shall not finde it very strange that hee makes himselfe to be worshipped as God, by ignorant Nations, seeing hee would seeke to be worshipped by God himselfe, calling himselfe God, being an abhominable and detestable creature. The other cause and motive of idolatrie is the mortall hatred he hath conceived for ever against mankinde. For as our Saviour saith, hee hath beene a murtherer from the beginning, and holdes it as a condition and inseparable qualitie of his wickednesse. And for that hee knowes the greatest misery of man, is to worship the creature for God: for this reason hee never leaves to invent all sortes of Idolatries to destroy man, and make him ennemy to God. There are two mischiefes which the divell causeth in idolatry; the one, that hee denies his God, according to the text, Thou hast left thy God who created thee: the other
332 The Naturall and Morallis, that hee doth subiect himselfe to a thing baser than himselfe: for that all creatures are inferior to the reasonable, and the divell, although hee be superior to man in nature, yet in estate he is much inferior, seeing that man in this life is capable of Divinitie and Eternitie. By this meanes God is dishonoured, and man lost in all parts by idolatry, wherewith the divell in his pride is well content.
Of many kindes of idolatry the Indians have used.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 333hath beene and is in trueth the same thing, but not such as idolatry faines, as the dead, or some things proper unto them, which men worshippe through vatiitio and flatterie, so as we reduce all to foure kindes of idolatry, which the infidells use; of all which it behooveth us to speakc something.
That the Indians have some knowledge of God.
334 The Naturall and Morallno proper name for God. If wee shall seeke into the Indian tongue for a word to answer to this name of God, as in Latin, Deus, in Greeke, Theos, in Hebrew, El, in Arabike, Alla; but wee shall not finde any in the Cuscan or Mexicaine tongues. So as such as preach or write to the Indians use our Spanish name Dios, fitting it to the accent or pronunciation of the Indian tongues, the which differ much, whereby appeares the small knowledge they had of God, seeing they cannot so much as name him, if it be not by our very name: yet in trueth they had some little knowledge, and therefore in Peru they made him a rich temple, which they called Pachacamac, which was the principall Sanctuarie of the realme. And as it hath been saide, this word of Pachacamac, is as much to say, as the Creator, yet in this temple they used their idolatries, worshipping the Divell and figures. They likewise made sacrifices and offrings to Viracocha, which held the chiefe place amongst the worships which the Kings Inguas made. Heereof they called the Spaniards Virocochas, for that they holde opinion they are the sonnes of heaven, and divine; even as others did attribute a deitie to Paul and Barnabas, calling the one Jupiter, and the other Mercurie, so woulde they offer sacrifices unto them, as unto gods: and as the barbarians of Melita (which is Malte), seeing that the viper did not hurt the Apostle, they called him God.
As it is therefore a trueth, conformable to reason, that there is a soveraigne Lorde and King of heaven, whomer the Gentiles (with all their infidelities and idolatries) have not denyed, as wee see in the Philosophy of Timee in Plato, in the Metaphisickes of Aristotle, and in the Asculape of Tresmigister, as also in the Poesies of Homer
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 335& Virgil. Therefore the Preachers of the Gospel have no great difficultie to plant & perswade this truth of a supreamc God, be the Nations of whome they preach never so barbarous and brutish. But it is hard to roote out of their mindes, that there is no other God, nor any other deitie then one: and that all other things of themselves have no power, being nor workeing, proper to themselves, but what the great and only God and Lord doth give and impart unto them. To conclude, it is necessarie to perswade them by all meanes in reproving their errors, as well in that wherein they generally fail in worshipping more then one God, as in particular, (which is much more), to hold for Gods, and to demand favour and helpe of those things which are not Gods, nor have any power, but what the true God their Lord and Creator hath given them.
Of the first kind of Idolatrie, upon naturall and
336 The Naturall and Morallengender. It was a Guaca (for so they called the Oratories,) generall to all the Indians of Peru, offering unto him many sacrifices: and in Cusco, which is the Court and Metropolitane Cittie, they did sacrifice children unto him, as to the Sunne. They did worship these three, Viracocha, the Sunne, and Thunder, after another maner than all the rest, as Pollo writes, who had made triall thereof, they did put as it were a gauntlet or glove upon their hands when they did lift them up to worshippe them. They did worshippe the earth, which they called Pachamama, as the Ancients did the goddesse Tellus: and the sea likewise, which they call Mamacocha, as the Ancients worshipped Thetis or Neptune. Moreover, they did worship the rainebow, which were the armes and blazons of the Ingua, with two snakes stretched out on either side. Amongst the starres they all did commonly worship that which they called Colca, and we heere Cabrille. They did attribute divers offices to divers starres, and those which had neede of their favour did worship them, as the shepheard did sacrifice to a star which they called Vrcuhillay, which they holde to be a sheepe of divers colours, having the care to preserve their cattell. It is understood to be that which the Astronomers call Lyra. These shepheards worshippe two other starres, which walke neere unto them, they call them Catuchillay and vrcuchillay; and they faine them to be an Ewe and a Lambe. Others worshipped a starre which they called Machauay, to which they attribute the charge and power over serpents, and snakes, to keepe them from hurting of them. They ascribe power to another starre, which they called Chuguinchinchay (which is as much as Tigre,) over Tigres, Beares, and Lyons, and they have generally beleeved,
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 337that of all the beasts of the earth, there is one alone in heaven like unto them, the which hath care of their procreation and increase. And so they did observe and worship divers starres, as those which they called Chacana, Topatarca, Mamanan, Mirco, Miquiquicay, and many others. So, as it seemed, they approached somewhat neere the propositions of Platoes Idees. The Mexicaines almost in the same maner after the supreame God, worshiped the Sunne: And therefore they called Hernando Cortez, (as he hath written in a letter sent unto the Emperour Charles the fift,) Sonne of the Sunne, for his care and courage to compasse the earth. But they made their greatest adoration to an Idol called Vitzilipuztli, the which in all this region they called the most puissant, and Lord of all things: for this cause the Mexicaines built him a Temple, the greatest, the fairest, the highest, and the most sumptuous of all other. The scituation & beautie thereof may wel be conjectured by the ruines which yet remaine in the midst of the Cittie of Mexico. But heere the Mexicaines Idolatrie hath bin more pernicious and hurtfull then that of the Inguas, as wee shall see plainer heereafter, for that the greatest part of their adoration and idolatrie was employed to Idols, and not to naturall things, although they did attribute naturall effects to these Idolls, as raine, multiplication of cattell, warre, and generation, even as the Greeks and Latins have forged Idolls of Phoebus, Mercurie, Jupiter, Minerva, and of Mars. To conclude, whoso shall neerely looke into it, shall finde this manner which the Divell hath used to deceive the Indians, to be the same wherewith hee hath deceived the Greekes and Romans, and other ancient Gentiles, giving them to understand that these notable creatures,
338 The Naturall and Morallthe Sunne Moone, Starres, and Elements, had power and authoritie to doe good or harme to men. And although God hath created all these things for the use of man, yet hath man so much forgotte himselfe as to rise up against him. Moreover, he hath imbased himselfe to creatures that are inferiour unto himselfe, worshiping and calling upon their workes, forsaking his Creator. As the Wise man saieth well in these wordes, All men are vaine and abused that have not the knowledge of God, seeing they could not know him, that is, by the things that seemed good unto them: and although they have beheld his workes, yet have they not attained to know the author and maker thereof, but they have beleeved that the fire, winde, swift aire, the course of the starres, great rivers, with Sunne and Moone, were Gods and governours of the world; and being in love with the beautie of these things, they thought they should esteeme them as Gods. It is reason they should consider how much more faire the Creator is, seeing that he is the Author of beauties and makes all things. Moreover, if they admire the power and effects of these things, thereby they may understand how much more mightie hee is that gave them their being, for by the beautie and greatnes of the creatures, they may judge what the Maker is. Hitherto are the wordes of the Booke of Wisdome, from whence we may draw a good and strong argument, to overthrow the Idolatrie of Infidells, who seeke rather to serve the creature then the Creator, as the Apostle doth justly reprehend them. But for as much as this is not of our present subject, and that it hath been sufficiently treated of in the Sermons written against the errors of the Indians, it shall bee sufficient now to shew that they did worship the great God, and their vaine and
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 339lying gods all of one fashion: for their manor to pray to Viracocha, to the Sunnc, the Starres, and the rest of their Idolls, was to open their hands, and to make a certaine sound with their mouthes, like people that kissed, and to aske that which every one desired in offering his sacrifices, yet was there great difference betwixt the words they used in speaking to the great Ticiviracocha, to whom they did attribute the cheefe power and commandement over all things, and those they used to others, the which every one did worship privately in his house, as Gods or particular Lords, saying that they were their intercessors to this great Ticciviracocha. This maner of worship, opening the hands, and as it were kissing, hath something like to that which Job had in horror, as fit for Idolaters, saying, If I have kissed my hands with my mouth, beholding the Sunne when it shines, or the Moone when it is light, the which is a great iniquitie, and to deny the most great God.
Of the Idolatry the Indians used to particular things.
340 The Naturall and Moralland their hearts were hardened in their follies, and they have changed the glory and deity of the eternall God into shews and figures of vaine and corruptible things, as men, birds, beasts, and serpents: we know well that the Egyptians did worship the Dogge of Osiris, the Cow of Isis, and the Sheepe of Ammon: the Romans did worship the goddesse Februa, of Feavers, and the Tarpeien Goose: and Athenes the wise did worship the Cocke, and the Raven, and such other like vanities and mockeries, whereof the auntient Histories of the Gentiles are full. Men fell into this great misery, for that they would not subiect themselves to the Lawe of the true God and Creator, as Saint Athanasius dooth learnedly handle, writing against Idolatry. But it is wonderfull strange to see the excesse which hath beene at the Indies, especially in Peru: for they worshipped rivers, fountaines, the mouthes of rivers, entries of mountaines, rockes or great stones, hilles and the tops of mountains, which they call Apachitas, and they hold them for matters of great devotion. To conclude, they did worship all things in nature which seemed to them remarkable and different from the rest, as acknowledging some particular deitie.
They shewed me in Caxamalca of Nasca a little hill or great mount of sand, which was the chiefe Idoll or Guaca of the Antients. I demaunded of them what divinitie they found in it? They answered, that they did worship it for the woonder, being a very high mount of sand, in the midst of very thicke mountains of stone. Wee had neede in the cittie of Kings of great store of great wood for the melting of a Bell, and therefore they cut downe a great deformed tree, which for the greatnesse and antiquitie thereof had beene a long time the
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 341Oratorio and Guaca of the Indians. And they beleeved there was a certaine Divinity in any thing that was extraordinary and strange in his kinde, attributing the like unto small stones and mettalls; yea, unto rootes and fruites of the earth, as the rootes they call Papas. There is a strange kinde which they call Lallahuas, which they kissed and worshipped. They did likewise worshippe Beares, Lions, Tygres, and Snakes, to the end they should not hurt them: and such as their gods bee, such are the things they offer unto them in their worshippe. They have used as they goe by the way, to cast, in the crosse wayes, on the hilles, and toppes of mountaines, which they call Apachittas, olde shooes, feathers, and coca chewed, being an hearb they use much. And when they have nothing left, they cast a stone as an offring, that they might passe freely, and have greater force, the which they say increaseth by this meanes, as it is reported in a provinciall Council of Peru. And therefore they finde in the hie wayes great heapes of stones offered, and such other things. The like follie did the Antients use, of whome it is spoke in the Proverbs. Like unto him that offereth stones unto the hill of Mercurie, such a one is hee that hononreth fooles, meaning that a man shall reape no more fruit nor profit of the second than the first, for that their God Mercury, made of stone, dooth not acknowledge any offering, neyther doth a foole any honour that is doone him. They used another offring no lesse pleasant and ridiculous, pulling the haire from the eyebrowes to offer it to the Sunne, hills, Apachitas, to the winds, or to any other thing they feare. Such is the miseries that many Indians have lived in, and do to this day, whom the divell doth abuse like very Babes, with any foolish illusion whatsoever. So dooth Saint Chrysostome
342 The Naturall and Morallin one of his Homilies compare them, but the servants of God, which labour to draw them to salvation, ought not contemne these follies and childishnesse, being sufficient to plunge these poore abused creatures into eternall perdition; but they ought with good and cleere reasons to draw them from so great ignorance. For in trueth it is a matter woorthy of consideration, to see how they subiect themselves to such as instruct them in the true way of life. There is nothing among all the creatures more beautifull than the sunne. which all the Gentiles did commonly worship. A discreete captaine and good christian told me that he had with a good reason perswaded the Indians, that the Sunne was no god. He required the Cacique or chiefe Lord to give him an Indian that were light, to carry him a Letter; which doone, he saide to the Cacique, Tel me who is Lord and chiefe, either this Indian that carries the letter, or thou that dost send him? The Cacique answered, without doubt I am, for he dooth but what I commaund him. Even so replied the Captaine, is it of the Sunne we see, and the Creator of all things: For that the Sunne is but a servant to the most high Lorde, which (by his commaundement) runnes swiftly, giving light to all nations. Thus thou seest it is against reason to yeeld that honour to the Sunne which is due to the Creator and Lord of all. The Captaines reason pleased them all; and the Cacique with his Indians sayde it was trueth, and they were much pleased to understand it.
They report of one of the Kings Inguas, a man of a subtill spirite, who (seeing that all his predecessors had worshipped the Sunne,) said that hee did not take the Sunne to be God, neither could it be, for that God was a
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 343great Lord, who with great quiet and leasure performeth his workes, and that the Sunne doth never cease his course, saying that the thing which laboured so much could not seeme to be God. Wherein hee spake truth. Even so, when they shew the Indians their blind errors by lively and plaine reasons, they are presently perswaded and yeelde admirably to the trueth.
Of another kinde of idolatry upon the dead.
344 The Naturall and Moralltheir absence whom they desired to flatter. The curiositie of excellent workmen increased this Idolatrie, for these Images were made so excellent by their Art, that the ignorant were provoked to worshippe them, so as by the perfection of their Arte, pretending to content them that gave them to make, they drew Pictures and Images farre more excellent: and the common people, ledde with the shew and grace of the worke, did holde and esteeme him for a God, whome before they had honoured as a man. And this was the miserable errour of men, who sometimes yeelding to tlieir affection and sence, sometimes to the flatterie of their Kings, did attribute unto stones the incommunicable name of God, worshipping them for Gods.
All this is in the booke of Wisdome, woorthy to be noted; and such as are curious in the search of Antiquities shall finde that the beginning of idolatry were these Images of the dead. I say idolatry, which is properly the worship of Idolles and Images; for that it is not certaine that this other idolatry, to worship the creatures, as the Sunne and and the hostes of heaven, or the number of Planets and Starres, whereof mention is made in the Prophets, hath beene after the idolatry of Images, although without doubt they have made idols in honour of the Sunne, the Moone, and the Earth. Returning to our Indians, they came to the height of Idolatry by the same meanes the Scripture maketh mention of: first they had a care to keepe the bodies of their Kings and Noblemen whole, from any ill scent or corruption above two hundred yeares. In this sorte were their Kings Inguas in Cusco, every one in his Chappell and Oratorie, so as the Marquis of Canette being Viceroy, to root out Idolatry, caused three or foure of their gods to be drawne out and carried to the city of Kings, which
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 345bredde a great admiration, to see these bodies (dead so many yeares before) remairie so faire and also whole. Every one of these Kings Inguas left all his treasure and revenues to entertaine the place of worshippe where his body was layed, and there were maiiy Ministers with all his familie dedicated to his service: for no King successor did usurpe the treasures and plate of his predecessor, but he did gather all new for himselfe, and his pallace. They were not content with this Idolatry to dead bodies, but also they made their figures and representations: and every King in his life time caused a figure to be made wherein he was represented, which they called Guaoiqui, which signifieth brother, for that they should doe to this Image, during his life and death, as much honor and reverence as to himself. They carryed this Image to the warres, and in procession for rain or fayre weather, making sundry feastes and sacrifices unto them. There have beeue many of these Idolles in Cusco, and in that territorie, but nowe they say that this superstition of worshipping of stones hath altogether ceased, or for the most part, after they had beene discovered by the diligence of the Licentiate Polo, and the first was that of the Ingua Rocha, chief of the faction or race of Hanam Cusco. And we find that among other Nations they had in great estimation and reverence the bodies of their predecessors, and did likewise worship their Images.
Of Superstitions they used to the Dead.
346 The Naturall and Morallto perswade them to these articles. But they are not yet come to the knowledge of that point, that the bodies should rise with the soules. And therefore they did use a wonderfull care, as it is saide, to preserve the bodies which they honoured after death to this end their successors gave them garments, and made sacrifices unto them, especially the Kings Inguas, being accompanied at their fuueralls with a great number of servants and women for his service in the other life: and therefore on the day of his decease they did put to death the woman he had loved best, his servants and officers, that they might serve him in the other life.
Whenas Guanacapa died (who was father to Atagualpa, at what time the Spaniards entred,) they put to death aboue a thousand persons of all ages and conditions, for his service, to accompany him in the other life, after many songs and drunkennes they slew them; and these that were appointed to death, held themselves happy. They did sacrifice many things unto them, especially yong children, and with the bloud they made a stroake on the dead mans face, from one eare to the other. This superstition and inhumanitie, to kill both men and women, to accompanie and serve the dead in the other life, hath beene followed by others, and is at this day used amongst some other barbarous Nations. And as Polo writes, it hath beene in a maner generall throughout all the Indies. The venerable Beda reportes, that before the Englishmen were converted to the Gospel they had the same custome, to kill men to accompany and serve the dead. It is written of a Portugall, who, being captive among the Barbarians, had beene hurt with a dart, so as he lost one eye, and as they would have sacrificed him to accompany
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 347a Nobleman that was dead, hee said unto them that those that were in the other life would make small account of the dead if they gave him a blind man for a companion, & that it were better to give him an attendant that had both his eyes. This reason being found good by the Barbarians they let him go. Besides this superstition of sacrificing men to the dead, beeing used but to great Personages, there is another far more general and common in all the Indies, which is to set meate and drinke upon the grave of the dead, imagining they did feede thereon: the which hath likewise beene an error amongst the Ancients, as saint Augustine writes, and therefore they gave them meate and drinke. At this day many Indian Infidells doe secretly draw their dead out of the churchyard and burie them on hilles, or upon passages of mountains, or else in their owne houses. They have also used to put gold and silver in their mouth, hands, and bosome, and to apparell them with new garments, durable and well lined, under the herse.
They beleeve that the soules of the dead wandred up and downe and indure colde, thirst, hunger, and travell, and for this cause they make their anniversaries, carrying them clothes, meate, and drinke. So as the Prelates, in their Synodes, above all things, give charge to their Priests to let the Indians understand, that the offerings that are set upon the sepulchre is not to feede the dead but for the poor and ministers, and that God alone dooth feede the soules in the other life, seeing they neither eate nor drinke any corporall thing, being very needefull they should understand it, lest they should convert this religious use into a superstition of the gentiles as many doe.
348 The Naturall and Morall
Of the manner of burying the dead among the
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 349or chaplaine (for every Noble man had a priest which administred these ceremonies within his house,) and then they killed him that hee might execute his office with the dead. They like wise killed his cooke, his butler, his dwarfes and deformed men, by whom he was most served: neyther did they spare the very brothers of the dead, who had most served them: for it was a greatnesse amongest the Noble men to be served by theyr brethren and the rest. Finally they put to death all of his traine for the entertaining of his house in the other world: and lest poverty should oppresse them they buried with them much wealth, as golde, silver, stones, curtins of exquisite worke, bracelets of gold, and other rich peeces. And if they burned the dead, they used the like with all his servants and ornaments they gave him for the other world. Then tooke they all the ashes they buryed with very great solemnity. The obsequies continued tenne dayes, with songs of plaints, and lamentations, and the priests carried away the dead with so many ceremonies, and in so great number as they coulde scarce accoumpt them. To the Captaines and Noblemen they gave trophees and marks of honour according to their enterprises and valor imployed in the warres and governements; for this effect they had armes and particular blasons. They carried these markes or blasons to the place where he desired to be buried or burnt, marching before the body, and accompanying it, as it were, in procession, where the priests and officers of the Temple went with diverse furnitures and ornaments, some casting incense, others singing, and some sounding of niournefull flutes and drummes, which did much increase the sorrow of his kinsfolkes and subjects. The priest who did the office was
350 The Naturall and Moralldecked with the markcs of the idoll which the noble man had represented, for all noble men did represent idolles, and carried the name of some one, and for this occasion they were esteemed and honoured. The order of knighthoode did commonly carry these forsaido markes. He that should be burnt, being brought to the place appoynted, they invironed him with wood of pine trees and all his baggage, then set they fire unto it, increasing it still with goomie wood, untill that all were converted into ashes, then came there foorth a Priest attired like a Divell, having mouthes upon every joynt of him, and many eyes of glasse, holding a great staffe with the which hee did mingle all the ashes very boldly and with so terrible a gesture, as he terrified all the assistants. Sometimes the minister had other different habites according to the qualitie of the dead. I have made this digression of obsequies and funeralls upon the idolatry and superstition they had to the dead. It is reason to returne now to our chiefe subject and to finish this matter.
The fourth and last kinde of Idolatry the Indians used,
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 351thus of such people, They are miserable, whose hopes may be counted among the dead, that have called the workes of mens handes gods, as golde, silver, and the invention of the likenes of beastes, or a fruitlesse stone, which hath nothing more in it than antiquitie. And hee dooth divinely follow this proposition against this errour and follie of the Gentiles; as also the Prophets Esay, Jeremy, Baruc, & King David, doe treate thereof amply. It is convenient and necessary that the Ministers of Christ which doe reproove the errors of idolatry, should have a good sight, and consider well these reasons which the holy-Ghost doth so lively set downe, being all reduced into a short sentence by the Prophet Osee, He that hath made them was a workeman, and therefore can they be no gods, therefore the Calfe of Samaria shal be like the Spiders webbe. Returning to our purpose, there hath beene great curiositie at the Indies in making of idolles and pictures of diverse formes and matters, which they worshipped for gods, and in Peru they called them Guacas, being commonly of fowle and deformed beasts, at the least, such as I have seene, were so. I beleeve verily that the Divel, in whose honour they made these idolles, was pleased to cause himselfe to be worshipped in these deformities, and in trueth it was found so, that the Divell spake and answered in many of these Guacas or idolls, and his priests and ministers came to those Oracles of the father of lies, and such as he is, such were his counsells and prophesies. In the provinces of New Spaine, Mexico, Tescuco, Tlascalla, Cholula, and in the neighbour countries to this realme, this kinde of idolatry hath beene more practised than in any other realme of the world. And it is a prodigious thing to heare the superstitions rehersed that they have used in that poynt, of the which it shall not be unpleasant
352 The Naturall and Morallto speake something. The chiefest idoll of Mexico was, as I have sayde, Vitziliputzli. It was an image of wood, like to a man, set upon a stoole of the colour of azure, in a brankard or litter, at every corner was a piece of wood in forme of a Serpants head. The stoole signified that he was set in heaven: this idoll hadde all the forehead azure, and had a band of azure under the nose from one eare to another: upon his head he had a rich plume of feathers, like to the beake of a small bird, the which was covered on the toppe with gold burnished very browne: hee had in his left hand a white target, with the figures of five pineapples made of white feathers, set in a crosse: and from above issued forth a crest of gold, and at his sides hee hadde foure dartes, which (the Mexicaines say) had beene sent from heaven to do those actes and prowesses which shall be spoken of. In his right hand he had an azured staffe, cutte in fashion of a waving snake. All these ornaments, with the rest, had their meaning, as the Mexicaines doe shew; the name of Vitziliputzli signifies the left hand of a shining feather.
I will speake heereafter of the prowde Temple, the sacrifices, feasts, and ceremonies of this great idoll, being very notable things. But at this present we will only shew that this idoll, thus richly appareled and deckt, was set upon an high Altare in a small pecce or boxe, well covered with linnen clothes, jewells, feathers, and ornaments of golde, with many rundles of feathers, the fairest and most exquisite that could be found: hee had alwaies a curtine before him for the greater veneration. Joyning to the chamber or chappell of this idoll, there was a pecce of lesse worke, and not so well beautified, where there was another idoll they called Tlaloc. These two
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 353idolls were alwaies together, for that they held them as companions, and of equall power. There was another idoll in Mexico, much esteemed, which was the god of repentance, and of jubilies and pardons for their sinnes. They called this idoll Tezcatlipuca, he was made of a blacke shining stone like to layel, being attired with some ornamental devises after their manner; it had earerings of golde and silver, and through the nether lippe a small canon of cristall, in length halfe a foote: in the which they sometimes put a greene feather, and sometimes an azured, which made it resemble sometimes an Emerald, and some times a Turquois: it had the haire broided and bound up with a haire-lace of golde burnished, at the end whereof did hang an eare of golde, with two firebrands of smoake painted therein, which did signifie the prayers of the afflicted and sinners that he heard, when they recommended themselves unto him. Betwixt the two eares hanged a number of small herons. He had a jewell hanging at his necke, so great that it covered all his stomacke: upon his armes bracelets of golde; at his navill a rich greene stone: and in his left hand a fanne of pretious feathers, of greene, azure, and yellow, which came forth of a looking glasse of golde, shining and well burnished, and that signified, that within this looking glasse hee sawe whatsoever was doone in the world. They called this mirror or plate of golde Irlacheaya, which signifies his glasse for to looke in. In his right hand he held foure dartes, which signified the chastisement hee gave unto the wicked for their sinnes. And therefore they feared this idoll most, lest he should discover their faults and offences. At his feast they had pardon of their sinnes, which was made every foure years, as shal be declared heereafter. They held
354 The Naturall and Morallthis idoll Tezcatlipuca for the god of drought, of famine, barrennesse, and pestilence: And therefore they paynted him in another forme, being set in great maiesty uppon a stoole compassed in with a red curtin, painted and wrought with the heads and bones of dead men. In the left hand it had a target with five pines, like unto pine apples of cotton: and in the right a little dart, with a threatening countenaunce, and the arme stretcht out, as if he would cast it; and from the target came foure dartes. It had the countenance of an angry man, and in choler, the body all painted blacke, and the head full of Quales feathers. They used great superstition to this idoll, for the feare they had of it. In Cholula, which is a commonwealth of Mexico, they worshipt a famous idoll, which was the god of marchandise, being to this day greatly given to trafficke. They called it Quetzaalcoatl.
This idoll was in a great place in a temple very hie: it had about it golde, silver, Jewells, very rich feathers, and habites of divers colours. It had the forme of a man, but the visage of a little bird with a red bill, and above a combe full of wartes, having rankes of teeth, and the tongue hanging out. It carried upon the head a pointed myter of painted paper, a sithe in the hand, and many toyes of golde on the legges; with a thousand other foolish inventions, whereof all had their significations; and they worshiped it, for that hee enriched whome hee pleased, as Memnon and Plutus. In trueth this name which the Choluanes gave to their God was very fitte, although they understoode it not: they called it Quetzaalcoatl, signifying colour of a rich feather, for such is the divell of covetousnesse. These barbarous people contented not themselves to have gods onely, but
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 355they had goddesses also, as the Fables of Poets have brought in, and the blind gentility of the Greekes and Romans worshipt them. The chiefe goddesse they worshipt was called Tozi, which is to say our grandmother, who, as the Histories of Mexico report, was daughter to the king of Culhuacan, who was the first they fleaed by the commaundement of Vitzliputzli, whom they sacrificed in this sort, being his sister, and then they beganne to flea men in their sacrifices, and to clothe the living with the skinncs of the sacrificed, having learned that their gods were pleased therewith, as also to pull the hearts out of them they sacrificed, which they learned of their god, who pulled out the hearts of such as he punished in Tulla, as shall be sayd in his place. One of these goddesses they worshipt had a sonne, who was a great hunter, whome they of Tlascalla afterwardes tooke for a god, and those were ennemies to the Mexicaines, by whose ayde the Spaniardes wonne Mexico. The province of Tlascalla is very fit for hunting, and the people are much given thereunto. They therfore made a great feast unto this idoll, whom they painted of such a forme as it is not now needefull to loose any time in the description thereof. The feast they made was pleasant, and in this sort: They sounded a Trumpet at the breake of day, at the sound whereof they all assembled with their bowes, arrows, netts, and other instruments for hunting: then they went in procession with theyr idoll, being followed by a great number of people to a high mountayne, upon the toppe whereof they had made a bower of leaves, and in the middest thereof an Altare richly deckt, where-upon they placed the idoll. They marched with a great bruit of Trumpettes, Cornets, Flutes, and Drummes, and being come unto the place
356 The Naturall and Morallthey invironed this mountaine on all sides, putting fire to it on all partes: by meanes whereof manie beasts flew foorth, as stagges, connies, hares, foxes, and woolves, which went to the toppe flying from the fire. These hunters followed after with great cries and noyse of diverse instruments, hunting them to the top before the idoll, whither fled such a number of beastes, in so great a prease, that they leaped one upon another, upon the people, and uppon the Altare, wherein they tooke great delight. Then tooke they a great number of these beasts, and sacrificed them before the idoll, as stagges and other great beasts, pulling out their hearts, as they use in the sacrifice of men, and with the like ceremony: which done, they tooke all their prey uppon their shoulders, and retired with their idoll in the same manner as they came, and entered the citty laden with all these things, very joyfull, with great store of musicke, trumpets, and drummes, untill they came to the Temple, where they placed their idoll with great reverence and solemnitie. They presently went to prepare their venison, wherewith they made a banquet to all the people; and after dinner they made their playes, representations, and daunces before the idoll. They had a great number of other idolles, of gods and goddesses; but the chiefe were of the Mexicaine Nation, and the neighbour people as is saide.
Of a strange manner of Idolatry practised amongst
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 357be honored like themselves: even so the Mexicains have done of their gods, which was in this sorte. They tooke a captive, such, as they thought good, and afore they did sacrifice him unto their idolls; they gave him the name of the idoll, to whome hee should be sacrificed, and apparelled him with the same ornaments like their idoll, saying, that he did represent the same idoll. And during the time that this representation lasted, which was for a yeere in some feasts, in others sixe moneths, and in others lesse, they reverenced and worshipped him in the same manor as the proper idoll; and in the meane time he did eate, drincke, and was merry. When hee went through the streetes, the people came forth to worship him, and every one brought him an almes, with children and sicke folkes, that he might cure them, and bless them, suffering him to doe all things at his pleasure, onely hee was accompanied with tenne or twelve men lest he should flie. And he (to the end he might be reverenced as he passed) sometimes sounded uppon a small flute, that the people might prepare to worship him. The feast being come, and hee growne fatte, they killed him, opened him, and eat him, making a solemne sacrifice of him.
In trueth, it was a pittifull thing to consider in what sort Sathan held this people in his subjection, and doth many to which commit the like cruelties and abominations, with the losse of the miserable soules and bodies of such as they offer to him, and he laughs and mockes at the follie of these poore miserable creatures, who deserve well for their offences, to be forsaken of the most high God, to the power of their adversary, whom they have chosen for their god and support. But seeing wee have spoken sufficient of the Indians idolatrie:
358 The Naturall and Morallit followes that we treate of their Religion, or rather Superstition, which they use in their sacrifices, temples, ceremonies, and the rest.
How the Devill hath laboured to make himself equall
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 359and other things. There is scarce any thing instituted by Jesus Christ our Saviour in his Lawe of his Gospel, the which the Divell hath not counterfeited in some sort, and carried to his Gentiles, as may be seene in reading that which we hold for certaine, by the report of men worthie of credite, of the customes and ceremonies of the Indians, whereof we will treate in this Booke.
Of the Temples that were found at the Indies.
360 The Naturall and Morallspake and answered in these false Sanctuaries, deceiving this miserable people. But where the Gospel is entred, and the Crosse of Christ planted, the father of lies is become mute, as Plutark writes of his time, Cur cessaverit Pithias fondere oracula: and Justine Martir treates amply of the silence which Christ imposed to devills, which spake by Idolls, as it had been before much prophecied of in the holy Scripture. The maner which the Infidel Ministers & Enchanters had to consult with their gods, was as the Devill had taught them. It was commonly in the night, they entred backward to their idol, & so went bending their bodies & head, after an uglie maner, and so they consulted with him. The answer he made, was commonly like unto a fearefull hissing, or to a gnashing which did terrifie them; and all that he did advertise or command them, was but the way to their perdition and ruine. There are few of these Oracles found now, through the mercy of God, and great powre of Jesus Christ. There hath beene in Peru another Temple and Oratorie, most esteemed, which was in the Cittie of Cusco, where at this day is the monasterie of S. Dominicke. We may see it hath been a goodly and a stately worke by the pavement and stones of the building, which remaine to this day. This Temple was like to the Pantheon of the Romans, for that it was the house and dwelling of all the gods; for the Kings Inguas did there behold the gods of all the Nations and provinces they had conquered, every Idoll having his private place, whither they of that Province came to worship it with an excessive charge of things which they brought for his service. And thereby they supposed to keep safely in obedience those Provinces which they had conquered, holding their gods as it were in hostage.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 361In this same house was the Pinchao, which was an Idoll of the Sunne, of most fine gold, wrought with great riches of stones, the which was placed to the East, with so great Art, as the Sunne at its rising did cast his beames thereon: and as it was of most fine mettall, his beames did reflect with such a brightnes that it seemed another Sunne. The Inguas did worship this for their God, and the Pachayacha, which signifies the Creator of heaven. They say, that at the spoile of this so rich a Temple, a souldier had for his part this goodly plate of gold of the Sunne. And as play was then in request, he lost it all in one night at play, whence came the proverb they have in Peru for great gamesters, saying that they play the Sunne before it riseth.
Of the Prowd Temples at Mexico.
362 The Naturall and Morallwere, was a fine piller wrought with small stones, blacke as jeate, set in goodly order, the ground raised up with white & red, which below gave a great light, upon the top of the pillar were battlements very artificially made, wrought like snailes, supported by two Indians of stone, sitting, holding candlesticks in their hands, the which were like Croisants garnished and enriched at the ends with yellow and green feathers and long fringes of the same. Within the circuite of this court there were many chambers of religious men, and others that were appointed for the service of the Priests and Popes, for so they call the soveraigne Priests which serve the Idoll. This Court is so great and spatious, as eight or ten thousand persons did dance easily in round, holding hands, the which was an usuall custome in that Realme, although it seeme to many incredible.
There were foure gates or entries, at the East, West, North, and South, at every one of these gates beganne a faire cawsey of two or three leagues long. There was in the midst of the Lake where the Cittie of Mexico is built foure large cawseies in crosse, which did much beautifie it, upon every portall or entery was a God or Idoll, having the visage turned to the causey right against the Temple gate of Vitziliputzli. There were thirtie steppes of thirtie fadome long, and they divided from the circuit of the court by a streete that went betwixt them; upon. the toppe of these steppes there was a walke of thirtie foote broad, all plaistered with chalke, in the midst of which walke was a Pallisado artificially made of very high trees, planted in order a fadome one from another. These trees were very bigge, and all pierced with small holes from the foote to the top,
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 363and there were roddes did runne from one tree to another, to the which were chained or tied many dead mens heads. Upon every rod were twentie sculles, and these ranckes of sculles continue from the foote to the toppe of the tree. This Pallissado was full of dead mens sculls from one end to the other, the which was a wonderfull mournefull sight and full of horror. These were the heads of such as had beene sacrificed; for after they were dead, and had eaten the flesh, the head was delivered to the Ministers of the Temple, which tied them in this sort untill they fell off by morcells, and then had they a care to set others in their places. Upon the toppe of the Temple were two stones or chappells, and in them were the two Idolls which I have spoken of, Vitziliputzli and his companion Tlaloc. These Chappells were carved and graven very artificially, and so high that to ascend up to it there was a staire of stone of sixscore steppes. Before these Chambers or Chappells there was a Court of fortie foote square, in the midst whereof was a high stone of five hand breadth, poynted in fashion of a Pyramide; it was placed there for the sacrificing of men, for being laid on their backes it made their bodies to bend, and so they did open them and pull out their hearts, as I shall show heereafter. There were in the Cittie of Mexico eight or nine other Temples, the which were joyned one to another within one great circuite and had their private staires, their courts, their chambers, and their dortoires. The entries of some were to the East, some to the West, others to the South, and some to the North. All these Temples were curiously wrought, and compassed in with divers sortes of battlements and pictures, with many figures of stones, being
364 The Naturall and Morallaccompanied and fortefied with great and large spurres or platformes. They were dedicated to divers gods: but next to the Temple of Vitziliputzli was that of Tescalipuca, which was the god of penaunce and of punishments, very high and well built.
There were foure steps to ascend, on the toppe was a flut or table of sixe score foote broad, and joyning unto it was a hall hanged with tapistry and curtins of diverse colours and works. The doore thereof being low and large was alwayes covered with a vaile, and none but the priests might enter in. All this Temple was beutified with diverse images and pictures most curiously; for that these two Temples were as the cathedrall churches; and the rest in respect of them as parishes and hermitages: they were so spatious and had so many chambers, that there were in them places for the ministerie, colleges, schooles, and houses for priests, whereof wee will intreate heereafter. This may suffice to conceive the devills pride, and the misery of this wretched nation, who with so great expence of their goods, their labour, and their lives, did thus serve their capitall enimy, who pretended nothing more than the destruction of their soules and consumption of their bodies. But yet they were well pleased, having an opinion in their so great an error that they were great and mighty gods to whome they did these services.
Of the Priestes and their offices.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 365unto the people what their gods command them. Ther was in Mexico a strange curiositie upon this point. And the devill counterfeiting the use of the Church of God, hath placed in the order of his Priests, some greater or superiors, and some lesse, the one as Acolites, the other as Levites, and that which hath made me most to woonder, was, that the devil would usurpe to himselfe the service of God; yea and use the same name: for the Mexicaines in their antient tongue called their hie Priests Papas, as they should say soveraigne Bishops, as it appeares now by their Histories. The Priests of Vitzliputzli succeeded by linages of certaine quarters of the Citty, deputed for that purpose, and those of other idolls came by election, or being offered to the temple in their infancy. The dayly exercise of the Priestes was to cast incense on the idolles, which was doone foure times in the space of a naturall day. The first at breake of day, the second at noone, the third at Sunne setting, and the fourth at midnight. At midnight all the chiefe officers of the Temple did rise, and in steade of bells, they sounded a long time upon trumpets, cornets and flutes very heavily; which being ended, he that did the office that weeke stept foorth attyred in a white roabe after the Dalmatike manner, with a censor in his hand full of coales, which he tooke from the harth burning continually before the Altare; in the other hand he had a purse full of incense, which he cast into the censor, and as he entred the place where the idoll was, he incensed it with great reverence, then tooke he a cloth, with the which he wiped the Altar and the curtins. This doone, they went all into a Chappell, and there did a certaine kinde of rigorous and austere penaunce, beating themselves, and drawing of blood, as I shall shew in the treatise
366 The Naturall and Morallof Penance which the Divell hath taught to his creatures; and heereof they never fayled at these Mattins at Midnight. None other but the Priestes might entermeddle with their sacrifices, and every one did imploy himselfe according to his dignity and degree. They did likewise preach to the people at some feastes, as I will shew when we treate thereof. They had revenues, and great offerings were made unto them. I will speake heereafter of their unction in Consecrating their Priestes. In Peru the Priestes were entertained of the revenues and inheritance of their God, which they called Chacaras, which were many and also verie rich.
Of the monastery of Virgins which the divell hath
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 367the Ingua. They called this house or monastery Aclaguagi, which is to say, the house of the chosen. Every monastery had his Vicar or Governour called Appopanaca, who had liberty and power to choose whome he pleased, of what qualitie soever, being under eyght yeares of age, if they seemed to be of a good stature and constitution.
These Virgines thus shut up into these monasteries were instructed by the Mamacomas, in diverse thinges needefull for the life of man, and in the customes and ceremonies of their gods; and afterwards they tooke them from thence, being above foureteene, sending them to the Court with suregards, whereof some were appoynted to serve the Guacas and Sanctuaries, keeping their virginities for ever: some others were for the ordinary sacrifices that were made of maidens, and other extraordinary sacrifices, they made for the health, death, or warres of the Ingua; and the rest served for wives and concubines to the Ingua, and unto other [of] his kinsfolkes and captaines, unto whome hee gave them, which was a great and honourable recompence: This distribution was used every yeare. These monasteries possessed rents and revenues for the maintenaunce of these Virgins, which were in great numbers. It was not lawfull for any father to refuse his daughters when the Appopanaca required them for the service of these monasteries. Yea, many fathers did willingly offer their daughters, supposing it was a great merit to be sacrificed for the Ingua. If any of these Momacomas or Acllas were found to have trespassed against their honour, it was an inevitable chasticement to bury them alive, or to put them to death by some other kind of cruell torment.
368 The Naturall and MorallThe devill hath even in Mexico had some kind of religious women, although their profession was but for one yeare, and it was in this sorte: Within this great circuit whereof we have spoken, which was in the principall temple, there were two houses like cloysters, the one opposite to the other, one of men, the other of women: In that of women, they were virgines onely, of twelve or thirteene yeares of age, which they called the Maydes of Penaunce. They were as many as the men, and lived chastly and regularly, as virgins dedicated to the service of their god. Their charge was, to sweepe and make cleane the temple, and every morning to prepare meate for the idoll and his ministers, of the almes the religious gathered. The foode they prepared for the idoll were small loaves in the forme of handes and feete, and others twisted as marchpane: and with this bread they prepared certaine sawses which they cast dayly before the idoll, and his priests did eate it, as those of Baal, that Daniel speaketh of. These virgins had their haire cutte, and then they let them growe for a certaine time: they rose at midnight to the idolls mattins, which they dayly celebrated, performing the same exercises the religious did. They had their Abbesses who imployed them to make cloth of diverse fashions for the ornament of their idolls and temples. Their ordinary habite was all white, without any worke or colour. They did their penance at midnight, sacrificing and wounding themselves, and piercing the toppe of their eares, they layde the blood which issued foorth upon their cheekes: and after, (to wash off the blood) they bathed themselves in a pool which was within their monastery. They lived very honestly and discreetly; and if any were found to have offended, although but lightly, presently they were
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 369put to death without remission, saying, shee had polluted the house of their god. They helde it for an augure and advertisement, that some one of the religious, man or woman, had committed a fault when they saw a Ratte or a Mowse passe, or a Bat in the chappell of their idoll, or that they had gnawed any of the vailes, for that they say a Catte or a Bat would not adventure to committe such an indignity, if some offence had not gone before, and then they beganne to make search of the fact, and having discovered the offender or offenders, of what quality soever, they presently put them to death.
None were receyved into this monastery, but the daughters of one of the sixe quarters, named for that purpose: and this profession continued, as I have sayd, the space of one whole yeare: during the which time, their fathers, and they themselves, had made a vowe to serve the idoll in this manner, and from thence they went to be married. These virgins of Mexico, and more especially they of Peru, had some resemblance to the Vestall Virgins of Rome, as the Histories shew, to the end wee may understand how the devill hath desired to be served by them that observe Virginitie, not that chastitie is pleasing unto him, for he is an uncleane spirite, but for the desire he hath to take from the great God, as much as in him lieth, this glory to be served with cleannesse and integrity.
Of the Monasteries of religious men that the devill hath
370 The Naturall and Morallof religious men that are in those Provinces, whome they call Boncos, and also their superstitions, cusomes, and lies. Some fathers that have been in those countries report of these Boncos and religious men of China, saying, that there are many Orders, and of diverse sortes, some came unto them clad in white, bearing hoodes, and others all in blacke, without haire or hoode, and these are commonly little esteemed, for the Mandarins or ministers of Justice whippe them, as they do the rest of the people. They make profession not to eate any flesh, fish, nor any thing that hath life, but onely Rice and hearbes; but in secret they do eate any thing, and are worse than the common people. They say the religious men which are at the Court, which is at Paquin, are very much esteemed. The Mandarins go commonly to recreate themselves at the Narells or monasteries of these Monkes, and returne in a manner alwayes drunke. These monasteries commonly are without the townes, and have temples within their close: yet, in China they are not greatly curious of idolles, or of temples, for the Mandarins little esteeme idolls, and do hold it for a vaine thing, and worthy to be laughed at: yea, they beleeve there is no other life, nor Paradice, but to be in the office of the Mandarins, nor any other hel, than the prisons they have for offendours. As for the common sorte, they say, it is necessary to entertaino them with idolatry, as the Philosopher himself teacheth his Governors: and in the Scripture it was an excuse which Aaron gave for the idol of the Calfe, that he caused to be made; yet the Chinois used to carry in the poupe of their shippes, in little chapels, a virgin imbosst set in a chaire with two Chinois before her kneeling in manor of Angels, having a light burning there both
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 371day and night. And when they are to sette saile they do many sacrifices and ceremonies, with a great noyse of drummes and bells, casting papers burnt at the poupe.
Comming to our religious men, I doe not knowe that in Peru there is any proper houses for men, but for the Priests and Sorcerers, whereof there is an infinite number. But it seemeth, that in Mexico the devil hath set a due observation: for within the circuit of the great temple there were two monasteries, as before hath bin sayd, one of Virgins, whereof I have spoken, the other of yoong men secluded, of eighteene or twenty yeares of age, which they called religious. They weare shaved crownes, as the Friars in these partes, their haire a little longer which fell to the middest of their eare, except the hinder part of the head, which they let growe the breadth of foure fingers downe to their shoulders, and which they tied uppe in tresses. These young men that served in the temple of Vitzliputzli lived poorely and chastely, and did the office of Levites, ministring to the priests and chiefe of the temple their incense, lights, and garments; they swept and made cleane the holy places, bringing wood for a continual fire to the harth of their god, which was like a lampe that stille burnt before the Altar of their idoll. Besides these yong men there were other little boyes, as novices, that served for manuall uses, as to deck the temple with boughs, roses, and reeds, give the Priests water to wash with, give them their rasors to sacrifice, and goe with such as begged almes to carry it. All these had their superiors, who had the governement over them; they lived so honestly, as when they came in publike where there were any women, they carried their heads very lowe, with their eyes to the
 The Naturall and Morallground, not daring to beholde them: they had linnen garments, and it was lawfull for them to goe into the Citty foure or sixe together, to aske almes in all quarters: and when they gave them none, it was lawful to go into the corne fields and gather the eares of corne or clusters of mays, which they most needed, the Maister not daring to speake nor hinder them. They had this liberty because they lived poorely, and had no other revenues but almes. There might not be above fifty live in penance, rising at midnight to sound the cornets and trumpets to awake the people. Every one watched the idoll in his turne, lest the fire before the Altar should die; they gave the censor, with the which the Priest at midnight incensed the idoll, and also in the morning, at noone, and at night. They were very subject and obedient to their superiors, and passed not any one poynt that was commaunded them. And at midnight, after the priest had ended his censing, they retired themselves into a secret place apart, sacrificing & drawing blood from the calfes of their legges with sharpe bodkins; with this blood they rubbed their temples and under their eares: and, this sacrifice finished, they presently washt themselves in a little poole appoynted to that end. These yong men did not annoint their heads and bodies with any Petum as the Priestes did: their garments were of a coarse white linnen cloth they do make there. These exercises and strictnesso of penance continued a whole yeare, during which time they lived with great austeritie and solitarinesse. In truth it is very strange to see that this false opinion of religion hath so great force among these yoong men and maidens of Mexico that they will serve the Divell with so great rigor and austerity, which many of us doe not in the service
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. of the most high God, the which is a great shame and confusion; for those amongst us that glory to have doone a small penaunce, although this exercise of the Mexicaines, was not continuall, but for a yeare onely, which made it the more tollerable.
Of Penance and the Strictnes the Indians have used
374 The Naturall and Morallknow the penance they did for the people: they do wash off the blood in a lake appoynted for that purpose, which they call Ezapangue, which is to say water of blood.
There were in the Temple a great number of bodkins or lancets, for that they might not vse one twice. Moreover, these Priests and Religious men, used great fastings, of five or ten daies together, before any of their great feastes, and they were unto them as our foure ember weekes: they were so strict in continence that some of them (not to fall into any sensualitie) slit their members in the midst, and did a thousand thinges to make themselves unable, lest they should offend their gods. They drunke no wine and slept little, for that the greatest part of their exercises were by night, committing great cruelties and martiring themselves for the Divell, and all to be reputed great fasters and penitents.
They did use to discipline themselves with cordes full of knottes, and not they onely, but the people also used this punishment and whipping in the procession and feast they made to the idoll Tezcatlipuca, the which (as I have said before,) is the god of penance; for then they all carried in their hands new cordes of the threed of Maguey a fadome long, with a knot at the end, and therewith they whipped themselves, giving great lashes over their shoulders. The Priests did fast five daies together before this feast, eating but once a day, and they lived apart from their wives, not going out of the Temple during those five daies; they did whip themselves rigorously in the manner aforesaid. The Jesuites which have written from the Indies treate amply of the penances and exceeding rigor the Boncos use, all which
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 375was but counterfait, and more in shew, then in trueth. In Peru, to solemnize the feast of Yta, which was great, all the people fasted two daies; during the which they did not accompany with their wives, neyther did they eate any meate with salt or garlike, nor drinke Chica. They did much use this kinde of fasting for some sinnes, and did penance, whipping themselves with sharp stinging nettles, and often they strooke themselves over the shoulders with certain stones. This blinde nation, by the perswasion of the Divell, did transport themselves into craggy mountaines, where some times they sacrificed themselves, casting themselves downe from some high rocke. All which are but snares and deceites of him that desires nothing more then the losse and ruiuo of man.
Of the Sacrifices the Indians made to the Divell,
 The Naturall and Morallwas given by Moses, wherein there are so many sortes and differences of sacrifices of divers things for divers affaires and with divers ceremonies. In like sort, among some nations, hee hath beene content to teach them to sacrifice of what they had: but, among others, hee hath passed farre, giving them a multitude of customes and ceremonies upon sacrifices, and so many observances as they are wonderfull. And thereby it appeares plainely that he meanes to contend and equall himselfe to the ancient law, and in many things usurpe the same ceremonies. Wee may draw all the sacrifices the Infidells use into three kindes one of insensible things, another of beasts, and the third of men. They did use in Peru to sacrifice Coca, which is an hearb they esteeme much, of Mays which is their wheate, of coloured feathers, and of Chaquira, which otherwise they call Mollo, of shelles or oysters, and sometimes gold and silver being in figures of little beasts. Also of the fine stuffe of Cumbi, of carved and sweete wood, and most commonly tallow burnt. They made these offerings or sacrifices for a prosperous winde, and faire weather, or for their health, and to be delivered from some dangers and mishappes. Of the second kinde their ordinary sacrifice was of Cuyes, which are small beasts like rabbets, the which the Indians eate commonly. And in matters of importance, or when they were rich men, they did offer Pacos, or Indian sheepe bare, or with wooll, observing curiously the numbers, colours, and times. The manner of killing their sacrifices, great or small, which the Indians did use according to their ancient ceremonies, is the same the Moores use at this day, the which they call Alquible, hanging the beast by the right fore legge, turning his eyes towards the Sun, speaking
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. certain wordes according to the qualitie of the sacrifice they slew: for, if it were of colour, their words were directed to Chuquilla, and to the Thunder, that they might want no water; if it were white and smooths they did offer it to the Sunne with certain words: if it had a fleece they did likewise offer it him with some others, that he might shine upon them and favour their generation; if it were a Guanaco, which is gray, they directed their sacrifice to Viracocha. In Cusco they did every yeare kill and sacrifice with this ceremony a shorne sheepe to the Sunne, and did burne it, clad in a red waste-coate, and when they did burne it, they cast certaine small baskets of Coca into the fire, which they call Vilcaronca, for which sacrifice they have both men and beasts appointed which serve to no other use. They did likewise sacrifice small birdes, although it were not so usuall in Peru as in Mexico, where the sacrificing of quailes was very ordinarie. Those of Peru did sacrifice the birdes of the Puna, (for so they call the desart) when they should go to the warres, for to weaken the forces of their adversaries Guacas. They called these sacrifices Cuzcovicca, or Contevicca, or Huallavicca, or Sophavicca, and they did it in this manner: they tooke many kindes of small birdes of the desart, and gathered a great deale of a thornie wood, which they called Yanlli, the which being kindled they gathered together these small birdes. This assembly they called Quico. Then did they cast them into the fire, about the which the officers of the sacrifice went with certaine round stones carved, whereon were painted many snakes, lions, toades, and tigres, uttering this word Vsachum, which signifies, let the victorie be given unto us, with other wordes, whereby they sayed the forces of
 The Naturall and Moralltheir enemies Guacas were confounded. And they drew forth certaine black sheepe, which had beene kept close some daies without meate, the which they called Vrca, and in killing them they spake these words; As the hearts of these beasts be weakened, so let our enemies be weakned. And if they found in these sheep that a certaine peece of flesh behind the heart were not consumed by fasting and close keeping, they then held it for an ill augure. They brought certaine black dogs, which they call Appuros, and slew them, casting them into a plaine with certaine ceremonies, causing some kinde of men to eate this flesh, the which sacrifices they did lest the Ingua should be hurt by poison: and for this cause they fasted from morning untill the stars were up, and then they did glut and defile themselves like to the Moores. This sacrifice was most fit for them to withstand their enemies gods: and, although at this day a great part of these customes have ceased, the wars being ended, yet remaines there some relikes by reason of the private or generall quarrels of the Indians, or the Caciques, or in their Citties. They did likewise offer and sacrifice shelles of the sea which they call Mollo, and they offered them to the fountaines and springs, saying that these shells were daughters of the sea, the mother of all waters. They gave unto these shells sundrie names according to the color, and also they use them to divers ends. They used them in a maner in all kinde of sacrifices, and yet to this day they put beaten shells in their Chica for a superstition. Finally they thought it convenient to offer sacrifices of everything they did sow or raise up. There were Indians appointed to doe these sacrifices to the fountaines, springs, and rivers, which passed through the townes, or by their Chacras, which
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 379are their farmes, which they did after seede time, that they might not cease running, but alwaies water their groundes. The sorcerers did conjure to know what time the sacrifices should be made, which, being ended, they did gather of the contribution of the people what should be sacrificed and delivered them to such as had the charge of these sacrifices. They made them in the beginning of winter, at such time as the fountaines, springs, and rivers did increase by the moistures of the weather, which they did attribute to their sacrifices. They did not sacrifice to the fountaines and springs of the desarts. To this day continues the respect they had to fountaines, springs, pooles, brookes, or rivers which passe by their Citties or Chacras, even unto the fountaines and rivers of the desarts. They have a speciall regard and reverence to the meeting of two rivers, and there they wash themselves for their health, anointing themselves first with the flower of Mays, or some other things, adding thereunto divers ceremonies, the which they do likewise in their bathes.
Of the Sacrifices they made of men.
380 The Naturall and Moralltenne; and the greatest parte of these sacrifices were for the affaires that did import the Ingua, as in sickness for his health, and when he went to the warres for victory, or when they gave the wreathe to their new Ingua, which is the marke of a King, as heere the Scepter and the Crowne be. In this solemnitie they sacrificed the number of two hundred children, from foure to ten yeares of age, which was a cruell and inhumane spectacle. The manner of the sacrifice was to drowne them and bury them with certaine representations and ceremonies; sometimes they cutte off their heads, annointing themselves with the blood from one eare to another.
They did likewise sacrifice Yirgines, some of them that were brought to the Ingua from the monasteries, as hath beene saide. In this case there was a very great and generall abuse. If any Indian qualified or of the common sorte were sicke, and that the Divine told him confidently that he should die, they did then sacrifice his owne sonne to the Sunne or to Yirachoca, desiring them to be satisfied with him, and that they would not deprive the father of life. This cruelty is like to that the holy Scripture speakes of, which King Moab vsed in sacrificing his first borne sonne upon the wall in the sight of all Israel, to whome this act seemed so mournfull as they would not presse him any further, but returned to their houses. The Holy Scripture also shewes that the like kinde of sacrifice had been in use amongst the barbarous nations of the Cananeans, and lebuseans, and others, whereof the booke of Wisedome speakes: " They call it peace to live in so great miseries and vexations as to sacrifice their own children, or to doe other hidden sacrifices, as to watch whole nights doing the actes of fooles, and so
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 381they keepe no cleanenesse in their life, nor in their marriages, but one through envy takes away the life of another, another takes away his wife and his contentment, and all is in confusion, blood, murther, theft, deceipt, corruption, infidelitie, seditious, penuries, mutinies, forgetfulnesse of God, pollution of soules, change of sexes and birth, inconstancie of marriages, and the disorder of adultery and filthiness; for idolatry is the sincke of all miseries." The Wise man speaketh this of those people of whome David complaines, that the people of Israel had learned those customes, even to sacrifice their sonnes and daughters to the divell, the which was never pleasing nor agreeable unto God. For as hee is the Authour of life, and hath made all these things for the commoditie and good of man, so is hee not pleased that men should take the lives one from another; although the Lord did approve and accept the willingnesse of the faithfull patriarke Abraham, yet did hee not consent to the deede, which was to cut off the head of his sonne; wherein wee see the malice and tyranny of the divell, who would be herein as God, taking pleasure to be worshipt with the effusion of mans blood, procuring by this meaues the ruine of soule and body together for the deadly hatred he beareth to man as his cruell enemy.
Of the horrible sacrifices of men which the Mexicaines used.
382 The Naturall and Morallthe great number of men which they had sacrificed, and in the horrible maner thereof. And to the end we may see the great miserie wherein the Divell holdes this blind Nation, I wil relate particularly the custome and inhumane maner which they have observed. First, the men they did sacrifice were taken in the warres, neyther did they vse these solemne sacrifices but of Captives: so as it seemes therein they have followed the custome of the Ancients. For as some Authors say they called the sacrifice Victima, for this reason, because it was of a conquered thing: they also called it Hostia quasi ab hoste, for that it was an offering made of their enemies, although they have applied this word to all kindes of sacrifices. In truth the Mexicaines did not sacrifice any to their idolls, but Captives, and the ordinarie warres they made was onely to have Captives for their sacrifices: and therefore when they did fight they laboured to take their enemies alive, and not to kill them, to inioy their sacrifices. And this was the reason which Motequma gave to the Marquis del Valle, when he asked of him why being so mighty, and having con quered so many kingdomes, hee had not subdued the Province of Tlascalla, which was so neere: MoteQuma answered him that for two reasons hee had not conquered that Province, although it had beene easie if he would have under- taken it: the one was for the exercise of the youth of Mexico, lest they should fall into idlenes and delight: the other and the chiefe cause why he had reserved this Province was to have Captives for the sacrifices of their gods. The maner they vsed in these sacrifices was, they assembled within the palisado of dead mcns sculles (as hath beene said), such as should be sacrificed, using a certaine ceremony
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 383at the foot of the palisado, placing a great guard about them. Presently there stept foorth a Priest, attyred with a shorto surplise full of tasselles beneath, who came from the top of the temple with an idoll made of paste, of wheato and mays mingled with hony, which had the eyes made of the graines of greene glasse, and the teeth of the graines of mays: heo descended the steppes of the temple with all the speedo he could, and mounted on a great stone planted upon a high terrasso in the midst of the court. This stone was called Quauxicalli, which is to say the stone of Eagle, whereon he mounted by a little ladder, which was in the fore part of the terrase, and descended by an other staire on the other side, still embracing his idoll. Then did he mount to the place where those were that should be sacrificed, shewing this idoll to every one in particular, saying unto them this is your god. And having ended his shew, he descended by the other side of the staires, and all such as should die went in procession unto the place where they should be sacrificed, w r here they found the Ministers ready for that office. The ordinary manner of sacrificing was to open the stomake of him that was sacrificed, and having pulled out his heart halfe alive, they tumbled the man downe the staires of the Temple, which were all i in- brewed and defiled with blood. And to make it the more plajue, sixe sacrificers beeing appoynted to this dignitie, came into the place of sacrifice, foure to hokle the hands and feete of him that should be sacrificed, the fift to holde his head, and the sixt to open his stomackc, and to pull out the heart of the sacrificed. They culled them Chuchalmiu, which in our tong is as much as the ministers of holy things. It was a high dignitie, and much esteemed amongest them,
384 The Naturall and Morallwherein they did inherite and succede as in a fee simple. The minister who had the office to kill, which was the sixt amongest them, was esteemed and honoured as the soveraigne Priest and Bishop, whose name was different, according to the difference of times and solemnities. Their habites were likewise divers when they came foorth to the sacrifice, according to the diversitie of times. The name of their chiefe dignitie was Papa and Topilzin; their habite and robe was a red curtain, after the Dalmatica fashion, with tasselles belowe, a crowne of rich feathers, greene, white, and yellow upon his head, and at his eares like pendants of golde, wherein were set greene stones, and under the lip, upon the middest of the beard, hee had a peece like unto a small canon of an azured stone. These sacrificers came with their faces and handes coloured with a shining blacke. The other five had their haire much curled, and tied up with laces of leather bound about the middest of the head: upon their forehead they carried small roundelets of paper, painted with diverse colours, and they were attired in a Dalmatica robe of white, wroght with blacke. With this attire they represented the very figure of the Divell, so as it did strike feare and terror into all the people to see them come forth with so horrible a representation. The soveraigne priest carried a great knife in his hand of a large and sharpe flint: another priest carried a coller of wood, wrought in forme of a snake: all sixe put themselves in order, ioyning to this Piramidall stone whereof I have spoken, being directly against the doore of the Chappell of their idoll. This stone was so pointed as the man which was to be sacrificed being laid thereon upon his backe did bend in such sort as letting the knife but fall upon his stomacke
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 385it opened very easily in the middest. When the sacrificers were thus in order they drew forth such as had beene taken in warre, which were to be sacrificed at that feast, and being accompanied with a guard of men all naked they caused them to mount up these large staires in ranke to the place where the Ministers were prepared: and as every one of them came in their order, the six sacrificers tooke the prisoner, one by one foote another by the other, and one by one hand another by the other, casting him on his backe upon this pointed stone, where the fift of these Ministers put the coller of wood about his necke, and the high priest opened his stomacke with the knife, with a strange dexteritie and uimblenes, pulling out his heart with his hands, the which he shewed smoaking unto the Sunne, to whom he did offer this heate and fume of the heart, and presently he turned towardes the idoll, and did cast the heart at his face, then did they cast away the body of the sacrificed, tumbling it downe the staires of the Temple, the stone being set so neere the staires as there were not two foote space betwixt the stone and the first steppe, so as with one spurne with their foote they cast the body from the toppe to the bottome. In this sort one after one they did sacrifice all those that were appointed. Being thus slain, and their bodies cast downe, their masters, or such as had taken them, went to take them up and carried them away: then having divided them amongest them they did eate them, celebrating their feast and solemnitie. There were ever forty or fifty at the least thus sacrificed, for that they had men very expert in taking them. The neighbour Nations did the like, imitating the Mexicaines in the customes and ceremonies of the service of their gods.
386 The Naturall and Morall
Of another kind of sacrifices of men which the Mexicaines used.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 387every yeare gave one slave to the Priests, that they might never want the lively image of their idoll. At his fyrst entry into the office, after hee had beene well washed, they attyred him with all the ornaments of the idoll, giving him the same name. Hee was that whole yeare reverenced and honoured as the idoll itselfe, and had alwayes with him twelve men for his guarde, lest hee should flie, with which guarde they suffered him to goe freely, and where hee would: and if by chaunce ho fled, the chiefe of the guarde was put in his place to represent the idoll, and after to be sacrificed.
This Indian had the most honourable lodging in all the temple, where he did eate and driucke, and whither all the chiefo Ministers came to serve and honour him, carrying him meate after the manner of great personages. When hee went through the streetes of the citie hee was well accompanyed with noble men: he carried a little flute in his hand, which sometimes he sounded, to give them knowledge when he passed. Then presently the women came forth with their little children in their arms, which they presented unto him, saluting him as god. All the rest of the people did the like: at night they put him in a strong prison or cage, lest he should flic: and when the feast came they sacrificed him, as hath beene sayde. By these and manie other meanes hath the Divell abused and entertained these poore wretches, and such was the multitude of those that had beene sacrificed by this inferuall cruelty as it seems a matter incredible, for they affirme there were some dayes five thousand or more, and that there were above twenty thousand sacrifyced in diverse places. The divell to intertaine this murther of men, used a
388 The Naturall and Morallpleasant and strange invention, which was, when it pleased the priests of Sathan they went to their Kings, telling them how their gods died for hunger, and that they should remember them. Presently they prepared themselves, and advertised one another that their gods required meate, and therefore they should command their people to be ready to goe to the warres: and thus the people assembled, and the companies appoyuted went to field, where they mustred their forces: and all their quarrell and fight was to take one another for sacrifice, striving on eithej side to take what captives they could, so as in these battells they laboured Inore to take then to kill, for that all their intention was to take men alive, to give them to their idolls to eate, for after that maner brought they their sacrifice unto their gods. And wee must understand that never king was crowned untill he had subdewed some province, from the which hee brought a great number of captives for the sacrifices of their gods, so as it was an infinit thing to see what blood was spilt in the honour of the Divell.
How the Indians grew weary and could not endure the cruelty of Sathan.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 389But inwardly they desired to be freed from so heavy a yoke. And it was a great providence of God that the first which gave them knowledge of the Lawe of Christ found them in this disposition; for, without doubt, it seemed to them a good law and a good God to be served in this sorte. Heereupon a grave religious man in New Spain told me that when he was in that country hee had demaunded of an auntient Indian, a man of qualitie, for what reason the Indians hadde so soone received the Lawe of Jesus Christ and left their owne, without making any other proofe, triall, or dispute thereon, for it seemed they had changed their religion without any sufficient reason to moove them. The Indian answered him: " Beleeve not, Father, that we have embraced the Law of Christ so rashly as they say, for I will tell you that we were already weary and discontented with such things as the idolls commaunded us, and were determined to leave it and to take another Law. But whenas we found that the religion that you preached had no cruelties in it, and that it was fit for us and both just and good, we understood and beleeved that it was the true Law, and so we received it willingly/ Which answer of this Indian agrees well with that we read in the first Discourse, that Fernand Cortes sent to the Emperor Charles the Fift, wherein hee reportes that after he had conquered the city of Mexico, being in Cuyoacan, there came Ambassadors to him from the province and commonwealth of Mechoacan, requiring him to send them his law and that he would teach them to understand it, because they intended to leave their owne, which seemed not good unto them, which Cortes graunted, and at this day they are the best Indians and the truest Christians that are in New Spaine.
390 The Naturall and MorallThe Spaniards that saw these cruell sacrifices resolved with all their power to abolish so detestable and cursed a butchering of men, and the rather for that in one night before their eies they sawe threescore or threescore and tenne Spaniards sacrificed, which had beene taken in a battell given at the conquest of Mexico; and another time they found written with a cole in a chamber in Tescuco these wordes: "Hero such a miserable man was prisoner with his companions whom they of Tescuco did sacrifice."
There happened a very strange thing upon this subiect, and yet true, being reported by men worthie of credite; which was that the Spaniards beholding these sacrifices, having opened and draw no out the heart of the lustie yong man, and cast him from the toppe of the staires (as their custome was) when hee came at the bottome, he said to the Spaniards in his language, "Knightes, they have slaine me," the which did greatly moove our men to horror and pittie. It is no incredible thing that having his heart pulled out hee might speake, seeing that Galen reports that it hath often chanced in the sacrifice of beasts, after the heart hath been drawne out and cast upon the altar the beasts have breathed; yea, they did bray and cry out alowde, and some times did runne. Leaving this question how this might bee in nature, I will follow my purpose, which is to shew how much these barbarous people did now abhorre this insuportable slaverie they had to that infernall murthering, and how great the mercy of the Lord hath beene unto them, imparting his most sweete and agreeable law.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 391
How the Divell hath laboured to imitate and counterfaite the Sacraments of the holy Church.
392 The Naturall and Morallbut alwaies to beare him good affection, for that this poece should be a witnesse of their intentions and will, and if they did not as they ought he would discover them and be against them. They carried these small loaves in great platters of gold and silver appointed for that vse, and all did receive and eate these peeces, thanking the Sunne infinitely for so great a favour which hee had done them, speaking wordes and making signes of great contentment and devotion; protest ing that during their lives they would neither do nor thinke any thing against the Sunne nor the Ingua: and with this condition they received this foode of the Sunne, the which should remaine in their bodies for a witnesse of their fidelitie which they observed to the Sunne and to the Ingua their King. This maner of divelish communicating they likewise used in the tenth moneth called Coyarayme, which was September, in the solemue feast which they called Cytua, doing the like ceremonies. And besides this communion (if it be lawful to use this word in so divelish a matter) which they imparted to all strangers that came, they did likewise send of these loaves to all their Guacas, sanctuaries, or idolls, of the whole Realme; and at one instant they found people of all sides which came expresly to receive them, to whom they said (in delivering them) that the Sunne had sent them that in signe that hee would have them all to worship and honour him, and likewise did sende them in honour of the Caciques. Some, perhappes, will hold this for a fable and a fiction: yet is it most true that, since the Ingua Yupangi (the which is hee that hath made most lawes, customes, and ceremonies, as Numa did in Rome), this maner of communion hath continued untill that the Gospel of our Lord
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 393Jesus Christ thrust out all these superstitions, giving them the right foode of life, which unites their soules to God. Whoso would satisfie himselfe more amply let him reade the relation which the Licentiate Polo did write to Don Jeronimo de Loaysa, Arch bishop of the Cittie of Kings, where he shall finde this and many other things which he hath discovered and found out by his great dilligence.
In what maner the Divell hath laboured in Mexico to counterfaite
the feast of the holy Sacrament and Communion used in the holy Church.
394 The Naturall and Morallit. Being thus clad and deckt, they did set it in an azured chaire and in a litter to carry it on their shoulders. The morning of this feast being come, an hourc before day all the maidens came forth attired in white with new ornaments, the which that day were called the Sisters of their god Vitzlipuztli, they came crowned with garlands of Mays rested and parched, being like unto azahar or the flower of orange; and about their neckes they had great chaines of the same, which went bauldricke-wise under their left arme. Their cheekes were died with vermillion, their armes from the elbow to the wrist were covered with red parrots feathers. And thus attyred they tooke the idoll on their shoulders carrying it into the Court, where all the yoong men were attyred in garmentes of an artificiall red, crowned after the same manor like unto the women. When as the maidens camo forth with the idoll the yong men drew neor with much reverence, taking the litter wherein the idoll was upon their shoulders, carrying it to the foote of the staires of the Temple, where all the people did humble themselves, laying earth upon their heads, which was an ordinarie ceremonie which they did observe at the chiefe feast of their gods. This ceremony being ended, all the people went in procession with all the diligence and speede they could, going to a mountain, which was a league from the city of Mexico, called Chapultepec, and there they made sacrifices. Presently they went from thence with like diligence to go to a place neere unto it which they called Atlacuyauaya, where they made their second station; and from thence they went to another burgh or village a league beyond Cuyoacan, from whence they parted, returning to the citie of Mexico, not making any other station.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 395They went in this sort above foure leagues in three or fouro houres, calling this procession Ypayna Vitzlipuztli. Being come to the foote of the staires they set downe the brancard or litter with the idoll, tying great cordes to the armes of the brancarde; then, with great observance and reverence, they did drawe up the litter with the idoll in it to the top of the Temple, some drawing above and others helping belowe; in the meane time there was a great noise of fluites, trumpets, cornets, and drummes. They did mount it in this manner, for that the staires of the Temple were very steepe and narrow, so as they could not carry up the litter upon their shoulders, while they mounted up the idoll all the people stoode in the Court with much reverence and feare. Being mounted to the top, and that they had placed it in a little lodge of roses which they held readie, presently came the yong men, which strawed many flowers of sundrie kindes, wherewith they filled the temple both within and without. This done all the Virgins came out of their convent, bringing peeces of paste compounded of beetes and rested Mays, which was of the same paste whereof their idoll was made and compounded, and they were of the fashion of great bones. They delivered them to the yong men, who carried them up and laide them at the idolls feete, wherewith they filled the whole place that it could receive no more. They called these morcells of paste the flesh and bones of Yitzilipuztli. Having layed abroade these bones, presently came all the Ancients of the Temple, Priests, Levites, and all the rest of the Ministers, according to their dignities and antiquities (for heerein there was a strict order amongst them) one after another, with their
396 The Naturall and Morallvailes of diverse colours and workes, every one according to his dignity and office, having garlands upon their heads and chaines of flowers about their neckes; after them came their gods and goddesses whom they worshipt, of diverse figures, attired in the same livery; then putting themselves in order about those morsells and peeces of paste, they used certaine ceremonies with singing and dauncing. By meanes whereof they were blessed and consecrated for the flesh and bones of this idoll. This ceremony and blessing (whereby they were taken for the flesh and bones of the idoll) being ended they honoured those peeces in the same sorte as their god. Then came foorth the sac ri fleers, who beganne the sacrifice of men in the manner as hath beene spoken, and that day they did sacrifice a greater number than at any other time, for that it was the most solemne feast they observed. The sacrifices being ended, all the yoong men and maides came out of the temple attired as before, and being placed in order and ranke, one directly against another, they daunced by drummes, the which sounded in praise of the feast, and of the idoll which they did celebrate. To which song all the most ancient and greatest noble men did answer, dauncing about them, making a great circle, as their vse is, the yoong men and maides remayning alwayes in the middest. All the citty came to this goodly spectacle, and there was a commaundement very strictly observed throughout all the land, that the day of the feast of the idoll Vitzilipuztli they should eate no other meate but this paste, with hony, whereof the idoll was made. And this should be eaten at the point of day, and they should drincke no water nor any other thing till after noone: they
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 397held it for an ill signe, yea, for sacrilege to doe the contrary: but after the ceremonies ended, it was lawfull for them to eate any thing. During the time of this ceremony they hid the water from their litle children, admonishing all such as had the use of reason not to drinke any water: which, if they did, the anger of God would come upon them, and they should die, which they did observe very carefully and strictly. The ceremonies, dancing, and sacrifice ended, they went to unclothe themselves, and the priests and superiors of the temple tooke the idoll of paste, which they spoyled of all the ornaments it had, and made many pec-cos, as well of the idoll itselfe as of the tronchons which were consecrated, and then they gave them to the people in maner of a communion, beginning with the greater, and continuing unto the rest, both men, women, and little children, who received it with such teares, feare, and reverence as it was an ad mirable thing, saying that they did eate the flesh and bones of God, wherewith they were grieved. Such as had any sicke folkes demaunded thereof for them, and carried it with great reverence and veneration.
All such as did communicate were bound to give the tenth of this seede, whereof the idoll was made. The solemnitie of the idoll being ended an olde man of great authoritie stept up into a high place, and with a lowde voice preached their lawe and ceremonies. Who would not wonder to see the divell so curious to seeke to be worshipped and reverenced in the same maner that lesus Christ our God hath appoynted and also taught, arid as the Holy Church hath accustomed. Hereby it is plainely verified what was pro pounded in the beginning, that Sathan strives all he can to usurp and
398 The Naturall and Morallchalenge unto himselfe the honor and service that is due to God alone, although he dooth still intermixe with it his cruelties and filthinesse, being the spirite of murther and uncleanenesse and the father of lies.
Of Confessors and Confession
luhicJi the Indians used.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 399provinces confessed themselves, chiefly those of the province of Collao. The Confessors were bound to hold their confessions secret, but in certain cases limited. The sinnes that they chiefly confessed was first to kill ono another out of warre, then to steale, to take another mans wife, to give poison or sorcery to doe any harme; and they helde it to be a grievous sinne to be forgetfull in the reverence of their Uuacas, or Oratories, not to observe the feasts, or to speake ill of the Ingua and to disobey him. They accused not themselves of any secret actes and sinnes. But, according to the report of some Priests, after the Christians came into that countrey, they accused themselves of their thoughts. The Ingua confessed himselfo to no man, but onely to the Sunnc, that hee might tell them to Virachoca, and that he might forgive them. After the Yuca had been confessed, hee made a certaine bath to cleanse hiinselfc in a running river, saying these words: " I have told my siunes to the Sunne, receive them O thou river, and carry them to the sea, where they may never appeare more." Others that confessed vsed likewise these baths, with certaine cere monies very like to those the Moores vse at this day, which they call Gtiadoy, and the Indians call them Opacuna. When it chaunced that any mans children died he was held for a great sinner, saying that it was for his shines that the sonne died before the father: and, therefore, those to whom this had chanced, after they were confessed, they were bathed in this bath called Opavuua, as is saide before. Then some deformed Indian, crookebackt and counterf et by nature, came to whippe them with certaine nettles. If tire Sorcerers or Inchaunters by their lots and divinations affirmed that any sicke body should die, the sicke man makes no difficulty
400 The Naturall and Morallto kill his owne sonne, though he had no other, hoping by that meanes to escape death, saying that in his place he offered his sonne in sacrifice. And this crueltie hath beene practised in some places, even since the Christians came into that countrey. In trueth it is strange that this custome of confessing their secret sinnes hath continued so long amongest them, and to doe so strict penances, as to fast, to give apparell, gold, and silver, to remaine in the mountaineSj and to receive many stripes upoii the shoulders. Our men say, that in the province of Chucuito, even at this day they meete with this plague of Confessors or Ychuris, whereas many sicke persons repaire unto them: but now, by the grace of God, this people beginnes to see cleerely the effect and great benefite of our confession, whereunto they come with great devotion. And partely this former custome hath been suffered by the providence of the Lord, that confession might not seeme tedious unto them.
By this meanes the Lord is Wholy glorified, and the Divell (who is a deceiver) deceived. And for that it concerneth this matter I will reporte the manner of a strange confession the Divell hath invented at lappon, as appeares by a letter that came from thence, which saith thus: "There are in Ocaca very great and high and stiep rockes, which have prickes or poynts on them, above two hundred fadome high. Amongest these rockes there is one of these pikes or poyntes so terribly high that when the Xamabusis (which be pilgrimes) doe but looke up unto it, they tremble and their haire stares, so fearefull and horrible is the place. Upon the toppe of this poynt there is a great rod of yron of three fadome long, placed there by a strange devise: at the end of this rodde
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 401is a ballunce tied, whereof the scales are so bigge as a man may sit in one of them. And the Goquis (which be divells in human shape) commaund these pilgrims to enter therein one after another, not leaving one of them; then, with an engine or instrument which mooveth by meanes of a wheele, they make this roddo of yron whereon the ballance is hanged to hang in the aire, one of these Xamabuzia being set in one of the scales of the ballaunce. And as that wherein the man is sette hath no counterpoise on the other side, it presently hangeth downe, and the other riseth untill it meetes with and toucheth the rodde; then the Goquis telleth them from the rocke that they must confesse themselves of all the shines they have committed to their remem brance, and that with a luwde voyce to th end that all the reste may heare him. Then presently hee beginneth to confesse, whilest some of the standers by do laugh at the shines they doe heare, and others sigh: and at every shine they confesso the other scale of the ballance falles a little, untill that having toldo all his shines it remaines equall with the other, wherein the sorrowfull penitent sits; then the Goquis turnes the wheele and drawes the rodde and bal lance unto him, and the Pilgrime comes foorth: then enters another, untill all have passed. A lapponois reported this after heo was christned, saying that he had beene in this pilgrimage, and entred the ballance seaven times, where he had confessed himsulfe publikely. lie saidc, moreover, that if anie one did conceale any sinne the empty scale yeelded not: and if hee grew obstinate after instance made to confesse himselfe, refusing to open all his sinnes, the Goquis cast him downe from the toppe, where in an instant he is broken into a thousand peeces. Yet this Christian,
402 The Naturall and Morallwho was called John, tolde us that commonly the feare and terrour of this place is so great to all such as enter therein, and the danger they see with their eies to fall out of the ballance and to be broken in peeces, that seldome there is any one but discovers all his sins. This place is called by another name Sangenotocoro, that is to say, the place of Confession; wee see plainely by this discourse how the Divell hath pretended to usurp unto himselfe the service of God, making confession of sinnes (which the Lord hath appoynted for the remedy of man) a divellish superstition, to their great losse and perdition. He hath doone no lesse to the Heathen of Jappon than to those of the provinces of Collao in Peru.
Of the abominable unction which the Mexicaine priestes and other Nations used, and of their witchcraftes.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 403hung like tresses, or a horse mane, for that they applyed this unction wet and moyst. Their haire grew so as in time it hung downe to their hammes, so heavily that it was trouble some for them to beare it, for they did never cut it untill they died, or that they were dispensed with for their great age, or being employed in governments or some honorable charge in the commonwealth. They carried their haire in tresses, of sixe fingers breadth, which they died blacke with the fume of sapine, or firre trees, or rosine; for in all Antiquitie it hath bin an offring they made unto their idolls, and for this cause it was much esteemed and reverenced. They were alvvayes died with this tincture from the foote to the head, so as they were like unto shining Negroes, and that was their ordinary unction; yet, whenas they went to sacrifice and give incense in the mountaines, or on the tops thereof, or in any darke and obscure caves where their idolles were, they vsed an other kinde of unction very different, doing certaine ceremonies to take away feare, and to give them courage. This unction was made with diverse little venomous beastes, as spiders, scorpions, palmers, salamanders, and vipers, the which the boyes in the Colledges tooke and gathered together, wherein they were so expert, as they were ahvayes furnished when the Priestes called for them. The chiefe care of these boyes was to hunt after these beasts: if they went any other way and by chaunce met with any of these beasts they stayed to take them, with as great paine as if their lives depended thereon. By the rea son whereof the Indians commonly feared not these venomous beasts, making no more accompt than if they were not so, having beene all bred in this exercise. To make an ointment of these beastes they took
404 The Naturall and Morallthem all together, and burnt them upon the harth of the Temple, which was before the Altare, untill they were consumed to ashes; then did they put them in mortcrs with much Tobacco or lictum (being an hearbe that Nation useth much to benumme the flegh that they may not feele their travell), with the which they mingle the ashes, making them loose their force; they did likewise mingle with these ashes scorpions, spiders, and palmers alive, mingling all together; then did they put to it a certaine seede being grownd, which they call Ololuchqui, whereof the Indians make a drinke to see visions, for that the vertue of this hearbe is to deprive man of sence. They did likewise grinde with these ashes blacke and hairie wormes, whose haire only is venomous, all which they mingled together with blacke, or the fume of rosine, putting it in small pots which they set before their god, saying it was his meate: and, therefore, they called it a divine meate. By means of this oyntment they became witches, and did see and speake with the Divell. The priestes being slubbered with this oyntment lost all feare, putting on a spirit of cruelty. By reason whereof they did very boldely kill men in their sacrifices, going all alone in the night to the mountaines and into obscure caves, contemning all wilde beasts, and holding it for certayne and approved that both lions, tigres, serpents, and other furious beasts which breede in the mountaines and forrests fled from them by the vertue of this betum of their god.
And in trueth, though this betum had no power to make them flie, yet was the Divelles picture sufficient whereinto they were transformed. This betum did also serve to cure the sicke and for children, and therefore all
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 405called it the Divine Physicke: and so they came from all partes to the superiors and priests, as to their saviors, that they might apply this divine physicke, wherewith they anoynted those parts that were grieved. They said that they felt heereby a notable ease, which might be, for that Tobacco and Ololuchqui have this propertie of themselves to benumme the flesh, being applied in manner of an emplaister, which must be by a stronger reason being mingled with poysoris: and for that it did appease and benumme the paine, they helde it for an effect of health, and a divine virtue. And there fore ranne they to these priests as to hoi} 7 men, who kept the blind and ignorant in this error, perswading them what they pleased, and making them runne after their inventions and divellish ceremonies, their authority being such as their wordes were sufficient to induce beliefe as an article of their faith. And thus made they a thousand superstitions among the vulgar people, in their maner of offering incense, in cuting their haire, tying small flowers about their necks, and strings with small bones of snakes, commaunding them to bathe at a certain time; and that they should watch all night at the harth lest the fire should die; that they should eate no other breade but that which had bin offered to their gods, that they should upon any occasion repaire unto their witches, who with certaine graines tolde fortunes, and divined, looking into keelcrs and pailes full of water. The sorcerers and ministers of the divell vsed much to besmere themselves. There were an infinite number of these witches, divines, enchanters, and other false prophets. There remaines yet at this day of this infection, althogh they be secret, not daring publikely to exercise their sacrileges, divelish ceremonies, and superstitions, but their abuses
406 The Naturall and Moralland wickednes are discovered more at large and particularly in the confessions made by the Prelates of Peru.
There is a kinde of sorcerers amongst the Indians allowed by the Kings Inguas, which are, as it were, sooth-saiers, they take upon them what forme and figure they please, flying farre through the aire in a short time, beholding all that was done. They talke with the Divell, who answereth them in certaine stones or other things which they reverence much. They serve as coniurers, to tell what hath passed in the farthest partes, before any newes can come. As it hath chanced since the Spaniardes arrived there, that in the distance of two or three hundred leagues, they have knowne the mutinies, battailes, rebellions, and deaths, both of tyrants, and those of the Kings partie, and of private men, the which have beene knowne the same day they chanced, or the day after, a thing impossible by the course of nature. To worke this divination, they shut themselves into a house, and became drunk until they lost their sences, a day after they an swered to that which was demanded. Some affirme they use certaine unctions. The Indians say that the old women do commonly use this office of witchcraft, and specially those of one Province, which they call Coaillo, and of another towne called Manchay, and of the Province of Huarochiri. They likewise shew what is become of things stolne and lost. There are of these kindes of Sorcerers in all partes, to whom commonly doe come the Anaconas, and Chinas, which serve the Spaniardes, and when they have lost any thing of their masters, or when they desire to know the successe of things past or to come, as when they goe to the Spaniardes citties for their private
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 407affaires, or for the publike, they demaund if their voyage shall be prosperous, if they shall be sicke, if they shall die, or return safe, if they shall obtaine that which they pretend: and the witches or conjurers answer, yea, or no, having first spoken with the Divell, in an obscure place: so as these Anaconas do well heare the sound of the voyce, but they see not to whom these conjurers speake, neither do they understand what they say. They make a thousand ceremonies and sacrifices to this effect, with the which they mocke the Divell and grow exceeding drunke, for the doing whereof, they particularly vse an hearbe called Villca, the iuyce whereof they mingle with their Chicha, or take it in some other sort, whereby we may see how miserable they are, that have for their masters, the ministers of him whose office is to deceive. It is mani fest that nothing doth so much let the Indians from receiving the faith of the holy Gospel, and to persever therein, as the conference with these witches, whereof there have bin, and are still, great numbers, although by the grace of the Lord, and diligence of the Prelates and Priestes, they decrease, and are not so hurtefull. Some of them have beene converted and preached publikoly, discovering and blaming themselves, their errors and deceites, and manifesting their devises and lies, whereof wee have scene great effects: as also we understand by letters from Jappou, that the like hath arrived in those parts: all to the glory and honour of our Lord God.
Of other Ceremonies and Customes of the Indians which
are like unto ours.
408 The Naturall and Moralllaw of Moses, and some to those which the Moores use, and some approached neero to the law of the Gospel, as their bathes or Opacuna, as they call them: they did wash themselves in water, to dense them from their sins. The Mexicaines had also amongst them a kind of baptisme, the which they did with ceremony, cutting the cares and members of yong children new borne, counterfaiting in some sort the circumcision of the lewes. This ceremony was done principally to the sonnes of Kings and Noblemen; presently upon their birth the priestes did wash them, and did put a little sword in the right hand, and in the left a target. And to the children of the vulgar sort they put the markes of their offices, and to their daughters instruments to spinne, knit, and labour. This ceremony continued four daies, being made before some idoll. They contracted marriage after their manor, whereof the Licentiate Polo hath written a whole Treatise, and I will speako somewhat thereon heereafter. In other things their customes and ceremonies have some show of reason. The Mexicaines were married by the handes of their priesfces in this sort. The Bridegroome and the Bride stood together before the priest, who tooke them by the hands asking them if they would marrie, then having understood their willes, hee tooke a corner of the vaile wherewith the woman had her head covered, and a corner of the mans gowne, the which he tied together on a knot, and so led them thus tied to the Bridegroomes house, where there was a harth kindled, and then he caused the wife to go seven times about the harth, and so the married couple sate downe together, and thus was the marriage contracted. The Mexicaines were very iealous of the integritie of their wives:
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 409so as if they found they were not as they ought to be (the which they kuew eyther by signes or dishonest wordes), they presently gave notice thereof to their fathers and kinsfolkes of their wives, to their great shame and dishonor, for that they had not kept good guarde over them. But they did much honour and respect such as lived chastely, making them great banquttes, and giving great presentes both to her and to her kinsfolkes. For this occasion they made great offerings to their gods, and a solemne banket in the house of the wife, and another in the husbands. When they went to house they made an inventory of all the man and wife brought together, of provisions for the house, of land, of iewells and ornaments, which inventories every father kept, for if it chanced they made any devorce (as it was common amongest them when they agree not), they divided their goods according to the portion that every one brought, every one having libertie in such a case to marry whome they pleased: and they gave the daughters to the wife, and the sonnes to the husband. t was defended upon paine of death, not to marry againe together, the which they observed very strictly. And although it seeme that many of their ceremonies agree with ours, yet differ they much for the great abomination they mingle therewithall. It is common and generall to have vsually one of these three things, either cruelty, filthines, or slouth: for all their ceremonies were cruell and hurtefull, as to kill men and to spill blood, are filthy and beastly, as to eate and drinke to the name of their Idolls, and also to pisse in the honour of them, carrying them upon their shoulders, to annoint and besmeere themselves filthily, and to do a thousand sortes of villanies,
410 The Naturall and Morallwhich were at the least, vaine, ridiculous, and idle, and more like the actions of children then of men. The cause thereof is the very condition of this wicked spirit, whose intention is alwaies to do ill, provoking men still to murthers and filthines, or at the least to vanities and fruitelesse actions, the which every man may well know, if ho duly consider the behaviour and actions of the Divoll, towardes those lie sets to deceive. For in all his illusions we finde a mixture of these three, or at least of one of them. The Indians themselves (since they came to the knowledge of our faith) laugh and mocke at these fooleries and toyes, in the which their gods held them busied, whom they served more for feare, least they should hurte them, in not obeying them in all things, then for any love they bare them. Although some, yea, very many lived, abused and deceived, with the vaine hope of teuiporall goods, for of the eternall they had no knowledge. And whereas the tempo- rail power was greatest, there superstition hath most increased, as we see in the Realmes of Mexico and Cusco, where it is incredible to see the number of idolls they had; for within the citty of Mexico there were above three hundred. Mango Ingua Yupangui, amongst the Kings of Cusco, was hee that most augmented the service of their idolls, inventing a thousand kindes of sacrifices, feasts, and ceremonies. The like did King Iscoalt in Mexico, who was the fourth king. There was also a great number of superstations and sacrifices in other Nations of the Indians, as in the Province of Guatimala, at the Hands in the new Kingdome, in the Province of Chile, and others that were like Cormnonwealthes and Comminalties. But it was nothing in respect of Mexico and Cusco, where Sathan was as in Rome, or
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 411in his Jerusalem, untill he was cast out against his will, and the holy Crosse planted in his place, and the Kingdome of Christ our God occupied, the which the tyrant did usurpe.
Of some Feasts celebrated by them of Cusco, and how the Dwell
would imitate the mysterie of the holy Trinitie.
412 The Naturall and Morallthe father, the sonne, and the brother. In these feasts they dedicated the Inguas children, putting the Guaras or ensignes upon them, and they pierced their eares; then some olde man did whip them with slings, and annoynted their faces with blood, all in sigue that they should be true Knights to the Yuca. No stranger might remaine in Cusco during this moneth, and this feast, but at the end thereof they entred, and they gave unto them peeces of the paste of mays with the blood of the sacrifice, which they did eate in signe of confederation with the Ingua, as hath bin said before. It is strange that the Divell after his manner hath brought a trinitie into idolatry, for the three images of the Sunue called Apomti, Churunti, and Intiquaoqui, which signifieth lather and lord Suune, the sonne Sunne, and the brother Sunne. In the like manor they named the three Images of Chuquilla, which is the God that rules in the region of the aire, where it thunders, raines, and snows. remember that, being in Chuquisaca, an honour able priest shewed me an information, which I had long in my handes, where it was prooved that there was a certaine liuaca or Oratory, whereas the Indians did worship an idoll called Tangatanga, which they saide was one in three, and three in one. And as this Priest stood amazed thereat, I saide that the Uivell by his mfernall and obstinate pride (whereby ho alwayes pretendes to make himselfe God) did steale all that he could from the trueth, to imploy it in his lyings and deceits. Comming then to the feast of the second moneth, which they called Camay, besides the sacrifices which they made, they did cast the ashes into the river, following five or six leagues after, praying it to carry them t o f.j ie se a ^ for that the Virochoca should there receive this present.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 413In the third, fourth, and fift moneth, they offered a hundred blacke sheepe, speckled, and grey, with many other things, which I oinitte for being too tedious. The sixt moneth is called Hatuncuzqui Aymuray, which answereth to Maie, in the which they sacrificed a hundred sheepe more, of all colours in this moon and moneth, which is when they bring maize from the fieldes into the house, they made a feast, which is yet very vsuall among the Indians, and they doe call it Aymuray.
This feast is made comming from the CTiacra or farme unto the house, saying certaine songs, and praying that the Mays may long continue, the which they call Mamacora. They take a certaine portion of the most fruitefull of the Mays that growes in their farmes, the which they put in a certaine granary which they doe call Pirua, with certaine ceremonies, watching three nightes: they put this Mays in the richest garments they have, and beeing thus wrapped and dressed, they worship this Pirua, and hold it in great veneration, saying it is the mother of the mays of their inheritances, and that by this means the mays augments and is preserved. In this moneth they make a particular sacrifice, and the witches demaund of this Pirua, if it hath strength sufficient to continue untill the next yeare; and if it answers no, then they carry this Mays to the farme to burne, whence they brought it, according to every mans power; then make they another Pirua, with the same ceremonies, saying that they renue it, to the end the feede of Mays may not perish, and if it answers that it hath force sufficient to last longer they leave it untill the next yeare. This foolish vanitie continueth to this day, and it is very common amongest the Indians to have these
414 The Naturall and MorallPiruas, and to make the feast of Aymuray. The seaventh moneth answereth to June, and is called Aucaycuzqui Intiraymi: in it they made the feast that is called Lit ir ay mi, in the which they sacrificed a hundred sheepe called Guanacos, aud saide it was the feast of the Sunne. In this moneth they made many Images of Quinua wood carved, all attired with rich garrnentes, and they made their dancings which they do call Cayo. At this feast they cast flowers in the high wayes, and thither the Indians came painted, and their noblemen had small plates of golde upon their beards, and all did sing; wee must understand that this feast falleth almost at the same time whenas the Christians observe the solempnitic of the holy Sacrament, which doth resemble it in some sort, as in dauncing, singing, and representations. And for this cause there hath beene, and is yet among the Indians, which celebrated a feast somewhat like to ours of the holy Sacrament, many superstitions in celebrating this ancient feast of Intiraymi. The eight month is called Chahua Huarqui, in the which they did burne a hundred sheepe more, all grey, of the colour of Viscacha, according to the former order, which month doth answer to our luly. The ninth moneth was called Yapaquisf in the which they burnt an hundred sheepe more, of a chesnut colour; and they do likewise kill aud burue a thousand Cuyes, to the end the frost, the ayre, the water, nor the sunue should not hurt their farmes: and this moneth doth answer unto August. The tenth moneth was called Coyarami, in the which they burnt a hundred white sheepe that had fleeces. In this month, which answereth to September, they made the feast called Sltua in this manner: they assembled together the first day of the moone before the rising thereof, and in
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 415seeing it they cryed aloude, carrying torches in their handes and saying, "Let all harme goe away striking one another with their torches. They that did this were called Panconcos, which being doone, they went to the common bath, to the rivers and fountaines, and every one to his own bath, setting themselves to drink foure dayes together. In this moneth the Mama-cunas of the sunne made a great number of small loaves with the blood of the sacrifices, and gave a peece to every stranger; yea, they sent to every Huaca throughout the realme, and to many Curacas, insigne of confederation and loyaltie to the Sunne and the Ingua, as hath bin said.
The bathes, drunkennesse, and some relickes of this feast Situa, remaine even unto this day, in some places, with the ceremonies a little different, but yet very secretly, for that these chiefe and principall feasts have ceased. The eleventh moneth, Homaraymi Punchaiquis^ wherein they sacrificed a hundred sheepe more. And if they wanted water, to procure raine they set a black sheepe tied in the middest of a plaine, powring much chica about it, and giving it nothing to eate untill it rained, which is practised at this day in many places in the time of our October. The twelfth and last month was called Ayamarca, wherein they did likewise sacrifice a hundred sheepe, and made the feast called Raymicantara Rayquis. In this moneth, which auuswered to our November, they prepared what was necessary for the children that should be made novices the moneth following; the children with the old men made a certaine shew, with rounds and turnings, and this feast was called Ituraymi, which commonly they make when it raines too much, or too little, or when there is a plague. Among
416 The Naturall and Morallthe extraordinary feasts, which were very many, the most famous was that which they called Ytu. This feast Ytu hath no prefixed time nor season, but in time of necessitie. To prepare themselves thereunto, all the people fasted two dayes, during the which they did neyther company with their wives, nor eate anie ineate with salt or garlicko, nor drinke any Chicha. All did assemble together in one place, where no straunger was admitted, nor any beast: they had garments and ornaments, which served onely for this feast. They inarched very quietly in procession, their heades covered with their vailes, sounding of drum in es, without speaking one to another. This continued a day and a night: then the day following they daunced and made good cheere for two dayes and two nights together, saying that their prayer was accepted. And although that this feast is not vsed at this day, with all this antient ceremony, yet commonly they make another which is verio like, which they call Ay ma, with garmentes that serve onely to that end: and they make this kind of procession with their Drummes, having fasted before, then after they make good cheere, which they usually doe in their vrgent necessities. And although the Indians forbeare to sacrifice beasts, or other things publikely, which cannot be hidden from the Spaniardes, yet doe they still use many ceremonies that have their beginnings from these feasts and auntient superstitious: for, at this day, they do covertly make this feast of Ytu, at the dances of the feast of the Sacrament, in making the daunces of Llama-llama, and of Guacon, and of others, according to their auntient ceremonies, where unto we ought to take good regarde. They have made more large Discourses of that which concerneth this matter, for
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 417the necessary observation of the abuses and superstitions the Indians had in the time of their gentility, to the end the Priestes and Curates may the better take heede. Let this suffice now to have treated of the exercise wherewith the divell held those superstitious nations occupied to the end that against his will wee may see the difference there is betwixt light and darknes, betwixt the trueth of Christ and the lies of the Gentiles, although the ennemy of God and man hath laboured with all his devises to counterfeit those things which aiv of God.
Of the feast of Jubilee which the Mexicaines celebrated.
418 The Naturall and Morallno other use but to be there, and was worshipped as their god it selfe. Besides the garment wherewith they worshipped the idoll that day, they put upon him certaine ensignes of feathers, with fannes, shadowes, and other things; being thus attired and furnished, they drew the curtaine or vaile from before the doore, to the ende he might be seene of all men: then came forth one of the chiefe of the temple, attired like to the idoll, carrying flowers in his hand, and a flute of earth, having a very sharpe sound, and turning towards the east, he sounded it, and then looking to the west, north, and south, he did the like. And after he had thus sounded towards the foure parts of the world (showing that both they that were present and absent did heare him) hee put his finger into the aire, and then gathered up earth, which he put in his mouth, and did eate it in signe of adoration. The like did all they that were present, and, weeping, they fell flat to the ground, invocating the darknesse of the night, and the windes, intreating them not to leave them, nor to forget them, or else to take away their lives, and free them from the labours they indured therein. Theeves, adulterers, and murtherers, and all others offenders, had great feare and heaviness whilest this flute sounded, so as some could not dissemble nor hide their offences. By this meanes they all demanded no other thing of their god, but to have their offences concealed, powring foorth many teares, with great repentaunce and sorrow, offering great store of incense to appease their gods. The couragious and valiant men, and all the olde souldiers that followed the Arte of AVarro hearing this flute, dernaunded with great devotion of God the Creator, of the Lorde for whome wee live, of th e Biinne, and of other their gods, that
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 419they would give them victorie against their ennemies, and strength to take many captives, therewith to honour their sacrifices. This ceremonie was dooue ten dayes before the feast; During which teune dayes the Priest did sound this flute, to the end that all might do this worship in eating of earth, and demaund of their idol what they pleased: they every day made their praiers, with their eyes lift up to heaven, and with sighs and groanings, as men that were grieved for their sinues and offences. Although this contrition was onelie for fearo of the corporal punishment that was given them, and not for any feare of the eternall, for they certainely beleeved there was no such severe punishment in the other life.
And. therefore, they offered themselves voluntarily to death, holding opinion that it is to all men an assured rest. The first day of the feast of this idoll Tezcatlipuca being come, all they of the Citty assembled together in a court to celebrate likewise the feast of the Kalender, whereof wee have already spoken, which was called Toxcoalt, which signifies a drie thing; which feast was not made to any other end,, but to demaund rain, in the same manner that we solemnise the Rogations; and this feast was alwayes in Maie, which is the time that they have most neede of raine in those countries. They beganne to celebrate it the ninth of Maie, ending the nineteenth. The last day of the feast the Priestes drew foorth a litter well furnished with curtins and pendants of diverse fashions. This litter had so many armes to holde by as there were ministers to carry it. All which came foorth besmeered with black and long haire, halfe in tresses with white strings, and attyred in the livery of the idoll. Upon this litter they set the personage
420 The Naturall and Morallof the idoll appoynted for this feast, which they called the resemblance of their God Tezcalipuca, and taking it upon their shoulders they broght it openly to the foote of the stairs; then came forth the yong men and maidens of the Temple, carrying a great cord wreathed of chaines of roasted mays, with the which they invironed the Litter, putting a chaiue of the same about the idolles necke, and a garland uppon his head. They called the cord Toxcalt, signifying the drought and barrennesse of the time. The yoong men came wrapped in redde curtines, with garlands and chains of roasted mays. The maides were clothed in new garments, wearing chaines about their neckes of roasted mays; and upon their heads myters made of rods covered with this mays, they had their feete covered with feathers, and their armes and cheekes painted. They brought much of this roasted mays, and the chiefe men put it upon their heads, and about their neckes, taking flowers in their handes. The idoll being placed in his litter, they strewed round about a great quantitie of the boughes of Manguey, the leaves whereof are large and pricking.
This litter being set upon the religions mens shoulders, they carryed it in procession within the circuite of the Court, two Priests marching before with censors, giving often incense to the idol, and every time they gave incense they lifted up their armes as high as they could to the idoll, and to the Sunnc, saying, that they lifted up their praiers to heaven, even as the smoke ascended on high. Then all the people in the Court turned round to the place whither the idoll went, every one carrying in his hand new cords of the threed of manguey, a fadome long, with a knotte at the end, and with
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 421them they whipped themselves uppon the shoulders; even as they doe heere uppon holy Thurseday. All the walles of the Court and battlements were full of boughs and flowers, so fresh and pleasaunt, as it did give a great contentment. This procession being ended, they brought the idoll to his vsual place of abode, then came a great multitude of people with flowres, dressed in diverse sortes, wherewith they filled the temple and all the court, so as it seemed the ornament of an Oratory. All this was putte in order by the priests, the yoong men administring these things unto them from without. The chappell or chamber where the idoll remayned was all this day open without any vaile.
This done, every one came and offered curtines, and pendants of sendal, precious stones, iewclls, insence, sweete wood, grapes, or eares of Mays, quailes: and, finally, all they were accustomed to offer in such solemnities. Wheuas they offered quailes, (which was the poore mans offering,) they used this ceremonie, they delivered them to the priestes, who taking them, pulled off their heads, and caste them at the foote of the Altare, where they lost their bloud, and so they did of all other things which were offered. Every one did offer rneate and fruito according to their power, the which was laid at the foote of the altar, and the Ministers gathered them up, and carried them to their chambers. This solcmne offering done, the people went to dinner, every one to his village or house, leaving the feast suspended until after dinner. In the meanetime, the yong men and maidens of the temple, with their ornaments, were busied to serve the idoll, with all that was appointed for him to eate: which meate was prepared by other women, who had made
422 The Naturall and Moralla vow that day to serve the idoll. And, therefore, such as had made this vow, came by the point of day, offering them selves to the Deputies of the Temple, that they might command them what they would have done, the which they did carefully performe. They did prepare such varietie of meates, as it was admirable. This meate being ready, and the hour of dinner come, all these virgins went out of the Temple in procession, every one carrying a little basket of bread in her hand, and in the other, a dish of these meates: before them marched an old man, like to a steward, with a pleasant habite, he was clothed in a white surples downe to the calves of his legges: upon a doublet with out sleeves of red leather, like to a iacket, he carried wings insteede of sleeves, from the which hung broade ribbands, at the which did hang a small calibash or pumpion, which was covered with flowers, by little holes that were made in it, and within it were many superstitious things. This old man, thus attyred, marched very humbly and heavily before the preparation, with his head declining: and comming neere the foote of the staires, he made a great obeisance and reverence. Then going on the one side, the virgins drew neere with the meate, presenting it in order one after another, with great reverence. This service presented, the old man returned as before, leading the virgins into their convent. This done, the yong men and ministers of the Temple came forth and gathered up this meate, the which they carried to the chambers of the chiefe Priests of the Temple, who had fasted five daies, eating onely once a day, and they had also abstained from their wives, not once going out of the Temple in these five daies. During the which, they did whippe themselves rigorously with cordes,
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 423they did eate of this divine meate (for so they called it), what they could, neither was it Lin lawfull for any other to eate thereof. All the people having dined, they assembled againe in the court to see the ende of the feast, whither they brought a captive, which by the space of a whole yeare, had represented the idoll, being attyred, decked, and honoured as the idoll it selfe, and doing all reverence unto him, they delivered him into the handes of the sacrificers, who at that instant presented themselves, taking him by the feote and haiides. The Pope did open his stomacke, and pull out his hart, then did he lift up his hands as high as he could, showing it to the Sunne, and to the idoll, as hath beene said. Having thus sacrificed him that represented the idoll, they went into a holy place appointed for this purpose, whither came the yong men and virgins of the Temple with their ornaments, the which being put in order, they danced and sung with drummes and other instruments, on the which the chiefo Priests did play and sound. Then came all the Noblemen with ensigncs and ornaments like to the yong men, who danced round about them. They did not usually kill any other men that day, but him that was sacrificed, yet every fourth yeare they had others with him, which was in the yeare of lubile and full pardons. After Sun set, every one being satisfied with sounding, eating, and drinking, the virgins went al to their convent, they took great dishes of earth full of bread mixt with hony, covered with small panniers, wrought and fashioned with dead mcns heads and bones, and they carried the collation to the idoll, mounting up to the court, which was before the doore of the Oratorie: and having set them downe, they retired in the same order as they came,
424 The Naturall and Morallthe steward going still before. Presently came forth all the yong men in order, with canes or reedes in their handes, who beganne to runne as fast as they could to the toppe of the staires of the Temple, who should come first to the dishes of the collation. The Elders or chiefe Priesfcs observed him that came first, second, third, and fourth, without regarding the rest. This collation was likewise all carried away by the yong men as great relicks. This done, the foure that arrived first were placed in the midst of the Antients of the Temple, bringing them to their chambers with much honour, prais ing them, and giving them ornaments; and from thence forth they were respected and reverenced as men of marke. The taking of this collation being ended, and the feast celebrated with much ioy and noise, they dismissed all the yong men and maides which had served the idoll: by meanes whereof they went one after another, as they came forth. All the small children of the colledges and schooles were at the gate of the court, with bottom es of rushes and hearbes in their hands, which they cast at them, mocking and laughing, as of them that came from the service of the idoll: they had libertie then to dispose of themselves at their pleasure, and thus the feast ended.
Of the Feast of Marchants, which those of
CJwlutecas did celebrate.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 425well proportioned, without any fault or blemish, either of sickenes or of hurte, whom they did attyre with the ornaments of the idoll, that he might represent it fortie daies. Before his clothing they did dense him, washing him twice in a lake, which they called the lake of the gods: and being purified, they attyred him like the idoll. During these forty daies, hee was much respected for his sakewhom he represented. By night they did imprison him (as hath beene said) lest he should flie, and in the morning they took him out of prison, setting him upon an eminent place, where they served him, giving him exquisite meates to eate. After he had eaten, they put a chaine of flowers about his necko, and many nosegaies in his hands. lice had a well appointed guard, with much people to accompany him. When he went through the Cittie, he went dancing and singing through all the streetes, that hee might bee knowne for the resemblance of their god, and when lice beganne to sing, the women and little children came forth of their houses to salute him, and to offer unto him as to their god. Two old men of the Antients of the Temple came unto him nine daies before the feast, and humbling themselves before him, they said with a low and submisso voyce, Sir, you must understand that nine daies hence the exercise of dancing and singing doth end, and thou must then die: and then he must answer in a good houro. They call this ceremony Ncyolo Maxilt Ileztli, which is to say, the advertisement: and when they did thus advertise him, they took very carefull heede whether hee were sad, or if he danced as joyfully as he was accustomed, the which if he did not as cheerefully as they desired, they made a foolish superstition in this maner. They presently
426 The Naturall and Moralltooke the sacrificing rasors, the which they washed and clensed from the blood of men which remained of the former sacrifices. Of this washing they made a drinke mingled with another liquor made of Cacao, giving it him to drinke: they said that this would make him forget what had been said unto him, and would make him in a maner incensible, returning to his former dancing and mirth. They said, moreover, that he would offer himself cheerfully to death, being inchanted with this drinke. The cause why they sought to take from him this heavinesse, was, for that they held it for an ill augure, and a fore-telling of some grea t harme. The day of the feast being come, after they had done him much honor, sung, and given him incense, the sacrificers took him about midnight and did sacrifice him, as hath been said, offering his heart vrito the Moone, the which they did afterwardes cast against the idoll, letting the bodie fall to the bottome of the staires of the Temple, where such as had offered him took him up, which were the Marchants, whose feast it was. Then having carried him into the chiefest mans house amongst them, the body was drest with divers sawces, to celebrate (at the breake of day) the ban quet and dinner of the feast, having first bid the idoll good morrow, with a small dance, which they made whilst the day did breake, and that they prepared the sacrifice. Then did all the Marchants assemble at this banket, especially those which made it a trafficke to buy and sell slaves, who were bound every yeare to offer one, for the resemblance of their god. This idoll was one of the most honoured in all the land: and therefore the Temple where he was, was of great authoritie. There were threescore staires to ascend up unto it, and on
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 427the toppe was a court of an indifferent large nesse, very finely drest and plastered, in the midst whereof was a great round thing like unto an Oven, having the entrie low and narrow, so as they must stoope very low that should enter into it. This Temple had chambers and chappels as the rest, where there were convents of Priests, yong men, in aides, and children, as hath been said: and there was one Priest alone resident continually, the which they changed weekely. For although there were in every one of these temples three or foure Curates or Ancients, yet did every one serve his weeke without parting. His charge that weeke (after he had instructed the children) was to strike up a drum me every day at the Sunne setting, to the same end that we are accustomed to ring to evensong. This drumme was such as they might heare the sound thereof through-out all the partcs of the Cittie, then every ma il shut up his merchandise, and retired unto his house, and there was so great a silence, as there seemed to be no living creature in the Towne. In the morning whenas the day beganne to breake, they beganno to sound the drumme, which was a signe of the day beginning, so as travellers and strangers attended this signall to beginno their iournies, for till that time it was not lawfull to goe out of the cittie.
There was in this temple a court of a reasonable greatnes, in the which they made great dances and pastimes, with games or comedies the day of the idolls feast; for which purpose there was in the middest of this court a theatre of thirty foote square, very finely decked and trimmed, the which they decked with flowers that day, with all the arte and invention that mought be, beeing invironed round with arches of divers flowers and feathers,
428 The Naturall and Moralland in some places there were tied many small birds, connies, and other tame beasts. After dinner all the people assembled in this place, and the players presented themselves, and played comedies: some counterfeit the deafe and the rheumatike, others the lame, some the blinde, and without handes, which came to seeke for cure of the idoll: the deafe answered con fusedly, the rheuinatiko did cough, the lame halted, telling their miseries and griefes, wherewith they made the people to laugh: others came foorth in the forme of little beasts, some were attired like snailes, others like toades, and some like lizardes: then meeting together, they tolde their offices, and every one retyring to his place, they sounded on small flutes, which was pleasant to heare. They likewise counterfeited butterflies and small birdes of diverse colours, and the children of the Temple represented these formes; then they went into a little forrest planted there for the nonce, where the Priests of the Temple drew them foorth with instruments of musicke. In the meane time they vsed many pleasant speeches, some in propounding, others in defending, wlierewith the assistants were pleasantly intertained. This doone, they made a maske or mummerie with all these personages, and so the feast ended: the which were vsually doone in their principall feasts.
What profit may be drawne out of this discourse of the Indians superstitions.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 429that it may seeme to some needlesse to have spoken thus much: and that it is a losse of time, as in reading the fables that are fained by the Eomaines of Knighthoode. But if such as holde this opinion will looke wel into it, they shall finde great difference betwixt the one and the other: and that it may be profitable, for many considerations, to have the knowledge of the customs and ceremonies the Indians vsed: first, this knowledge is not only profitable, but also necessary in those countries where these superstitions have been practised, to the end that Christians, and the maisters of the Law of Christ, may knowe the errours and superstitions of the Antients, and observe if the Indians vse them not at this day, either secretely or openly. For this cause many learned and worthy men have written large Discourses of what they have found: yea, the Provinciall counsells have commaunded them to write and print them, as they have doone in Lima, where hath beene made a more ample Discourse than this. And therefore it importeth for the good of the Indians, that the Spaniardes being in those parts of the Indies, should have the knowledge of all these things. This Discourse may likewise serve the Spaniards there, and all others whersoever, to give infinite thankes to God our Lord, who hath imparted so great a benefite unto us, giving them his holy Lawe, which is most just, pure, and altogether profitable. The which we may well know, comparing it with the lawes of Sathan, where so many wretched people have lived so miserably. It may likewise serve to discover the pride, envy, deceipts, and ambushes of the Divell, which he practiseth against those hee holdes captives, seeing on the one side hee seekes to imitate God, and make comparison with - him and his holy
430 The Naturall and MorallLawe: and on the other side, hee dooth mingle with his actions so many vanities, filthinesse, and cruelties, as hee that hath no other practise but to sophisticate and corrupt all that is good. Finally, hee that shall see the darkenes and blindenes wherein so many Provinces and Kingdoms have lived so long time, yea and wherein many Nations, and a great part of the world live yet, deceived with the like trumperies, he can not (if he have a Christians heart) but give thankes to the high God, for such as hee hath called out of so great darkenes, to the admirable light of his Gospel: beseeching the unspeakeable charitie of the Creator to preserve and increase them in his knowledge and obedience, and likewise be grieved for those that follow still the way of perdition. And that in the end hee beseech the Father of Pitty to open unto them the treasures and riches of Jesus Christ, who with the Father and Holy Ghost raignes in all Ages. Amen.
[ 431 ]
Having treated before of the religion the Indians used, I pretend to discourse in this Booke of their customs, policy, and government, for two considerations: the one is to confute that false opinion many doe commonly holde of them, that they are a grose and brutish people, or that they have so little understanding, as they scarce deserve the name of anie: So as many excesses and outrages are committed upon them, using them like bruite beasts, and reputing them unworthy of any respect; which is so common and so dangerous an errour (as they know well who with any zeale
432 The Naturall and Moralland consideration have travelled amongst them, and that have scene and observed their secrets and counsells;) And moreover, for the small regard many make of these Indians, who presume to knowe much, and yet are commonly the most ignorant and presumptuous. I finde no better meanes to confound this pernicious opinion, then in relating their order and maner, whenas they lived under their owne lawes, in which, although they had many barbarous things, and without ground, yet had they many others worthy of great admiration, whereby wee may understand, that they were by nature capable to receive any good instructions: and besides, they did in some things passe many of our common-weales. It is no matter of marvell if there were so great and grose faults amongst them, seeing there hath been likewise amongst the most famous Law-givers and Philosophers (yea, without exception, Lycurgus and Plato), and amongest the wisest common-wealths, as the Romanes and Athenians, where wee may finde things so full of ignorance, and so worthy of laughter, as in trueth if the commonweales of the Mexicaines, or of the Inguas, hadde beene knowne in those times of the Romans and the Greekes, their lawes and governments had been much esteemed by them: But we at this day little regarding this, enter by the sword, without hearing or understanding; perswading our selves that the Indians affaires deserve no other respect, but as of venison that is taken in the forrest, and broght for our use and delight.
The most grave and diligent, which have searched and attained to the knowledge of their secrets, customs, and antient government, holde another opinion, and admire the order and discourse that hath been betwixt them.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 433Of which number is Polo Ondegardo, whome I usually followe in the discourse of matters of Peru, and for these of Mexico Juan de Touar, who had a Prebend in the Church of Mexico, and is now of our company of Jesuites, who by the commaundement of the viceroy Don Martin Enriques, I have made a diligent and a large collection of the Histories of that nation, and many other grave and notable personages, who, both by word and writing, have sufficiently informed me of all those things I shall here set downe. The other end, and the good which may followe by the knowledge of the lawes, customes, and government of the Indians, is, that wee may helpe and governe them with the same lawes and customes, for they ought to be ruled according to their owne lawes and priviledges, so farre foorth as they doe not contradict the Lawe of Christ, and his holy Church, which ought to be maintained and kept as their fundamentall lawes. For the ignorance of laws and customes hath bred many errours of great importance, for that the Governours and Judges knowe not well how to give sentence, nor rule their subjects. And besides, the wrong which is doone unto them against reason, it is preiudiciall and hurtefull unto our selves; for thereby they take occasion to abhorre us, as men both in good and in evill alwayes contrary unto them.
Of the supputation of times, and the Kalendar the Mexicaines used.
434 The Naturall and Morallvivacitie and good understanding. I will first shew in what sorte the Mexicaines counted and divided their yeere, their moneths, their kalender, their computations, their worldes and ages. They divided the yeare into eighteene moneths, to which they gave twentie dayes, wherein the three hundred and three score days are accomplished, not comprehending in any of these moneths the five dayes that remaine, & make the yeare perfect. But they did reckon them aparte, and called them the dayes of nothing: during the which, the people did not any thing, neither went they to their Temples, but occupied themselves only in visiting one another, and so spent the time: the sacrificers of the Temple did likewise cease their sacrifices. These five dayes being past, they beganne the computation of the yeare, whereof the first moneth and the beginning was in March, when the leaves beganne to growe greene, although they tooke three dayes of the moneth of February; for the first day of their yeere was, as it were, the sixe and twentie day of February, as appeareth by their kalender, within the which ours is likewise comprehended and contained with a very ingenious Arte, which was made by the antient Indians that knew the first Spaniardes. I have seene this Kalender, and have it yet in my custody, which well deserveth the sight, to understand the discourse and industry the Mexicaine Indians had. Every one of these eighteene monethes had his proper name, and his proper picture, the which was commonly taken of the principall feast that was made in that moneth, or from the diversitie of tymes, which the yeere caused in that moneth. They had in this Kalender certaine dayes marked and distinguished for their feasts. And they accompted their weekes by
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 435thirteene dayes, marking the dayes with a Zero or cipher, which they multiplied unto thirteene, and then beganne to count, one, two, &c. They did likewise marke the yeares of these wheeles with foure signes or figures, attributing to every yeare a peculiar signe, wherof one was of a house, an other of a conny, the third of a reede, and the fourth of a flint. They painted them in this sort, noting by those figures the yeare that did runne, saying of so many houses, of so many flints of such a wheele, happened such a thing. For we must understand that their wheele, which was an age, contained foure weekes of yeares, every weeke containing thirteene yeares, which in all made fiftie twoo yeares. In the midst of this wheele they painted a Sunne, from the which went foure beames or lines in crosse to the circumference of the wheele; and they made their course, even as the circumference was divided into foure equall partes, every one with his line, having a distinct colour from the rest, and the foure colors were greene, blew, red, and yellow: every portion of these foure had thirteene separations which had all their signes or particular figures, of a house, a conny, a reed, or a flint, noting by every signe a yeare, and uppon the head of this signe they painted what had happened that yeare.
And therefore I did see in the Kalender mentioned the yeare when the Spaniards entered Mexico, marked by the picture of a man clad in red, after our manner, for such was the habite of the first Spaniard, whome Fernand Cortes sent at the end of the two and fifty years, which finished the wheele. They used a pleasant ceremony, which was the last night they didde breake all their vesselles and stuffe, and put out their fire, and all the
436 The Naturall and Moralllights, saying, that the worlde should end at the finishing of one of these wheeles, and it might be at that time: for (said they), seeing the worlde must then end, what neede is there to provide meate to eate, and therefore they had no further neede of vessel nor fire. Upon this conceit they passed the night in great feare, saying it might happen there would be no more day, and they watched very carefully for the day; but when they saw the day beginne to breake, they presently beat manie drummes, and sounded cornets, flutes, and other instruments of ioy and gladnesse, saying, that God did yet prolong the time with another age, which were fiftie two yeares. And then beganne an other wheele. The first day and beginning of this age they took new fire, and bought new vesselles to dresse their meate, and all went to the high Priest for this new fire, having first made a solemne sacrifice, and given thanks for the comming of the day, and prolongation of an other age. This was their manner of accounting their yeares, moneths, weekes, and ages.
How the Kings Inguas accounted the yeares and moneths.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 437or moones, in the which they imployed and consumed the eleven daies that remaind of the moone, as Polo writes. To make the computation of their yeare sure and certaine, they used this industry; uppon the mountaines which are about the citty of Cusco (where the Kings Inguas held their court, beeing the greatest sanctuary of those realmes, and as we should say an other Rome), there were twelve pillars set in order, and in such distaunce the one from the other, as every month one of these pillars did note the rising and setting of the sunne. They called them Succanga, by meanes whereof they taught and shewed, the feasts, and the seasons fitte to sowe and reape, and to do other things. They did certaine sacrilices to these pillars of the suune. Every month had his proper name and peculiar feasts. They beganne the yeare by January, as wee doe. But since, a king Ingua called Pachacuto, which signifies a reformer of Temple, beganne their yeare by December, by reason (as I coniecture) that then the Sunne returneth from the last poynt of Capricorne, which is the tropike neerest unto them. I know not whether the one or the other have observed any Bisexte, although some holde the contrary. The weekes which the Mexicaines did reckon were not properly weekes, being not of seaven dayes: the Inguas likewise made no mention thereof, which is no wonder, seeing the account of the weeke is not grounded upon the course of the sunne, as that of the yeare, nor of the moone, as that of the month; but among the Hebrewes it is grounded upon the creation of the world, as Moyses reporteth; and amongest the Greekes and Latins upon the number of the seven planets, of whose names the dayes of the weeke have taken their denomination; yet was it much for those
438 The Naturall and MorallIndians, being men without bookes and learning, to have a yeare, seasons, and feasts, so well appoynted as I have sayd.
That no nation of the Indies hath beene found to have
had the use of letters.
Such characters are ciphers, and no letters: for what name soever Mars may have in Italian, French, or Spanish, this character doth alwaies siguifie it, the which is not found in letters: for, althogh they signify the thing, yet is it by meanes of words. So, as they which know not
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 439the tongue, understand them not: as, for example, the Greekes nor the Hebrews, cannot conceive what this word Sol doth signifie, although they see it written; for that they understand not the Latine word: so as writing and letters are onely practised by them, which signifie words therewith. For if they signifie things mediately, they are no more letters nor writings, but ciphers and pictures: whereby we may observe two notable things. The one, that the memory of histories and antiquities may bee preserved by one of these three meanes, either by letters and writings, as hath beene used amongst the Latines, Greekes, Hebrews, and many other Nations; or by painting, as hath beeno used almost throughout all the world, for it is said in the second Nicene Counsell, Painting is a booke for fooles which cannot reade: or by ciphers and characters, as the cipher signifies the number of a hundred, a thousand, and others, without noting the word of a hundred or a thousand. The other thing we may observe thereby is that which is propounded in this chapter, which is, that no Nation of the Indies discovered in our time, hath had the use of letters and writings, but of the other two sortes, images and figures. The which I observe, not onely of the Indies of Peru and New Spaine, but also of Jappon, and China. And although this may seeme false to some, seeing it is testified by the discourses that have beene written, that there are so great Libraries and Universities in China and Jappon, and that mention is made of their Chapas, letters, and expeditions, yet that which I say is true, as you may understand by the discourse following.
440 The Naturall and Morall
Of the fashion of Letters and Bookes the Chinois used.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 441and writing, wherein they have studied day and night above tenne yeares, with a continuall labour for the charitie of Christ, and the desire of salvation of soules, prevailed in them above all this labour and difficultie. For this reason, learned men are so much esteemed in China, for the difficultie there is to conceive them: & those only have the offices of Mandarins, Governours, Judges, and Captaines. For this cause the fathers take great pains to instruct their children to reade and write. There are many of these schooles where the children are taught, where the masters teach them by day, and the fathers at home by night: so as they hurt their eyes much, and they whippe them often with reedes, although not so severely as they doe offenders. They call it the Mandarin tongue, which requires a mans ago to be conceived. And you must understand that, although the tongue which the Mandarins speake bee peculiar and different from the Vulgar, which are many, and that they studie it, as they doo Latine & Greeke heere, and that the learned only throghout all China do understand it: so it is notwithstanding that all that is written in it, is understood in all tongues: and although all the Provinces doo not understand one another by speaking, yet by writing they doe: for there is but one sort of figures and characters for them all, which signifie one thing, but not the same word and prolation: seeing (as I have said) they are onely to denote the things and not the worde, as we may easily understand by the examples of numbers in ciphering. And they of Jappon and the Chinois do reade and understand well the writings one of another, although they be divers Nations and different in tongue and language. If they speake what they reade or write, they should
442 The Naturall and Morallnot bee understood. Such are the letters and bookes the Chinois use, being so famous in the world. To make their impressions, they grave a boord or plank with the figures they will print, then do they stampe as many leaves of paper as they lift, of the same sort as they have made their pictures, the which are graven in copper or wood. But a man of judgement may aske, how they could signifie their conceptions by figures, which approached neere or resemble the thing they would represent? As to say, the Sunne heats, or that he hath beheld the Sunne, or the day is of the Sunne. Finally, how it were possible to denote by the same figures the case, the conjunction, and the articles, which are in many tongues and writings? I answer thereunto, that they distinguish and signifie this varietie by certaine points, strikes, and dispositions of the figure. But it is difficult to understand how they can write proper names in their tongue, especially of strangers, being things they have never seene, and not able to invent figures proper unto them. I have made triall thereof, being in Mexico with certain Chinois, willing them to write this proposition in their language, Joseph de Acosta has come from Peru; and such like: whereupon the Chinois was long pensive, but in the end hee did write it, the which other Chinois did after reade, although they did vary a little in the pronountiation of the proper name. For they use this devise to write a proper name: they seeke out something in their tongue that hath resemblance to that name, and set downe the figure of this thing. And as it is difficult among so many proper names to finde things to resemble them in the prolation, so is it very difficult and troublesome, to write such names. Upon this purpose, father Allonso Sanchez told
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 443us that when he was in China, being led into divers Tribunall seates, from Manderin to Manderin, they were long in putting his name in writing in their Chapas, yet in the end they did write it after their maner, and so ridiculously, that they scarce came neere to the name: and this is the fashion of letters and writings which the Chinois used. That of the Japponois approched very neere, although they affirme that the Noblemen of Jappon that came into Europe, did write all things very easily in their language, were they of our proper names: yea, I have had some of their writings shewed me, whereby it seemes they should have some kinde of letters, although the greatest part of their writings be by the characters and figures, as hath bin saide of the Chinois.
Of the Schooles and Universities of China.
444 The Naturall and Morallof herbs, by means wherof they cure many diseases, & use it much. They write with pencils, & have many books written with the hand, and others printed, but in a bad order. They are great plaiers of comedies, the which they perform with great preparation of theaters, apparel, bels, drums, and voices. Some fathers report to have seen comedies which lasted ten or twelve dayes and nights, without any want of comedians, nor company to beholde them. They doe make many different sceanes, and whilst some act the others feede and sleep. In these comedies they do commonly treate of morall things, and of good examples, intermingled with pleasant devises. This is the summe of that which our men report of the letters and exercises of them of China, wherein wee must confesse to be much wit and industrie. But all this is of small substance, for in effect all the knowledge of the Chinois tendes onely to read and write, & no farther: for they attaine to no high knowledge. And their writing and reading is not properly reading and writing, seeing their letters are no letters that can represent wordes, but figures of innumerable things, the which cannot be learned but in a long time, and with infinite labour. But in the end, with all their knowledge, an Indian of Peru or Mexico that hath learned to read and write knowes more than the wisest Mandarin that is amongst them: for that the Indian with foure and twentie letters which he hath learned will write all the wordes in the world, and a Mandarin with his hundred thousand letters will be troubled to write some proper name, as of Martin, or Alonso, & with greater reason he shall be lesse able to write the names of things he knowes not. So as the writing in China, is no other thing but a maner of painting or ciphring.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 445
Of the fashion of letters and writings which the
446 The Naturall and Morallsuch as would be curiously informed of them have found many things worthy of consideration. One of our company of Jesuites, a man very witty and wel experienced, did assemble in the province of Mexico the Antients of Tescuco, of Talla, and of Mexico, conferring at large with them, who shewed unto him their books, histories and kalenders, things very woorthy the sight, bicause they had their figures and hierogliphicks, whereby they represented things in this manner: Such as had forme or figure were represented by their proper images, and such as had not any were represented by characters that signified them, and by this meanes they figured and writ what they would. And to observe the time when anything did happen they had those painted wheeles, for every one of them contained an age, which was two and fifty years, as hath beene said; and of the side of those wheeles they did paint with figures and characters, right against the yeare, the memorable things that happened therein. As they noted the yeare whenas the Spaniards entred their Countrey, they painted a man with a hatte and a red jerkin upon the signe of the reede, which did rule then, and so of other accidents. But for that their writings and characters were not sufficient, as our letters and writings be, they could not so plainly expresse the words, but onely the substance of their conceptions. And forasmuch as they were accustomed to reherse Discourses and Dialogues by heart, compounded by their Oratours and auntient Rhethoritians, and many Chapas made by their Poets (which were impossible to learne by their Hierogliphickes and Characters) the Mexicaines were very curious to have their children learne those dialogues and compositions by heart. For the which cause they had Schooles,
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 447and as it were, Colledges or Seminaries, where the Auncients taught children these Orations, and many other things, which they preserved amongst them by tradition from one to another, as perfectly as if they had beene written; especially the most famous Nations had a care to have their children (which had any inclination to be Rhetoritians, and to practise the office of Orators) to learne these Orations by heart: So as when the Spaniardes came into their Countrey, and had taught them read and write our letters, many of the Indians then wrote these Orations, as some grave men doe witnes that had read them. Which I say, for that some which shall haply reade these long and eloquent discourses in the Mexicaine Historie, will easilie beleeve they have beene invented by the Spaniardes, and not really taken and reported from the Indians. But having knowne the certaine trueth, they will give credite (as reason is) to their Histories. They did also write these Discourses after their manner, by Characters and Images: and I have seene, for my better satisfaction, the Pater noster, Ave Maria, and Simboll, or generall confession of our faith, written in this manner by the Indians.
And in trueth, whosoever shall see them will wonder thereat. For to signifie these words, I, a sinner, do confesse my self, they painted an Indian upon his knees at a religious mans feete, as one that confesseth himselfe: and for this, To God most mighty, they painted three faces, with their Crownes, like to the Trinitie, and To the glorious Virgine Marie, they painted the face of our Lady, and halfe the body of a little childe; and for S. Peter and S. Paul, heads with crowns, and a key with a sword; and whereas images failed, they did set characters,
448 The Naturall and Morallas, Wherein I have sinned, &c. whereby wee may conceive the quickenesse of spirite of these Indians, seeing this manner of writing of our prayers and matters of faith hath not been taught them by the Spaniards, neither could they have done it if they had not had an excellent conception of that was taught them. And I have seene in Peru a confession of sinnes, brought by an Indian, written in the same sorte, with pictures and characters, painting every one of the tenne Commandments, after a certaine manner where there were certaine markes like ciphers, which were the sinnes he had committed against the Commandments. I nothing doubt but if any of the most suffcient Spaniards were imployed to make memorialles of the like things by their images and markes, they would not attaine unto it in a whole year, no not in tenne.
Of Registers and the manner of reckoning which the Indians of Peru used.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 449were very grose and blockish) and partely, and most commonly by Quippos. These Quippos are memorialls or registers, made of bowes, in the which there are diverse knottes and colours, which do signifie diverse things, and it is strange to see what they have expressed and represented by this meanes: for their Quippos serve them insteede of Bookes of histories, of lawes, ceremonies, and accounts of their affaires. There were officers appointed to keepe these Quippos, the which at this day they call Quipocamayos, the which were bound to give an account of everything, as Notaries and Registers doe heere. Therefore they fully believed them in all things, for, according to the varietie of business, as warres, pollicie, tributes, ceremonies and landes, there were sundry Quippos or braunches, in every one of the which there were so many knottes, little and great, and strings tied unto them, some red, some greene, some blew, some white; and finally, such diversitie, that even as wee derive an infinite number of woordes from the foure and twenty letters, applying them in diverse sortes, so doe they draw innumerable woordes from their knottes and diversitie of colours. Which thing they doe in such a manner that if at this day in Peru, any Commissary come at the end of two or three years to take information uppon the life of any officer, the Indians come with their small reckonings verified, saying, that in such a village they have given him so many egges which he hath not payed for, in such a house a henne, in another two burdens of grasse for his horse, and that he hath paied but so much mony, and remaineth debtor so much. The proofe being presently made with these numbers of knottes and handfulls of cords, it remaines for a certaine testimony and register. I did see
450 The Naturall and Moralla handfull of these strings, wherein an Indian woman carried written a generall confession of all her life, and thereby confessed herselfe as well as I could have done it in written paper. I asked her what those strings meant that differed from the rest: she answered mee they were certaine circumstaunces which the sin required to be fully confessed. Besides these Quippos of thred, they have an other, as it were a kinde of writing with small stones, by means whereof they learne punctually the words they desire to know by heart. It is a pleasant thing to see the olde and the impotent (with a wheele made of small stones) learne the Pater noster, with another the Ave Maria, with another the Creede; and to remember what stone signifies, Which was conceived by the holy-ghost, and which, Suffered under Pontius Pilate.
It is a pleasant thing to see them correct themselves when they doe erre; for all their correction consisteth onely in beholding of their small stones. One of these wheeles were sufficient to make mee forget all that I do knowe by heart. There are a great number of these wheeles in the Church-yards for this purpose. But it seemes a kinde of witchcraft, to see an other kinde of Quippos, which they make of graines of Mays, for to cast up a hard account, wherein a good Arithmetitian would be troubled with his penne to make a division; to see how much every one must contribute: they do drawe so many graines from one side, and adde so many to another, with a thousand other inventions. These Indians will take their graines, and place five of one side, three of another, and eight of another, and will change one graine of one side, and three of another. So as they finish a certaiue account, without erring in any poynt: and
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 451they sooner submitte themselves to reason by these Quippos, what every one ought to pay, then we can do with the penne. Hereby we may judge if they have any understanding, or be brutish: for my parte, I think they passe us in those things whereunto they do apply themselves.
Of the order the Indians holde in their writings.
452 The Naturall and Morallfour different kindes of writings, some writte from the right to the left, others from the left to the right, some from the toppe to the bottome, and others from the foote to the toppe, wherein wee may discover the diversity of mans judgment.
How the Indians dispatched their Messengers.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 453tooke Toponchan. In Peru they were very curious of footemen, and the Ingua had them in all parts of the realme, as ordinary Posts called Chasquis, whereof shall be spoken in his place.
Of the manner of governement, and of the Kings
which the Indians had.
454 The Naturall and Morallin like sort all the new kingdome of Granado, that of Guatimalla, the Ilandes, all Florida, Bresill, Luson and other countries of great circuite: but that in some places, they are yet more barbarous, scarcely acknowledging any head, but all commaund and governe in common, having no other thing, but wil, violence, unreason, and disorder, so as he that most may, most commaunds. At the East Indies there are great kingdomes, well ordered and governed, as that of Siam, Bisnaga, and others, which may bring to field when they please, a hundred or two hundred thousand men.
As likewise the Kingdome of China, the which in greatnes and power, surpasseth all the rest, whose kings (as they report,) have continued above two thousand yeares, by meanes of their good order and government. But at the West Indies they have onely found two Kingdoraes or setled Empires, that of the Mexicanes in New Spaine, and of the Inguas in Peru. It is not easie to be said, which of the two was the mightiest Kingdome, for that [of] Motecuma, exceeded them of Peru, in buildings and in the greatnes of his court: but the Inguas did likewise exceede the Mexicaines in treasure, riches, and greatnes of Provinces. In regards of antiquitie, the Monarchie of the Inguas hath the advantage, although it be not much, and in my opinion they have been equall in feates of armes and victories. It is most certaine that these two Kingdomes have much exceeded all the Indian Provinces, discovered in this new world, as well in good order and government as in power and wealth, and much more in superstition and service of their idolls, having many things like one to an other. But in one thing they differed much, for among the Mexicaines, the succession of the kingdome, was
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 455by election, as the Empire of the Romans, and that of Peru was hereditarie, and they succeeded in bloud, as the Kingdomes of Fraunce and Spaine. I will therefore heereafter treate of these two governments (as the chiefe subiect and best knowne amongst the Indians) being fit for this discourse, leaving many tedious details which are not of importance.
Of the Government of the Kings and Inguas of Peru.
456 The Naturall and Morallbusied at the sacrifices, ceremonies, and service of the deceased King: for, being dead, they presently held him for a god, making sacrifices unto him, images, and such like. By this meanes, there was infinite treasure in Peru: for every one of the Inguas had laboured to have his Oratorie and treasure surpasse that of his predecessors. The marke or ensigne, whereby they tooke possession of the realme, was a red rowle of wooll, more fine then silke, the which hung in the middest of his forehead: and none but the Ingua alone might weare it, for that it was as a Crowne and royall Diademe: yet they might lawfully weare a rowle hanging on the one side, neere unto the eare, as some Noblemen did, but onely the Ingua might carry it in the middest of his forehead. At such time as they tooke this roule or wreathe, they made solemne feasts and many sacrifices, with a great quantity of vessells of gold and silver, a great number of small formes or images of sheep, made of gold and silver, great abundance of the stuffes of Cumby, well wrought, both fine and coarser, many shells of the sea of all sortes, many feathers, and a thousand sheepe, which must be of divers colours. Then the chiefe Priest tooke a yong child in his handes, of the age of six or eight yeares, pronouncing these wordes with the other ministers speaking to the image of Viracocha, Lord, we offer this unto thee, that thou maiest maintaine us in quiet, and helpe us in our warres, maintaine our Lord the Ingua in his greatnes and estate, that hee may alwaies increase, giving him much knowledge to governe us. There were present at this ceremony and oath, men of all partes of the Realme, and of all Guacas and Sanctuaries. And without doubt, the affection and reverence this people bare to their Kings Inguas, was very great,
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 457for it is never found that any one of his subjectes committed treason against him, for that they proceeded in their governments, not only with an absolute power, but also with good order and justice, suffering no man to be oppressed. The Ingua placed governours in divers Provinces, amongst the which some were superiors, and did acknowledge none but himselfe, others were of lesse commaund, and others more particular, with so goodly an order, and such gravitie, as no man durst bee drunke nor take an eare of Mays from his neighbour. These Inguas held it for a maxime, that it was necessary to keepe the Indians alwaies in action: and therefore we see it to this day, long cawseis and workes of great labour, the which they say were made to exercise the Indians, lest they should remaine idle. When he conquered any new Province, he was accustomed presently to send the greatest part, and the chiefe of that Country into other Provinces, or else to his Court, and they call them at this day in Peru, Mitimas, and in their places hee sent others of the Nation of Cusco, especially the Oreiones, which were as Knights of an ancient house. They punished faultes rigorously. And therefore such as have any understanding heereof hold opinion that there can be no better government for the Indians, nor more assured then that of the Inguas.
Of the distribution the Inguas made of their Vessell.
458 The Naturall and Moralldistinct, as he might governe them all with great facilitie, although his realme were a thousand leagues long: for having conquered a Province, he presently reduced the Indians into Towns and Comminalties, the which he divided into bandes, hee appointed one to have the charge over every ten Indians, over every hundred another, over every thousand another, and over ten thousand another, whom they called Humo, the which was one of the greatest charges. Yet above all in every Province, there was a Governour of the house of the Inguas, whom all the rest obeyed, giving unto him every yeare in particular account of what had passed, that is, of such as were borne, of those that were dead, and of their troups and graine. The Governors went every yeare out of Cusco, where they remained, and returned to the great feast of Rayme, at the which they brought the tribute of the whole Realme to the Court; neither might they enter but with this condition. All the Kingdome was divided into foure partes, which they called Tahuantinsuyo, that is, Chinchasuyo, Collasuyo, Andesuyo, & Condisuyo, according to the foure waies which went from Cusco, where the Court was resident, and where the generall assemblies of the realme were made. These waies and Provinces being answerable unto them, were towards the foure quarters of the world, Collasuyo to the South, Chinchasuyo to the North, Condisuyo to the West, and Andesuyo to the East. In every towne and village there were two sortes of people, which were of Hanansaya and Urinsuya, which is as much to say, as those above, and those below. When they commanded any worke to be done, or to furnish any thing to the Ingua, the officer knew presently how much every Province, Towne, and Family, ought
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 459to furnish, so as the division was not made by equall portions, but by cottization, 1 according to the qualities and wealth of the Countrie. So as for example, if they were to gather a hundred thousand Fanegues of Mays, they knew presently how much every Province was to contribute, were it a tenth, a seventh, or a fift part. The like was of Townes and Villages and Aillos, or Linages. The Quipocamayos, which were the officers and intendants, kept the account of all with their strings and knottes, without failing, setting downe what every one had paied, even to a hen, or a burthen of wood, and in a moment they did see by divers registers what every one ought to pay.
Of the Edifices and maner of building of the Inguas.
460 The Naturall and Morallin many places they could not see the joyntes, and many of these stones are so big, that it were an incredible thing if one should not see them. At Tiaguanaco I did measure a stone of thirty eight foote long, of eighteene broade, and six thicke. And in the wall of the fortresse of Cusco, which is of Moallon [masonry?], there are stones of a greater bignes. And that which is most strange, these stones being not cut nor squared to joyne, but contrariwise, very unequall one with another in forme and greatnes, yet did they joyne them together without ciment after an incredible maner. All this was done by the force of men who endured their labour with an invincible patience. For to joyne one stone with an other, they were forced to handle and trie many of them often, being uneven. The Ingua appoynted every yeare what numbers of people should labour in these stones and buildings, and the Indians made a division amongest them, as of other things, so as no man was oppressed. Although these buildings were great, yet were they commonly ill appoynted and unfit, almost like to the mosques or buildings of the Barbarians.
They could make no arches in their edifices, nor mortar or cyment to builde them withall. When they saw arches of wood built upon the river of Xaura, the bridge being finished, and the wood broken downe, they all beganne to runne away, supposing that the bridge, which was of stone, should presently fall; but when they found it to stand firme, and that the Spaniards went on it, the Cacique saide to his companions; It is reason we should serve these men, who in trueth seeme to be the children of the Sunne. The bridges they made were of reedes plaited, which they tied to the bankes with great stakes, for that they could not make any bridges of
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 461stone or wood. The bridge which is at this day upon the current of the great lake Chiquitto in Collao is admirable, for the course of that water is so deep as they can not settle any foundation, and so broade that it is impossible to make an arch to passe it, so as it was altogether impossible to make a bridge eyther of wood or stone. But the wit and industry of the Indians invented a meanes to make a firme and assured bridge, being only of strawe, which seemeth fabulous, yet is it very true. For as we have said before, they did binde together certaine bundles of reedes, and weedes, which do grow in the lake that they call Torora, and being a light matter that sinkes not in the water, they cast it uppon a great quantity of reedes; then, having tied those bundles of weedes to either side of the river, both men and beasts goe over it with ease. Passing over this bridge I wondered, that of so. common and easie a thing, they had made a bridge, better, and more assured than the bridge of boates from Seville to Triana. I have measured the length of this bridge, and, as I remember, it was above three hundred foote, and they say that the depth of this current is very great; and it seemes above, that the water hath no motion, yet they say, that at the bottome it hath a violent and very furious course. And this shall suffice for buildings.
Of the Inguas revenues, and the order of Tributes
they imposed upon the Indians.
462 The Naturall and Morallrealmes, as well silver and gold, as the stuffe of Cumbi, and cattell wherein they abounded, and their greatest riches of all, was their innumerable number of vassals, which were all imployed as it pleased the King. They brought out of every province what he had chosen for tribute. The Chicas sent him sweete and rich woods; the Lucanas sent Brancars to carry his Litter; the Chumbilbicas, dauncers; and so the other provinces sent him what they had of aboundaunce, besides their generall tribute, whereunto every one contributed. The Indians that were appointed to that end, labored in the mines of golde and silver, which did abound in Peru, whom the Ingua intertained with all they needed for their expences; and whatsoever they drew of gold and silver, was for him. By this meanes there were so great treasures in this kingdome, as it is the opinion of many, that what fell in the handes of the Spaniardes, although it were very much, as wee know, was it not the tenth part of that which they hid and buried in the ground, the which they could never discover, notwithstanding all the search covetousnesse had taught them. But the greatest wealth of these barbarous people, was, that their vassalles were all slaves, whose labour they used at their pleasure; and that which is admirable, they imployed them in such sorte, as it was no servitude unto them, but rather a pleasing life. But to understand the order of tributes which the Indians payed unto their Lordes, you must knowe, that when the Ingua conquered any citties, he divided all the land into three partes; the first was for religion and ceremonies, so as the Pachayachaqui, which is the Creator, and the Sunne, the Chuquilla, which is the Thunder, the Pachamana, and the dead, and other Guacas and sanctuaries,
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 463had every one their proper lands, the fruits whereof were spoyled and consumed in sacrifices, and in the nourishing of ministers and priests; for there were Indians appoynted for every Guaca, and sanctuary, and the greatest parte of this revenue was spent in Cusco, where was the universall and generall sauctuarie, and the rest in that cittie where it was gathered; for that after the imitation of Cusco, there were in every Citie, Guacas, and Oratories of the same order, and with the same functions, which were served after the same manner and ceremonies to that of Cusco, which is an admirable thing, and they have found it by proofe in above a hundred townes, some of them distant above two hundred leagues from Cusco. That which they sowed or reapt upon their land, was put into houses, as granaries, or store-houses, built for that effect, and this was a great parte of the Tribute which the Indians payed. I can not say how much this parte amounted unto, for that it was greater in some partes than in other, and in some places it was in a manner all; and this parte was the first they put to profite. The second parte of these lands and inheritances was for the Ingua, wherewith he and his householde were entertained, with his kinsfolks, noblemen, garrisons and souldiers. And therefore it was the greatest portion of these tributes, as it appeareth by the quantity of golde, silver, and other tributes, which were in houses appoynted for that purpose, being longer and larger than those where they keepe the revenues of the Guacas. They brought this tribute very carefully to Cusco, or unto such places where it was needefull for the souldiers, and when there was store, they kept it tenne or twelve yeares, untill a time of neccssitie. The Indians tilled and put to profite the Inguas
464 The Naturall and Moralllands, next to those of the Guacas; during which time they lived and were nourished at the charges of the Ingua, of the Sunne, or of the Guacas, according to the land they laboured. And the olde men, women, and sicke folkes were reserved and exempt from this tribute, and although whatsoever they gathered upon those lands were for the Ingua, the Sunne, or the Guacas, yet the property appertayned unto the Indians and their successors. The third parte of these landes were given by the Ingua for the comminaltie, and they have not yet discovered whether this portion were greater or lesse than that of the Ingua or Guacas. It is most certainc they had a care and regarde that it should be sufficient for the nourishment of the people. No particular man possessed any thing proper to himself of this third portion, neither did the Indians ever possesse any, if it were not by speciall grace from the Ingua; & yet might it not be engaged nor divided amongest his heires. They every yeare divided these landes of the comminaltie, in giving to every one that which was needful for the nourishment of their persons and families. And as the familie increased or diminished, so did they encrease or decrease his portion, for there were measures appoynied for every person. The Indians payed no tribute of that which was apportioned unto them; for all their tribute was to till and keepe in good order the landes of the Ingua, and the Guacas, and to lay the fruits thereof in their store-houses. When the yeare was barren, they gave of these fruits thus reserved to the needy, for that there is alwayes superaboundance. The Ingua did likewise make distribution of the cattell as of the landes, which was to number and divide them; then to appoynt the pastures and limites, for the cattell belonging
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 465to the Guacas, and to the Ingua, and to everie Towne; and therefore one portion of their revenues was for religion, another for the Ingua, & the third for the Indians themselves. The like order was observed among the hunters, being forbidden to take or kill any females. The flocks of the Inguas and Guacas were in great numbers and very fruitfull; for this cause they called them Capaellama; but those of the common and publike, were few in number and of small valew, and therefore they called them Bacchallama. The Ingua took great care for the preservation of cattell, for that it hath beene, and is yet, all the wealth of the Countrey, and as it is sayd, they did neither sacrifice any females, nor kill them, neither did they take them when they hunted. If the mange or the scurvie, which they call Carache, take any beast, they were presently commaunded to bury it quicke, lest it should infect others. They did sheare their cattell in their season, and distributed to every one to spinne and weave stuffes for the service of his familie. They had searchers to examine if they did employ themselves in these workes, and to punish the negligent. They made stuffes of the wooll of the Inguas cattell, for him and for his family, one sorte very fine, which they called Cumbi, and another grosser, which they likewise called Abasca. There was no certaine number of these stuffes and garments appointed, but what was delivered to every one. The wooll that remayned was put into the storehouses, whereof the Spaniards found them ful, and with all other things necessary for the life of man. There are few men of judgement but doe admire at so excellent and well settled a governement, seeing the Indians (being neyther religious, nor christians) maintained after their manner, this
466 The Naturall and Morallperfection, nor to holde any private property, and to provide for all necessities, also maintaining with such aboundance matters of religion, and that which concerned their King and Lord.
Of artes and offices which the Indians did exercise.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 467the institutions of the lesse auntient, whereof is intreated in the lives of the Fathers. In trueth it is a people not greatly covetous, nor curious, so as they are contented to passe their time quietly, and without doubt, if they made choise of this manner of life, by election, and not by custome or nature, we may say that it was a life of great perfection, being apt to receive the doctrine of the holy Gospel, so contrary an enimy to pride, covetousness, and delights. But the preachers give not alwayes good example, according to the doctrine they preach to the Indians. It is woorthy observation, although the Indians be simple in their manner and habites, yet do wee see great diversitie amongest the provinces, especially in the attire of their head, for in some places they carried a long piece of cloth which went often about, in some places a large piece of cloth, which went but once about, in some parts as it were little morters or hattes, in some others as it were high and round bonets, and some like the bottome of sacks, with a thousand other differences. They had a straight and inviolable lawe, that no man might change the fashion of the garments of his province, although hee went to live in another. This the Ingua held to be of great importance for the order and good governement of his realme, and they doe observe it to this day, though not with so great a care as they were accustomed.
Of the Posts and Chasquis the Indians did use.
468 The Naturall and Morallto the Governours, and returned their advises and advertisements to the Court. These Chasquis were placed at every course, which was a league and a halfe one from an other in two small houses, where were foure Indians. These were furnished by different districts, and changed monthly. Having received the packet or message, they ranne with all their force untill they had delivered it to the other Chasquis, such as were to runne being ready and watchfull. They ran fifty leagues in a day and night, although the greatest parte of that countrey be very rough. They served also to carry such things as the Ingua desired to have with speede. Therefore they had always sea-fish in Cusco, of two dayes old or little more, although it were above a hundred leagues off. Since the Spaniardes entred, they have used of these Chasquis in time of seditions, whereof there was great need. Don Martin, the Viceroy, appoynted ordinary posts at every foure leagues, to carry and recarry despatches, which were very necessary in this realme, though they run not so swiftly as the auntients did, neither are there so many, yet they are well payed, and serve as the ordinaries of Spaine, delivering letters, which they each carry foure or five leagues.
Of the, justice, lawes, and punishments which the
Inguas have established, and of their marriages.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 469so they gave severe punishments to such as were disobedient and offenders. They punished murther, theft, and adultery, with death, and such as committed incest with ascendants or descendants in direct line, were likewise punished with death. But they held it no adultery to have many wives or concubines, neyther were the women subject to the punishment of death, being found with any other, but onely she that was the true and lawfull wife, with whome they contracted marriage; for they had but one whome they did wed and receive with a particular solemnitie and ceremony, which was in this maner: the bridegroome went to the brides house, and led her from thence with him, having first put an Ottoya uppon her foote. They call the shooe which they use in those partes, Ottoya, being open like to the Franciscan Friars. If the bride were a mayde, her Ottoya was of wooll, but if she were not, it was of reedes. All his other wives and concubines did honour and serve this as the lawful wife, who alone, after the decease of her husband, caried a mourning weed of blacke, for the space of a yeare; neither did she marry until that time were past; and commonly she was yonger than her husband. The Ingua himselfe, with his own hand, gave this woman to his Governors and Captains; and the Governors or Caciques assembled all the young men and maydes, in one place of the City, where they gave to everyone his wife with the aforesaid ceremony, in putting on the Ottoya, and in this manner they contracted their marriages. If this woman were found with any other man than her husband, shee was punished with death, and the adulterer likewise: and although the husband pardoned them, yet were they punished, although dispensed withall from death. They inflicted the
470 The Naturall and Moralllike punishment on him that did commit incest with his mother, grandmother, daughter, or grand-childe: for it was not prohibited for them to marry together, or to have of their other kinsfolkes for concubines; onely the first degree was forbidden. Neither did they allow the brother to have the company of his sister, wherein they of Peru were very much deceived, beleeving that the Inguas and noble men might lawfully contract marriage with their sisters, yea, by father and mother: for in tructh it hath beene alqayes helde unlawfull among the Indians, & defended to contract in the first degree; which continued untill the time of Topa Ingua Yupangui, father to Guaynacapa, and grandfather to Atahualpa, at such time as the Spaniards entered Peru, for that Topa Ingua Yupangui, was the first that brake this custome, marrying with Mamaoello, his sister by the fathers side, decreeing that the Inguas might marry with their sisters by the fathers side, & no other.
This he did, and by that marriage he had Guaynacapa, and a daughter called Coya Cusillimay: finding himselfe at the poynt of death, he commaunded his children, by father and mother, to marry together, and gave permission to the noble men of his country, to marrie with their sisters by the fathers side. And for that this marriage was unlawful, and against the lawe of nature, God would bring to an end this kingdome of the Ingua, during the raigne of Guascar Ingua, and Atahualpa Ingua, which was the fruite that sprang from this marriage. Whoso will more exactly understand the manner of marriages among the Indians of Peru, lette him reade the treatise Polo hath written, at the request of Don Jeronimo Loaisa, Archbishop of [the city of the] Kings: which Polo made a very curious search, as he hath doone of divers other
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 471things at the Indies. The which importes much to be knowne to avoyde the errour and inconveniences where into many fall (which know not which is the lawfull wife or the concubine among the Indians) causing the Indian that is baptized to marry with his concubine, leaving the lawfull wife: thereby also wee may see the small reason some have had, that pretended to say, that wee ought to ratifie the marriage of those that were baptized, although they were brother and sister. The contrary hath beene determined by the provinciall Synode of Lyma, with much reason, seeing among the Indians themselves this kind of marriage is unlawful.
Of the Originall of the Inguas, Lords of Peru, with
their Conquests and Victories.
472 The Naturall and Morallthe most part they were tyrannous. The second was of Comminalties, where they were governed by the advice and authoritie of many, which are as it were Counsellors. These in time of warre made choice of a Captaine, to whome a whole Nation or Province did obey; and in time of peace every Towne or Comminaltic did rule and governe themselves, having some chiefe men whom the vulgar did respect, snd sometimes, though not often, some of them assemble together about matters of importance to consult what they should thinke necessary. The thirde kinde of government is altogether barbarous, composed of Indians without law, without King, and without any certaine place of abode, but go in troupes like savage beasts. As farre as I can conceive, the first inhabitants of the Indies were of this kinde, as at this day a great part of the Bresillians, Chirguanas, Chunchos, Yscaycingas, Pilcocones, and the greatest part of the Floridians, & all the Chichimsquas in New Spaine. Of this kind the other sort of government by Comminalties was framed by the industrie and wisedome of some amongst them, in which there is some more order, holding a more staied place, as at this day those of Araacano, and of Teucapell in Chille, and in the new kingdome of Granado, the Moscas, and the Ottomittes in New Spaine; and in all these there is lesse fiercenes and incivilitie, and much more quiet then in the rest. Of this kinde, by the valure and knowledge of some excellent men, grew the other government more mightie and potent, which did institute a Kingdome and Monarchie. It appeares by their registers, that their government hath continued above three hundred yeares, but not fully foure, although their Seigniorie for a long time was not above five or six
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 473leagues compasse about the Citty of Cusco. Their originall and beginning was in the valley of Cusco, where by little and little they conquered the lands which we called Peru, passing beyond Quito, unto the river of Pasto towardes the North, stretching even unto Chile, towardes the South, which is almost a thousand leagues in length. It extended in breadth unto the South Sea towardes the west, and unto the great champains which are on the other side of the Andes, where at this day is to be scene the Castell which is called the Pucara of the Ingua, the which is a fortresse built for the defence of the frontire towards the East. The Inguas advanced no farther on that side, for the abound-ance of water, marshes, lakes, and rivers, which runne in those partes. These Inguas passed all the other Nations of Amarica in policy and government, and much more in valour and armes, although the Canaries which were their mortall enemies, and favoured the Spaniardes, would never confesse it, nor yeelde them this advantage; so as even at this day, if they fall into any discourse or comparisons, and that they be a little chafed and incensed, they kill one another by thousands upon this quarrel, which are the most valiant, as it hath happened in Cusco. The practice and meanes which the Inguas had to make themselves Lords of all this Countrie, was in faining that since the generall deluge, whereof all the Indians have knowledge, the world had beene preserved, restored, and peopled by these Inguas, and that seven of them came foorth of the cave of Pacaricambo, by reason whereof, all other men ought them tribute and vassalage, as their progenitors. Besides, they said and affirmed, that they alone held the true religion, and knew how God should be served and honoured:
474 The Naturall and Moralland for this cause they should instruct all men. It is a strange thing, the ground they give to their customes and ceremonies. There were in Cusco above foure hundred Oratories, as in a holy land, and all places were filled with their mysteries. As they continued in the conquests of Provinces, so they brought in the like ceremonies and customes. In all this realme the chiefe idol they did worship was Viracocha Pachayachachic, which signifies the Creator of the world, and after him the Sunne. And therefore they said, that the Sunne received his vertue and being from the Creator, as the other idolls do, and that they were intercessors to him.
Of the first Ingua, and his Successors.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 475to a generall custome, as I have said, that no Ingua might inherite the goods and house of his predecessor, but did build a new pallace. In the time of this Inguaroca, the Indians had images of gold; and to him succeeded Yaguarguaque, a very old man: they say he was called by this name, which signifies teares of blood, for that being once vanquished and taken by his enemies, for griefe and sorrow he wept blood. He was buried in a village called Paullo, which is upon the way to Omasugo: he founded a family called Aocuillidanaca. To him succeeded his sonne Viracocha Ingua, who was very rich and made much vessell of gold and silver: hee founded the linage or family of Cocopanaca. Gonzales Pizarre sought out his body, for the report of the great treasure was buried with him, who, after he had cruelly tormented many Indians, in the end he found it in Xaquixaquana, whereas they said Pizarre was afterwards vanquished, taken, and executed by the President Guasca. Gonzales Pizarre, caused the body of Viracocha Ingua to be burnt; the Indians did afterwardes take the ashes, the which they preserved in a small vessell, making great sacrifices thereunto, untill Polo did reforme it, and other idolatries which they committed upon the bodies of their other Inguas, the which hee suppressed with an admirable diligence and dexterity, drawing these bodies out of their hands, being whole, and much imbalmed, whereby he extinguished a great number of idolatries which they committed. The Indians tooke it ill that the Ingua did intitle himselfe Viracocha, which is the name of their God: and he to excuse himselfe, gave them to inderstand that the same Viracocha appeared to him in his dreame, commanding him to take this name. To him succeeded Pachacuti Ingua
476 The Naturall and MorallYupangui, who was a very valiant conquerour, a great politician, and an inventor of a great part of the traditions and superstitions of their idolatrie, as I will presently shew.
Of Pachacuii Ingua Yupanqui, and what happened
in his time unto Guaynacapa.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 477give him victory against the Changuas, although they were then victorious, and in great numbers; and make himselfe Lord of those realmes, for that he would send him men to his aide invisibly, whereby he prevailed in such sort, that under this colour and conceit, hee beganne to assemble a great number of people, whereof he made a mighty armie, with the which he obtayned the victorie, making himselfe Lord of the whole Realme, taking the government from his father and brother. Then afterwardes he conquered and overthrew the Changuas, and from that time commanded that Viracocha should be held for univorsall Lord, and that the images of the Sunne and Thunder should do him reverence and honour. And from that time they beganne to set the image of Viracocha above that of the Sunne and Thunder, and the rest of the Guacas. And although this Ingua Yupangui had given farmes, landes, and cattell to the Sunne, Thunder, and other Guacas, yet did he not dedicate any thing to Viracocha, saying that he had no neede, being universall Lord and Creator of all things. He informed his souldiers after this absolute victory over the Changuas, that it was not they alone that had conquered them, but certaine bearded men, whome Viracocha had sent him, and that no man might see them but himselfe, which were since converted into stones; it was therefore necessary to seeke them out whome he would know well. By this meanes hee gathered together a multitude of stones in the mountaines, whereof he made choice, placing them for Guacas, or Idolls, they worshipped and sacrificed unto; they called them Pururaucas, and carried them to the warre with great devotion, beleeving for certaine that they had gotten the victory by their help. The imagination and
478 The Naturall and Morallfiction of this Ingua was of such force, that by the means thereof hee obtained goodly victories. He founded the family called Yuacapanaca, and made a great image of golde, which hee called Indyllupa, which hee placed in a brancard of golde, very rich, and of great price, of the which gold the Indians took great store to carry to Xaxamarca, for the libertie and ransome of Atahualpa, when the Marquise Francis Pizarre held him prisoner. The Licentiate Polo found in his house in Cusco his servants and Mamacomas, which did service to his memorie, and found that the body had beene transported from Patallacta to Totocache, where the Spaniards have since founded the parish of Saint Blaise. This body was so whole and preserved with a certaine rosin, that it seemed alive; he had his eyes made of a fine cloth of golde, so artificially set, as they seemed very naturall eyes; he had a blowe with a stone on the head, which he had received in the warres; he was all grey and hairy, having lost no more haire than if hee had died but the same day, although it were seaventy and eight yeares since his decease. The foresaid Polo sent this body with some others of the Inguas to the cittie of Lima, by the viceroyes commaund, which was the Marquise of Canette, and the which was very necessary to root out the idolatry of Cusco. Many Spaniards have seene this body with others in the hospitall of Saint Andrew, which the Marquise built, but they were much decayed. Don Phillip Caritopa, who was grand-child or great grand-childe to this Ingua, affirmed that the treasure hee left to his family was great, which should be in the power of the Yanaconas, Amaro, Toto, and others. To this Ingua succeeded Topa Ingua Yupangui, to whom his son of the same name succeeded, who founded the family called Cupac Aillo.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 479
Of the greatest and most famous Ingua called Guaynacapa.
480 The Naturall and Morallin Cusco. His mother, called Mamaoello, was much esteemed amongst them. Polo sent her body, with that of Guaynacapa, very well imbalmed, to Lima, rooting out infinite idolatries. To Guaynacapa succeeded in Cusco, a sonne of his called Titpcusdigualpa, who since was called Guaspar Ingua; his body was burned by the captaines of Atahualpa, who was likewise sonne to Guaynacapa, and rebelled in Quitto against his brother, marching against him with a mighty armie. It happened that Quisquis and Chilicuchi, captains to Atahualpa, took Guaspar Ingua in the cittie of Cusco, being received for Lord and king (for that hee was the lawfull successor) which caused great sorrowe throughout all his kingdome, especially in his Court. And as alwayes in their necessities they had recourse to sacrifices, finding themselves unable to set their Lord at libertie, as well for the great power the captaines had that tooke him, as also, for the great army that came with Atahualpa, they resolved (some say by the commaundement of this Ingua) to make a great and solemne sacrifice to Viracocha Pachayachachic, which sigmifieth universall Creator, desiring him, that since they coulde not deliver their Lord, he would send men from heaven to deliver him from prison. And as they were in this great hope, upon their sacrifice, news came to them, that a certaine people come by sea, was landed, and had taken Atahualpa prisoner. Heereupon they called the Spaniards Viracochas, beleeving they were men sent from God, as well for the small number they were to take Atahualpa in Xaxamalca, as also, for that it chaunced after their sacrifice done to Viracocha, and thereby they began to call the Spaniards Viracochas, as they doe at this day. And in truth, if we had given them good example, and such
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 481as we ought, these Indians had well applied it, in saying they were men sent from God. It is a thing very well worthy of consideration, how the greatnesse and providence of God, disposed of the entry of our men at Peru, which had beene impossible, were not the dissention of the two brethren and their partisans, and the great opinion they hadde of christians, as of men sent from heaven, bound (by the taking of the Indians countrey) to labour to winne soules unto Almightie God.
Of the last Successors Inguas.
482 The Naturall and MorallSarritopa-Ingua, went from Vilcabamba and came upon assurance to the citty of Kings, where there was given to him the valley of Tucay, and other things, to whom succeeded a daughter of his. Beholde the succession which is knowne at this day of that great and rich familie of the Inguas, whose raigne continued above three hundred yeeres, wherein they reckon eleaven successors, untill it was wholly extinguished. In the other linage of Urincusco, which (as we have said before) had his beginning likewise from the first Mangocapa, they reckon eight successors in this sort. To Mangocapa succeeded Cinchoraca, to him Capac Yupangui, to him Lloqui Yupangui, to him [Maytacapac, to him] Tarcoguamam, unto whome succeeded his sonne, whome they name not, to this son succeeded Don Jean Tambo, Maytapanaca. This sufficeth for the originall and succession of the Inguas, that governed the land of Peru, with that that I have spoken of their lawes, governement, and manner of life.
Of the manner of the Mexicaines common-weale.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 483the second of that name, there came none to the crowne by right of succession, but by a lawfull nomination and election. This election in the beginning was by the voyce of the commons, although the chiefe men managed it. Since in the time of Iscoatl the fourth king, by the advise and order of a wise and valiant man, called Tlacael, there were foure certayne Electours appoynted, which (with two lordes or kings subject to the Mexicaine, the one of Tescuco and the other of Tucuba) had power to make this election. They did commonly choose yoong men for their kings, because they went alwayes to the warres, and this was in a manner the chiefe cause why they desired them so. They had a speciall regard that they shoulde be fit for the warres, and take delight and glory therein. After the election they made twoo kindes of feasts, the one in taking possession of the royall estate, for the which they went to the Temple, making great ceremonies and sacrifices uppon the harth, called Divine, where there was a continuall fire before the altare of the idoll, and after some Rhetoritians practised therein, made many orations and speeches. The other feast, and the most solemne, was at his coronation, for the which he must first overcome in battell, and bring a certaine number of captives, which they must sacrifice to their gods; he entered in triumph with great pompe, making him a solemne reception, as well they of the Temple, who went all in procession, sounding on sundry sortes of instruments, giving incense, and singing like secular men, as also the courtiers, who came forth with their devises to receive the victorious king. The Crowne or royall ensigne was before like to a Myter, and behinde it was cut, so as it was not round, for the fore parte was
484 The Naturall and Morallhigher, and did rise like a poynt. The king of Tescuco had the privilege to crown the king of Mexico. The Mexicaines have beene very, duetifull and loyall unto their kings; and, it hath not beene knowne that they have practised any treason against them; onely their Histories report, that they sought to poison their king called Ticocic, being a coward, and of small account; but it is not found that there hath beene any dissentions or partialities amongest them for ambition, thogh it be an ordinary thing in Comminalties; but contrariwise they reporte, as you shall see heereafter, that a man, the best of the Mexicaines, refused this realme, seeming unto him to be very expedient for the Common-weale to have an other king. In the beginning, when the Mexicaines were but poore and weake, the kings were very moderate in their expenses and in their Court, but as they increased in power they increased likewise in pompe and state, untill they came to the greatnesse of Motecuma, who if hee had had no other thing but his house of beasts and birds, it had beene a prowde thing, the like whereof hath not beene seene; for there was in this house all sortes of fish, birds [of Xacamamas], and beasts, as in an other Noahs Arke, for sea fish there were pooles of salt-water, and for river fish lakes of fresh water, birds that do prey were fedde, and likewise wilde beasts in great aboundaunce; there were very many Indians imployed for the keeping of these beasts; and when he found an impossibilitie to nourish any sort of fish, fowle, or wilde beast, hee caused the image or likenesse to be made, richly cutte in pretious stones, silver, or golde, in marble, or in stone; and for all sortes of entertainements, hee had his severall houses and pallaces, some of pleasure, others of sorrowe and
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 485mourning, and others to treate of the affairs of the realme. There was in this pallace many chambers, according to the qualitie of noble men that served him, with a strange order and distinction.
Of the titles and dignities the Indians used.
486 The Naturall and Morallwere as many as in Spaine, and that there were divers seates and jurisdictions, with their Counsellors and Judges of the Court, and others that were under them, as Corrigidors, chiefe Judges, captaines of Justice, Lieutenants, and others, which were yet inferiour to these, with a very goodly order. All which depended on the foure first Princes that assisted the king. These foure onely had authority and power to condemne to death, and the rest sent them instructions of the sentences they had given. By meanes whereof they gave the king to understand what had passed in his Realme. There was a good order and settled policie for the revenues of the Crowne, for there were officers divided throughout all the provinces, as Receivers and Treasurers, which received the Tributes and royall revenews. And they carried the Tribute to the Court, at the least every moneth; which Tribute was of all things that doe growe or ingender on the land, or in the water, as well of jewells and apparrell, as of meat. They were very carefull for the well ordering of that which concerned their religion, superstition, and idolatries: and for this occasion there were a great number of Ministers, to whom charge was given to teach the people the custome and ceremonies of their Lawe. Heereuppon one day a christian Priest made his complaint that the Indians were no good Christians, and did not profite in the lawe of God; an olde Indian answered him very well to the purpose in these terms: Let the Priest (saide hee) imploy as much care and diligence to make the Indians christians, as the ministers of Idolles did to teach them their ceremonies; for with halfe that care they will make us the best christians in the worlde, for that the lawe of Jesus Christ is much better; but the Indians learne
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 487it not, for want of men to instruct them. Wherein hee spake the very trueth, to our great shame and confusion.
How the Mexicaines made Warre, and of their Orders of Knighthood.
488 The Naturall and Morallensignes. The most honourable amongest the Knightes, were those that carried the crowne of their haire, tied with a little red ribband, having a rich plume of feathers, from the which, did hang branches of feathers upon their shoulders, and roules of tho same. They carried so many of these rowles, as they had done worthy dcedes in warre. The King himselfe was of this order, as may be seene in Chapultepec, where Motecuma and his sonnes were attyred with those kindes of feathers, cut in the rocke, the which is worthy the sight. There was another order of Knighthood, which they called the lions and the tigres, the which were commonly the most valiant and most noted in warre, they went alwaies with their markes and armories. There were other Knightes, as the grey Knightes, the which were not so much respected as the rest: they had their haire cut round about the eare. They went to the war with markes like to the other Knightes, yet they were not armed but to the girdle, and the most honourable were armed all over. All Knightes might carry golde and silver, and weare rich cotton, and use painted and gilt vessell, and carry shooes after their maner: but the common people might use none but earthen vessell, neyther might they carry shooes, nor attyre themselves but in Nequen, the which is a grosse stuffe. Every order of these Knightes had his lodging in the pallace noted with their markes; the first was called the Princes lodging, the second of Eagles, the third of Lions and Tigres, and the fourth of the grey Knightes. The other common officers were lodged underneath in meaner lodgings: if any one lodged out of his place, he suffered death.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 489
Of the great order and diligence the Mexicaines used to instruct their youth.
490 The Naturall and MorallBesides the ordinary number of these children, there were in the same colledges other children of Lordes and Noblemen, the which were instructed more privately. They brought them their meate and ordinary from their houses, and were recommended to antients and old men to have care over them, who continually did advise them to be vertuous and to live chastely; to be sober in their diet, to fast, and to march gravely, and with measure. They were accustomed to exercise them to travell, and in laborious exercises; and when they see them instructed in all these things, they did carefully looke into their inclination, if they found any one addicted to the war, being of sufficient yeares, they sought all occasions to make triall of them, sending them to the warre, under colour to carry victualls and munition to the souldiers, to the end they might there see what passed, and the labour they suffered. And that they might abandon all feare, they were laden with heavy burthens, that shewing their courage therein, they might more easily be admitted into the company of souldiers. By this meanes it happened that many went laden to the Armie and returned Captaines with markes of honour. Some of them were so desirous to bee noted, as they were eyther taken or slaine; and they held it lesse honourable to remaino a prisoner; and, therefore, they sought rather to be cut in peeces then to fall captives into their enemies hands. See how Noblemens children that were inclined to the warres were imployed. The others that had their inclination to matters of the Temple; and to speake after our maner, to be Ecclesiastical men, having attained to sufficient yeares, they were drawne out of the colledge, and placed in the temple in the lodging appointed
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 491for religious men, and then they gave them the orders of Ecclesiasticall men. There had they prelates and masters to teach them that which concerned their profession, where they should remaine being destined thereunto. These Mexicaines tooke great care to bring up their children: if at this day they would follow this order, in building of houses and colledges for the instruction of youth, without doubt Christianitie should florish much amongst the Indians. Some godly persons have begunne, and the King with his Counsell have favored it: but for that it is a matter of no profit, they advance little, and proceed coldly. God open our eyes, that we may see it to our shame, seeing that we Christians do not that which the children of darkenes did to their perdition, wherin we forget our duties.
Of the Indians feasts and dances.
492 The Naturall and Moralland commonly they made all those dances with a very grave sound and pase: there were other dances and maskes, which they called Guacones, whose actions were pure representations of the divell. There were also men that dance on the shoulders one of another, as they do in Portugall, the which they call Paellas. The greatest part of these dances were superstitions and kindes of idolatries: for that they honoured their idolls and Guacas in that maner. For this reason the Prelates have laboured to take from them these dances all they could: but yet they suffer them, for that part of them are but sportes of recreation, for alwaies they dance after their maner. In these dances they use sundry sortes of instruments, whereof some are like flutes or little anons, others like drummes, and others like shells: but commonly they sing all with the voyce, and first one or two sing the song, then all the rest answer them. Some of these songs were very wittily composed, containing histories, and others were full of superstitions, and some were meere follies. Our men that have conversed among them, have laboured to reduce matters of our holy faith to their tunes, the which hath profited well: for that they imploy whole daies to rehearse and sing them, for the great pleasure and content they take in their tunes. They have likewise put our compositions of musicke into their language, as Octaves, Songs, and Rondells, the which they have very aptly turned, and in truth it is a goodly and very necessary meanes to instruct the people. In Peru they commonly called dances Taqui, in other Provinces, Areittos, and in Mexico Mittottes. There hath not beene in any other place any such curiositie of plaies and dances as in New Spaine, where at this day we see Indians
Historie of the Indies. lib. 5. 493so excellent dancers, as it is admirable. Some dance upon a cord, some upon a long and straight stake, in a thousand sundrie sortes, others with the soles of their feete and their hammes do handle, cast up, and receive againe a very heavy blocke, which seems incredible but in seeing it. They do make many other shewes of their great agilitie in leaping, vaulting, and tumbling, sometimes bearing a great and heavie burthen, sometimes enduring blowes able to breake a barre of yron. But the most usuall exercise of recreation among the Mexicaines is the solemne Mittotte, and that is a kinde of dance they held so brave and so honorable, that the king himselfe daunced, but not ordinarily, as the king Don Pedro of Aragon with the Barber of Valencia. This daunce or Mittotte was commonly made in the Courts of the Temple, and in those of the kings houses, which were more spatious. They did place in the midst of the Court two instruments, one like to a drumme, and the other like a barrell made of one peece, and hollow within, which they set uppon the forme of a man, a beast, or upon a piller.
These two instruments were so well accorded together, that they made a good harmony: and with these instruments they made many kinds of aires & songs. They did all sing and dance to the sound and measure of these instruments, with so goodly an order and accord, both of their feete and voices, as it was a pleasant thing to beholde. In these daunces they made two circles or wheeles, the one was in the middest neere to the instruments, wherein the Auntients and Noblemen did sing and daunce with a softe and slowe motion; and the other was of the rest of the people round about them, but a good distance from the first, wherein
494 The Naturall and Morallthey daunced two and two more lightly, making diverse kindes of pases, with certaine leapes to the measure. All which together made a very great circle. They attired themselves for these dances with their most pretious apparrell and jewelles, every one according to his abilitie, holding it for a very honorable thing: for this cause they learned these daunces from their infancie. And although the greatest parte of them were doone in honor of their Idolles, yet was it not so instituted, as hath bin said, but only as a recreation and pastime for the people. Therefore it is not convenient to take them quite from the Indians, but they must take good heed they mingle not their superstitions amongest them. I have seene this Mittotte, in the court of the Church of Topetzotlan, a village seven leagues from Mexico: and, in my opinion, it was a good thing to busie the Indians upon festivall dayes, seeingthey have neede of some recreation: and because it is publike, and without the prejudice of any other, there is lesse inconvenience than in others, which may be done privately by themselves, if they tooke away these. We must therefore conclude, following the counsel of pope Gregory, that it was very convenient to leave unto the Indians that which they had usually of custom, so as they be not mingled nor corrupt with their antient errors, and that their feasts and pastimes may be to the honor of God and of the Saints, whose feasts they celebrate. This may suffice in generall of the maners and politike customes of the Mexicaines. And as for their beginning, increase, and Empire, for that it is an ample matter, and will be pleasant to understand from the beginning, we will intreate thereof in the Booke following.
[ 495 ]
Every History, wel written, is profitable to the reader: For as the Wise man saith, That which hath bin, is, and that which shall be, is that which hath beene: Humane things have much resemblance in themselves, and some growe wise by that which happeneth to others. There is no Nation, how barbarous so ever, that have not something in them good, and woorthy of commendation; nor Commonweale so well ordered, that hath not something blame-worthy, and to be controlled.
496 The Naturall and MorallIf, therefore, there were no other fruite in the Historie and Narration of the deedes of the Indians, but this common utilitie, to be a Relation or Historie of things, the which in the effect of truth have happened, it deserveth to be received as a profitable thing, neither ought it to be reiected, for that it concernes the Indians. As we see that those Authors that treate of naturall things, write not onely of generous beasts, notable and rare plants, and of pretious stones, but also of wilde beasts, common hearbes, and base and vulgar stones, for that there is alwayes in them some properties worthy observation. If therefore there were nothing else in this Discourse, but that it is a Historie, and no fables nor fictions, it were no unwoorthy subject to be written or read. There is yet an other more particular reason, which is, that wee ought licerin to esteeme that which is woorthy of memorie, both for that it is a Nation little esteemed, and also a subiect different from that of our Europe, as these Nations be, wherein wee should take most pleasure and content, to understand the ground of their beginning, their maner of life, with their happy and unhappy adventures. And this subiect is not onely pleasant and agreeable, but also profitable, especially to such as have the charge to rule and governe them; for the knowledge of their acts invites us to give credite, and dooth partely teach howe they ought to be intreated: yea, it takes away much of that common and foolish contempt wherein they of Europe holde them, supposing that those Nations have no feeling of reason. For in trueth wee can not cleere this errour better, than by the true report of the actes and deedes of this people. I will, therefore, as briefly as I can, intreate of the beginning, proceedings and notable
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 497deedes of the Mexicaines, whereby wee may know the time and the disposition that the high God woulde choose, to send unto these Nations the light of the Gospel of Jesus Christ his only sonne our Lord, whome I beseech to second our small labour, that it may be to the glory of his Divine greatnes, and some profite to these people, to whome hee hath imparted the lawe of his holy gospel.
Of the antient Inhabitants of New Spaine, and how the Navatlacas came thither.
There is yet to this day in New Spaine of this kinde of people, which live by their bowes and arrowes, the which
498 The Naturall and Morallare very hurtfull, for that they gather together in troupes to doe mischiefe, and to robbe: neither can the Spaniards by force or cunning reduce them to any policie or obedience: for having no towns nor places of residence, to fight with them, were properly to hunt after savage beasts, which scatter and hide themselves in the most rough and covered places of the mountaines. Such is their maner of living even to this day, in many Provinces of the Indies. In the Bookes De procuranda Indiorum salute, they discourse chiefly of this sort of Indians, where it is saide that they are to be constrained and subiected by some honest force, and that it is necessary first to teach them that they are men, and then to be Christians. Some will say that those in New Spaine, which they call Ottomies, were of this sort, being commonly poore Indians, inhabiting a rough and barren land, and yet they are in good numbers, and live together with some order, and such as do know them, find them no lesse apt and capable of matters of Christian religion, than others which are held to be more rich and better governed. Comming, therefore, to our subject, the Chichimecas and Ottomies, which were the first inhabitants of New Spaine, for that they did neyther till nor sowe the land, they left the best and most fertile of the country unpeopled, which Nations that came from farre did possess, whome they called Navatlacas, for that it was a more civill and pollitike Nation: this word signifies a people that speakes well, in respect of other barbarous nations without reason. These second peoplers, Navatlacas, came from other farre countries, which lie toward the north, where now they have discovered a kingdome they call New Mexico.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 499There are two provinces in this countrey, the one called Aztlan, which is to say a place of Herons: the other Tuculhuacan, which signifies a land of such, whose grandfathers were divine. the Inhabitants of these provinces have their houses, their lands tilled, gods, customes, and ceremonies, with like order and governement to the Navatlacas, and are divided into seven Tribes or Nations: and for that they have a custome in this province, that every one of these lineages hath his place and private territory. The Navatlacas paint their beginning and first territory in figure of a cave, and say that they came forth of seven caves to come and people the land of Mexico, whereof they make mention in their Historic, where they paint seven caves and men comming forth of them. By the computation of their bookes, it is above eight hundred yeeres since these Navatlacas came foorth of their country, reducing which to our accompt, was about the yeere of our Lord 720, when they left their country to come to Mexico, they stayed foure score years upon the way: and the cause of this their long stay in their voyage, was, that their gods (which with out doubt were divells, and spake visibly unto them) had perswaded them to seeke new lands that had certaine signes. And therefore they came discovering the whole land, to search for these tokens which their Idolls had given them: and in places where they found any good dwellings, they peopled it, and laboured the land, and as they discovered better countries, they left those which they had first peopled, leaving still some, especially the aged, sick folkes, and the weary: yea, they did plant and build there, whereof we see the remainders at this day. In the way where they passed, they spent fourescore yeares in this manner of leasurely
500 The Naturall and Moralltravell, the which they might have done in a moneth. By this meanes they entred the land of Mexico in the yeare nine hundred and two, after our computation.
How the six Lineages of Navatlacas peopled the land of Mexico.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 501about the lake possessed even unto the Sierra, they passed to the other side of the mountaine, where they found a very fertile, spatious & warme countrey, where they built many great villages, calling the Metropolitane of their province Quahunachua, which is as much to say, as a place that sounds the voice of an Eagle, which our common people call by corruption, Quernavaca, and at this day they call this province the Marquisate. Those of the sixt generation, which are the Tlascaltecans, which is to say men of bread, passed the mountaine towards the east, crossing all the Sierra, or mountaine of Menade, [Nevada?], where that famous Vulcan is betwixt Mexico and the citty of Angells, where they did finde a good country, making many buildings. They built many townes and citties, whereof the Metropolitane was called by their name Tlascala. This is the nation which favoured the Spaniards at their entrie, by whose help they did winne this country, and therefore to this day they pay no tribute but enioy a generall exemption. When all these Nations peopled these countries, the Chichimccas being the antient inhabitants, made no resistance, but fledde, and as people amazed, they hid themselves in the most obscure of the rockes. But those that inhabited on the other side of the mountaine where the Tlascaltecas had planted themselves, did not suffer them in quiet, as the rest of the Chichimecas had done, but they put themselves in defence to preserve their country, and being giants, as the Histories report, they sought to expell the last comers, but they were vanquished by the policy of the Tlascaltecans, who counterfeiting a peace with them, they invited them to a great banquet, and when they were busiest in their drunkennes, there were some laide in ambush, who
502 The Naturall and Morallsecretly stole away their weapons, which were great clubbes, targets, swords of wood, and other such armes. Then did they sudainely set upon them, and the Chichimecas seeking to defend themselves, they did want their armes, so as they fled to the mountaines and forrests adjoyning, where they pulled downe trees as if they had beene stalkes of lettices. But, in the end, the Tluscaltecans being armed, and marching in order, they defeated all the giants, not leaving one alive. We must not holde this of the giants to be strange or a fable; for, at this day, we finde dead mens bones of an incredible bignes.
When I was in Mexico, in the yeare of our Lorde one thousand five hundred eighty sixe, they found one of those giants buried in one of our farmes, which we call Jesus du Mont, of whom they brought a tooth to be seene, which (without augmenting) was as big as the fist of a man: and, according to this, all the rest was proportionable, which I saw and admired at his deformed greatnes. The Tlascaltecans, by this victory, remained peaceable, and so did the rest of the lineages. The six lineages did alwayes entertaine amitie together, marrying their children one with another, and dividing their limites quietly: then they studied with an emulation to encrease and beautifie their common-weale. The barbarous Chichimecans, seeing what passed, beganne to use some government, and to apparrell themselves, being ashamed of what had passed: for till then they had no shame. And having abandoned feare by their communication with these other people, they beganne to learne many things of them, building small cottages, having some pollicie and government. They did also choose Lordes, whom they did acknowledge for their superiors,
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 503by meanes whereof they did in a manner quite abandon this brutish life, yet did they alwayes continue in the Mountaines divided from the rest.
Notwithstanding I hold it for certaine that this feare hath growne from other Nations and Provinces of the Indies, who at the first were savage men, who living onely by hunting, piercing the rockie and rough countries, discovering a new world, the inhabitants whereof were almost like savage beasts, without coverings or houses, without tilled landes, without cattell, without King, Law, God, or Reason. Since others, seeking better and new lands, inhabited this fertile Countrey, planting pollitike order and a kinde of common-weale, although it were very barbarous. After the same men, or other Nations, that had more understanding then the rest, laboured to subdue and oppresse the lesse mighty, establishing Realmes and great Empires. So it happened in Mexico, at Peru, and in some partes where they finde Citties and Common-weales planted among these Barbarians. That which confirmes me in my opinion (whereof I have amply discoursed in the first booke), that the first inhabitants of the West Indies came by land, and so by consequence that the first continent of the Indies, joynes with that of Asia, Europe, and Affrike, and the new world with the old, although they have not yet discovered any countrey that toucheth and joynes with the other world; or if there be any sea betwixt the two, it is so narrow that wilde beasts may easily swim over, and men in small boates. But leaving this Philosophie, let us returne to our history.
504 The Naturall and Morall
Of the Mexicaincs departure, of their journey and peopling the Province of Mechouacan.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 505of their Campe, and there placed the Arke uppon an altare, in the same manner as they have used in the holy Christian Church. This done, they sowed their land for bread and pulses, which they used: and they were so addicted to the obedience of their god, that if he commanded them to gather, they gathered: but if he commanded them to raise their campe, all was left there for the nourishment of the aged, sicke, and wearie, which they left purposely from place to place, that they might people it, pretending by this meanes that all the land should remaine inhabited by their Nation. This going forth and peregrination of the Mexicaines will happily seeme like to that of Egypt, and to the way which the children of Israell made, seeing that they, as well as those, were warned to go forth and to seeke the land of promise, and both the one and the other carried their god for their guide, consulted with the arke and made him a tabernacle, and he advised them, giving them lawes and ceremonies, and both the one and the other spake many yeares in their voyage to their promised land, where we observe the resemblance of many other things, as the histories of the Mexicaines do report, and the holy scriptures testifie of the Israelites. And without doubt it is a true thing, that the Divell, the prince of pride, hath laboured by the superstitions of this Nation, to counterfaite and imitate that which the most high God did with this Nation: for, as is said before, Satan hath a strange desire to compare and make himselfe equal with God: so as this mortall enemy hath pretended falsely to usurpe what communication and familiaritie he hath pleased with men. Was there ever divell found so familiarly conversant with men as this divell Vitzlipuztli? We may wel judge what
506 The Naturall and Morallhe was, for that there was never seene nor heard speake of customes more superstitious, nor sacrifices more cruel and inhumane, than those which he taught them. To conclude, they were invented by the enemy of mankinde. The chiefe and Captaine whome they followed was called Mexi, whence came the name of Mexico, & of the Mexicaine Nation. This people marching thus at leisure, as the other six Nations had done, peopling and tilling the land in divers partes, whereof there is yet some shewes &ruines: and after they had endured many travalls and dangers, in the end they came to the Province of Mechouacan, which is as much to say, a land of fish, for there is great abundance in goodly great lakes, where, contenting themselves with the situation and temperature of the ground, they resolved to stay there. Yet, having consulted with their idoll upon this point, and finding him unwilling, they demanded license to leave some of their men to people so good a land, the which he granted, teaching them the meanes how to do it, which was, that when the men and women should be entred into a goodly lake called Pascuaro to bathe themselves, those which remained on land should steale away all their clothes, and then secretly raise their campe and depart without any bruite, the which was effected, and the rest which dreamt not of this deceit (for the pleasure they tooke in bathing), comming forth and finding themselves spoiled of their garments, and thus mocked and left by their companions, they remained discontented and vexed therewith: so as, to make shew of the hatred they had conceived against them, they say that they changed their maner of life and their language. At the least, it is most certaine that the Mechouacans have been alwaies
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 507enemies to the Mexicaines, and therefore they came to congratulate the Marquis De Valle, after his victory obtained when he had conquered Mexico.
Of that which happened in Malinalco, Tula, and in Chapultepec.
508 The Naturall and Morallelmes, sapines, and other trees. There beganne to breede much fish, and many birdes came thither: so as it became a very pleasant place. The situation of this place seeming pleasant unto them, and being wearied with travell, many talked of peopling there, and to passe no farther: wherewith the divell was much displeased, threatning the priests with death, commanding them to returne the river to hir course, saying that he would that night chastise those which had beene disobedient as they had deserved. And as to do ill is proper to the Divell, and that the divine Justice doth often suffer such to be delivered into the hands of such a tormentor, that choose him for their god: it chanced that about mid-night they heard a great noise in one part of the campe, and in the morning going thither they found those dead that had talked of staying there. The manor of their death was, that their stomackes were opened and their hearts pulled out. And by that meanes this good god taught these poore miserable creatures the kindes of sacrifices that pleased him, which was in opening the stomacke to pull out the heart, as they have since practised in their horrible sacrifices. Seeing this punishment, and that the plaine was dried, the lake being emptied, they asked counsell of their god what to doo, who commanded them to passe on, the which they did by little and little, untill they came to Chapultepec, a league from Mexico, famous for the pleasantnes thereof. They did fortifie themselves in these mountaines, fearing the nations which inhabited that Country, the which were opposite unto them, especially for that one named Copill, sonne to this sorceresse, left in Malinalco, had blamed and spoken ill of the Mexicaines: for this Copill, by the commandement
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 509of his mother, awhile after followed the Mexicaines course, labouring to incense the Tepanecas and other neighbours against them, even unto the Chalcas: so as they came with a strong army to destroy the Mexicaines. Copill, in the meane space, stoode upon a little hill in the middest of a lake called Acopilco, attending the destruction of his enemies, and they, by the advise of their idoll, went against him, tooke him suddenly, and slew him, carrying his heart to their god, who commanded them to cast it into the lake, faining that thereof did grow a plant called Tunal, where since Mexico was built. They came to fight with the Chalcas and other Nations, having chosen for their Captaine a valiant man called Vitzilonitli, who, in an encounter, was taken and slaine by the enemies. But for all this, they were not discouraged, but fought valiantly; and in dispight of their enemies they brake the squadrons, and carrying their aged, their women, and yong children in the midst of their battaile; they passed on to Atlacuyavaya, a town of the Culhuas, whom they found solemnising of a feast, in which place they fortified. The Chalcas, nor the other Nations, did not follow them, but grieved to be defeated by so small a number of men; they being in so great multitudes retyred to their townes.
Of the Warres the Mexicaines had against them of Culhuacan.
510 The Naturall and Morallsignifies white waters, to the end they should all perish there, being full of vipers, snakes, and other venomous beasts which bred in a hill neere adjoyning. But being perswaded and taught by their divell, they accepted willingly what was offered, and by their divelish art tamed these beastes, so as they did them no harme; yea, they used them as meat, eating them with delight and appetite. The which the Lord of Culhuacan seeing, and that they had tilled and sowed the land, he resolved to receive them into the Cittie, and to contract amity with them. But the god whom the Mexicaines did worship (as he is accustomed to do no good, but ill) said unto his priests, that this was not the place where he would have them stay, and that they must go forth making warres. Therefore they must seeke forth a woman, and name her the goddesse of Discord. Whereupon they resolved to send to the King of Culhuacan, to demand his daughter to be Queene of the Mexicaines, and mother to their god, who received this Ambassage willingly, sending his daughter presently gorgeously attyred and well accompanied. The same night she arrived, by order of the murtherer whome they worshipped, they killed her cruelly, and having flaed her artificially as they could do, they did clothe a yong man with her skinne, and thereupon her apparrell, placing him neere their idoll, dedicating him for a goddesse and the mother of their god, and ever after did worship it, making an idoll which they called Toccy, which is to say our grandmother. Not content with this crueltie, they did maliciously invite the King of Culhuacan, the father of the yong maid, to come and worshippe his daughter, who was now consecrated a goddesse, who comming with great presents, and well accompanied
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 511with his people, he was led into a very darke chappell where their idoll was, that he might offer sacrifice to his daughter that was in that place. But it chanced that the incense that was upon the harth, according to their custome, kindled in such sort, as hee might discerne his daughters haire, and having by this meanes discovered the cruelty and deceit, hee went forth crying alowde, and with all his men he fell upon the Mexicaines, forcing them to retyre to the lake, so as they were almost drowned. The Mexicaines defended themselves, casting certaine little darts, which they used in the warres, wherewith they much galled their ennemies. But in the end they got land, and leaving that place, they coasted along the lake, very weary and wet; the women and little children crying and making great exclamations against them and their god that had brought them into this distresse. They were inforced to passe a river that could not be waded through, and therefore they advised to make small boates of their targets, and of reedes, wherein they passed. Then afterwardes, having left Culhuacan, they arrived at Iztacalco, [Iztapalapa?] [and next at Acatzintitlan, afterwards at Iztacal,] and finally at the place where the hermitage of Saint Anthonie now is, at the entry of Mexico, and to that quarter which they now call S. Paul. During which time their idoll did comfort them in their travells and incoraged them, promising great matters.
Of the foundation of Mexico.
512 The Naturall and Moralland dangers, it happened that some old priests or sorcerers, being entred into a place full of water-lilies, they met with a very faire and cleere current of water, which seemed to be silver, and looking about, they found the trees, medowes, fish, and all that they beheld to be very white: wondring heereat, they remembred a prophecie of their god, whereby he had given them that for a token of their place of rest, and to make them Lords of other Nations. Then weeping for joy, they returned to the people with these good newes. The night following, Vitzliputzli appeared in a dreame to an antient priest, saying, that they should seeke out a Tunal in the lake, which grew out of a stone (which as he told them, was the same place where by his commaundement they had cast the heart of Copil, sonne to the sorceresse, their enemy) and upon this Tunal they should see a goodly Eagle, which fed on certaine small birdes. When they should see this, they should beleeve it was the place where their Cittie should be built, the which should surmount al others, and be famous throughout the world. Morning being come, the old man assembled the whole people, from the greatest to the least, making a long speech unto them, how much they were bound unto their god, and of the Revelation, which (although unworthy) hee had received that night, concluding that all must seeke out that happie place which was promised them: which bred such devotion and joy in them all, that presently they undertooke the enterprise, and dividing themselves into bandes, they beganne to search, following the signes of the revelation of the desired place. Amidest the thickest of these water-lillies in the lake, they met with the same course of water they had seene the day before,
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 513but much differing, being not white, but red, like blood, the which divided itselfe into two streames, whereof the one was of a very obscure azure, the which bred admiration in them, noting some great mistery as they said. After much search heere and there, the Tunal appeared growing on a stone, whereon was a royall Eagle, with the wings displaied towardes the Sunne, receiving his heat. About this Eagle were many rich fethers, white, red, yellow, blew, and greene, of the same sort as they make their images, which Eagle held in his tallants a goodly birde. Those which sawe it and knew it to be the place fore-told by the Oracle, fel on their knees, doing great worship to the Eagle, which bowed the head looking on every side. Then was there great cries, demonstrations, and thanks unto the Creator, and to their great god Vitzliputzli, who was their father, and had alwaies told them truth. For this reason they called the cittie which they founded there, Tenoxtitlan, which signifies Tunal on a stone, and to this day they carry in their armes, an Eagle upon a Tunal, with a bird in one tallant, and standing with the other upon the Tunal. The day following, by common consent, they made an hermitage adjoyning to the Tunal of the Eagle, that the Arke of their god might rest there, till they might have meanes to build him a sumptuous Temple: and so they made this hermitage of flagges & turfes covered with straw: then having consulted with their god, they resolved to buy of their neighbours, stone, timber, lime, in exchange of fish, frogges, and yong kids, and for duckes, water-hennes, curlews, and divers other kindes of sea fowles. All which things they did fish and hunt for in this Lake, whereof there is great aboundance. They went with these
514 The Naturall and Morallthings to the markets of the Townes and Citties of the Tepanecans, and of them of Tescuco their neighbours, and with pollicie they gathered together, by little and little, what was necessary for the building of their Cittie: so as they built a better Chappell for their idoll of lime and stone, and laboured to fill up a great part of the lake with rubbish. This done, the idoll spake one night to one of his priests in these tearmes, Say unto the Mexicaines, that the Noblemen divide themselves everie one with their kinsfolkes and friends, and that they divide themselves into foure principall quarters, about the house which you have built for my rest, and let every quarter build in his quarter at his pleasure. The which was put in execution: and those be the foure principall quarters of Mexico, which are called at this day S. Jean, S. Mary the round, S. Paul,, and S. Sebastian. After this, the Mexicaines being thus divided into these foure quarters, their god commanded them to divide amongest them the gods he should name to them, and that each principal quarter should name other special quarters, where these gods should be worshipped. So as under every one of these foure principall quarters, there were many less comprehended, according to the number of the idolls which their god commanded them to worship, which they called Calpultetco, which is as much as to say, god of the quarters. In this manner, the Cittie of Mexico Tenoxtitlan was founded, and grew great.
Of the sedition of those of Tlatelulco, and of the first King the Mexicaines did choose.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 515they had not respected them as they deserved: for this cause, they and their kinsfolke did mutine, and went to seeke another residence; and as they went thorough the lake, they found a small peece of ground or terrasse, which they call Tloteloli, where they inhabited, calling it Tlatellulco, which signifies place of a terrasse. This was the third division of the Mexicaines, since they left their Country. That of Mechouacan being the first, and that of Malinalco the second. Those which separated themselves and went to Tlatellulco were famous men, but of bad disposition: and therefore they practised against the Mexicaines, their neighbours, all the ill neighbourhood they could. They had alwaies quarrells against them, and to this day continues their hatred and olde leagues. They of Tenoxtitlan, seeing them of Tlatellulco thus opposite unto them, and that they multiplied, feared that in time they might surmount them: heereupon they assembled in counsell, where they thought it good to choose a King, whome they should obey, and strike terror into their enemies, that by this meanes they should bee more united and stronger among themselves, and their enemies not presume too much against them. Being thus resolved to choose a King, they took another advise very profitable and assured, to choose none among themselves, for the avoyding of dissentions, and to gaine (by their new King) some other neighbour nations, by whom they were invironed, being destitute of all succours. All well considered, both to pacific the King of Culhuacan, whome they had greatly offended, having slaine and flead the daughter of his predecessor, and done him so great a scorne, as also to have a King of the Mexicaine blood, of which generation there were many in
516 The Naturall and MorallCulhuacan, which continued there since the time they lived in peace amongst them: they resolved to choose for their King, a yong man called Acamapixtli, sonne to a great Mexicaine Prince, and of a Ladie, daughter to the King of Culhuacan. Presently they sent Ambassadors with a great present to demand this man, who delivered their Ambassage in these tearmes, Great Lord, we your vassals and servants, placed and shut up in the weedes and reedes of the Lake, alone and abandoned of all the Nations of the world, led onely and guided by our god to the place where we are, which falles in the jurisdiction of your limits of Ascapusalco, and of Tescuco. Although you have suffered us to live and remaine there, yet will we not, neither is it reason to, live without a head and lord to command, to correct, and governe us, instructing us in the course of our life, and defending us from our enemies: Therefore we come to you, knowing that in your Court and house, there are children of our generation, linckt and alied with yours, issued from our entrailes, and yours, of our blood and yours, among the which we have knowledge of a grand-child of yours and ours, called Acamapixtli. We beseech you, therefore, to give him us for Lord, we will esteeme him as hee deserves, seeing hee is of the lineage of the Lords of Mexico, and the Kings of Culhuacan.
The king having consulted uppon this poynt, and finding it nothing inconvenient to be alied to the Mexicaines, who were valiant men, made them answer that they should take his grandchilde in good time, adding thereunto, that if he had beene a woman, hee woulde not have given her, noting the foule fact before spoken of, ending his discourse with these wordes: Let my grand-childe go to serve your god, and be his lieuetenant, to rule and governe his creatures, by whom we live, who is the Lord
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 517of night, day, and windes: Let him goo and be Lord of the water and land, and possesse the Mexicaine Nation, take him in good time, and use him as my sonne and grand-childe. The Mexicaines gave him thanks, all joyntly desiring him to marry him with his owne hand, so as he gave him to wife one of the noblest Ladies amongst them. They conducted the new King and Queene with all honour possible, and made him a solemne reception, going all in generall fourth to see the king, whom they led into pallaces, which were then but meane: and having seated them in royall throanes, presently one of the Antients and an Orator much esteemed amongest them, did rise up, speaking in this manner: My sonne, our Lord and King, thou art welcome to this poor house and citty, amongest these weedes and mudde, where thy poore fathers, grandfathers, and kinsfolkes, endure what it pleaseth the Lord of things created. Remember, Lord, thou commest hither to be the defence and support of the Mexicaine Nation, and to be the resemblance of our God Vitzlipuztli, whereupon the charge and governement is given thee. Thou knowest we are not in our country, seeing the land we possesse at this day is anothers, neither know we what shall become of us to-morrowe, or another day: Consider, therefore, that thou commest not to rest or recreate thy selfe, but rather to indure a new charge under so heavie a burden: wherein thou must continually labour, being slave to this multitude, which is fallen to thy lotte, and to all this neighbour people, whome thou must strive to gratifie, and give them contentment, seeing thou knowest we live upon their lands, and within their limites. And ending, hee repeated these wordes: Thou art welcome, thou and the Queene our Mistris, to this your realme. This was the speech of the old man, which, with other orations (which the Mexicaine histories do celebrate) the
518 The Naturall and Morallchildren did use to learne by hart, and so they were kept by tradition, some of them deserve well to be reported in their proper termes. The king aunswering, thanked them, and offered them his care and diligence in their defence and aide in all he could. After they gave him the othe, and after their maner set the royall crown upon his head, the which is like to the Crowne of the dukes of Venice: the name of Acamapixtli, their first king, signifies a handfull of reeds, and therefore they carry in their armories a hand holding many arrows of reedes.
Of the strange tribute the Mexicaines paied to them of Azcapuzalco.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 519much troubled at this commaundement, holding it impossible: and that this demaund was to no other end, but to seeke occasion to ruine them. But their god Vitzlipuzli comforted them, appearing that night to an olde man, commaunding him to say to the king his sonne in his name, that hee should make no difficultie to accept of this tribute, he would help them and make the meanes easie, which after happened: for the time of tribute being come, the Mexicanes carried the trees that were required, and moreover, a garden made and floating in the water, and in it much Mays (which is their corne) already grained and in the eare: there was also Indian pepper, beetes, Tomates, pease, gourds, and many other things, al ripe, and in their season. Such as have not seene the gardines in the lake of Mexico, in the middest of the water, will not beleeve it, but will say it is an inchantment of the Divell whom they worship: But in trueth it is a matter to be done, and there hath beene often seene of these gardens floating in the water; for they cast earth upon reedes and grasse, in such sort as it never wastes in the water; they sowe and plant this ground, so as the graine growes and ripens very well, and then they remove it from place to place. But it is true, that to make this great garden easily, and to have the fruites grow well, is a thing that makes men judge there was the worke of Vitzliputzli, whom otherwise they call Patillas, specially having never made nor seene the like. The king of Azcapuzalco wondred much when he sawe that accomplished which he held impossible, saying unto his subiects, that this people had a great god that made all easie unto them, and lice sayd unto the Mexicaines, that seeing their God gave them all
520 The Naturall and Morallthings perfit, hee would the yeare following, at the time of tribute, they shoulde bring in their gardine a wild ducke, and a heron, sitting on their egges, in such sorte, that they should hatch their yoong ones as they should arrive, without failing of a minute, upon paine of his indignation. The Mexicans were much troubled and heavy with this prowde and strict commaunde: but their god, as he was accustomed, comforted them in the night, by one of his priests, saying that he would take all that charge upon him, willing them not to fear, but beleeve that the day would come, whenas the Azcapuzalcos should pay with their lives this desire of new tributes. The time being come, as the Mexicaines carried all that was demaunded of their gardins, among the reeds and weeds of the gardin, they found a ducke and a heron hatching their egges, and at the same instant when they arrived at Azcapuzalco their yong ones were disclosed. Wherat the king of Azcapuzalco wondring beyond measure, he said again e to his people, that these were more than humane beings, and that the Mexicans beganne as if they would make themselves lordes over all those provinces. Yet did he not diminish the order of this tribute, and the Mexicans finding not themselves mighty enough, endured this subjection and slavery the space of fifty yeeres. In this time the king Acamapixtli died, having beautified the Citty of Mexico with many goodly buildings, streets, conduits of water, and great aboundance of munition. Hee raigned in peace and rest forty yeares, having bin alwayes zealous for the good and increase of the common-weale.
As hee drew neare his end, hee did one memorable thing, that having lawfull children to whom he might leave the succession of the realme, yet would he not do it,
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 521but contrariwise hee spake freely to the common-weale, that as they had made a free election of him, so they should choose him that should seeme fittest for their good government, advising them therein to have a care to the good of the common-weale, and seeming grieved that he left them not freed from tribute and subjection, hee died, having recommended his wife and children unto them, he left all his people sorrowfull for his death.
Of the second King, and what happened in his raigne.
522 The Naturall and Morallan Orator made an eloquent speech, exhorting him to arme himselfe with courage, and free them from the travells, slavery, and misery they suffered, being oppressed by the Azcapuzalcos: which done, all did him homage. This king was not married, and his Counsell helde opinion, that it was good to marry him with the daughter of the king of Azcapuzalco, to have him a friend by this alliance, and to obtain some diminution of their heavy burthen of tributes imposed upon them, and yet they feared lest he should disdaine to give them his daughter, by reason they were his vassalls: yet the king of Azcapuzalco yeelded thereunto, having humbly required him, who, with curteous wordes, gave them his daughter, called Ayauchigual, whom they ledde with great pompe and joy to Mexico, and performed the ceremony and solemnity of marriage, which was to tie a corner of the mans cloke to a part of the womans vaile in signe of the band of marriage. This Queene broght foorth a sonne, of whose name they demaunded advise of the king of Azcapuzalco, and casting lots as they had accustomed (being greatly given to sooth-sayings, especially upon the names of their children), he would have his grand-childe called Chimalpopoca, which signifies a target casting smoke. The Queene, his daughter, seeing the contentment the King of Azcapuzalco had of his grand-child, tooke occasion to intreat him to releeve the Mexicaines of the heavy burthen of their tributes, seeing he had now a grand-child Mexicaine, the which the King willingly yeelded unto, by the advise of his Counsell, granting (for the tribute which they paid) to bring yeerely a couple of duckes and some fish, in signe of subjection, and that they dwelt in his land. The Mexicaines, by this meanes, remained much
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 523eased and content, but it lasted little. For the Queene, their Protectrix died soone after: and the yere following, likewise Vitzilovitli, the king of Mexico died, leaving his sonne, Chimalpopeca, tenne yeares olde: hee raigned thirteene yeeres, and died thirty yeeres old, or little more. Hee was held for a good king, and carefull in the service of his gods, whose Images hee held kings to be: and that the honour done to their god was done to the King who was his image. For this cause the kings have beene so affectionate to the service of their gods. This king was carefull to winne the love of his neighbours, and to trafficke with them, whereby hee augmented his citty, exercising his men in warrelike actions in the Lake, disposing them to that which he pretended, as you shall see presently.
Of Chimalpopoca, the third king, and his cruell death, and the occasion of warre which the Mexicaines made.
524 The Naturall and Morallof his grandfather, the king of Azcapuzalco, the water of the mountaine of Chapultepec, which is from Mexico a league, as is saide before, which they easely obtained, and by their industry made an aqueduct of faggots, weeds, and flagges, by the which they brought water to their citty. But because the Cittie was built within the Lake, and the aqueduct did crosse it, it did breake forth in many places, so us they could not inioy the water as they desired, and had great scarcitie: wherupon, whether they did expresly seeke it, to quarrell with the Tepanecans, or that they were mooved uppon small occasion, in the end they sent a resolute ambassage to the king of Azcapuzalco, saying they could not use the water which he had gratiously granted them, and therefore they required him to provide them wood, lime, and stone, and to send his workmen, that by their meanes they might make a pipe of stone and lime that should not breake. This message nothing pleased the king, and much lesse his subjects, seeming to be too presumptuous a message, and purposely insolent, for vassals to their Lord. The chiefe of the Counsell disdaining thereat, said it was too bold that, not content with permission to live in an others land, and to have water given them, but they would have them goe to serve them: what a matter was that? And whereon presumed this fugitive nation, shut up in the mud? They would let them know how fit they were to worke, and to abate their pride in taking from them their land and their lives.
In these termes and choller they left the king, whom they did somwhat suspect, by reason of his grandchild, and consulted againe anew what they were to doe, where they resolved to make a generall proclamation that
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 525no Tepanecan should have any commerce or trafficke with any Mexicaine, that they should not goe to their Cittie, nor receive any into theirs, upon paine of death. Whereby we may understand that the king did not absolutely commaund over his people, and that he governed more like a Consul or a Duke than a King, although since with their power the commaund of Kings increased, growing absolute Tyrants, as you shal see in the last Kings. For it hath beene an ordinarie thing among the Barbarians, that such as their power hath beene, such hath beene their commaund; yea, in our Histories of Spaine we finde in some antient kings that manner of rule which the Tepanecans used. Such were the first kings of the Romans, but that Rome declined from Kings to Consuls, and a Senate, till that after they came to be commaunded by Emperours. But these Barbarians, of temperate Kings became tyrants, of which governements a moderate monarchy is the best and most assured. But returne we now unto our historie.
The king of Azcapuzalco seeing the resolution of his subjects, which was to kil the Mexicans, intreated them first to steale away the yong king, his grand-childe, and afterwards do what they pleased to the Mexicans. All in a manner yeelded heereunto to give the king contentment, and for pitty they had of the child: but two of the chiefest were much opposite, inferring that it was bad counsell, for that Chimalpopoca, although hee were of their bloud, yet was it but by the mothers side, and that the fathers was to be preferred, and therefore they concluded that the first they must kill was Chimalpopoca, king of Mexico, protesting so to doe. The king of Azcapuzalco was so troubled with this contradiction, and
526 The Naturall and Morallthe resolution they had taken, that soone after for very griefe he fell sicke and died. By whose death the Tepanecans, finishing their consultation, committed a notable treason: for one night the young king of Mexico sleeping without guard or feare of any thing, they of Azcapuzalco entred his pallace, and slew him sodainly, returning unseene. The morning being come, when the Nobles went to salute the King, as they were accustomed, they found him slaine with great and cruell wounds; then they cried out, and filled all their cittie with teares: and transported with choller, they presently fell to armes, with an intent to revenge their Kings death. As they ranne uppe and downe, full of fury and disorder, one of their chiefest knightes stept foorth, labouring to appease them, with a grave admonition: Whither goe you saide hee, O yee Mexicaimes: quiet your selves, consider that things done without consideration are not well guided, nor come to good end: suppresse your griefe, considering that, although your king be dead, the noble blood of the Mexicaines is not extinct in him. Wee have children of our kings deceased, by whose conduct, succeeding to the realme, you shall the better execute what you pretend, having a leader to guide your enterprise, go not blindely, surcease, and choose a king first to guide and encourage you against your enemies. In the meane time dissemble discreetly, performing the funeralls of your deceased king, whose body you see heere present, for heereafter you shall finde better meanes to take revenge. By this meanes, the Mexicaines passed no farther, but stayed to make the obsequies of their King, whereunto they invited the Lords of Tescuco and Culhuacan, reporting unto them this foule and cruell fact, which the Tepanecans had committed, moving them to have pitty on them, and incensing them against their enemies,
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 527concluding that their resolution was to die or to bee revenged of so great an indignitie, intreating them not to favour so unjust a fact of their enemies; and that for their part, they desired not their aide of armes or men, but onely to bee lookers on of what should passe, and that for their maintenance they would not stoppe nor hinder the commerce as the Tepanecans had done. At these speeches they of Tescuco and Culhuacan made them great shewes of good will, and that they were well satisfied, offering them their citties, and all the commerce they desired, that they might provide vittaile and munition at their pleasure, both by land and water. After this, the Mexicanes intreated them to stay with them, and assist at the election of their King: the which they likewise granted, to give them contentment.
Of the fourth King, called Iscoalt [Isocoatl], and of the warre against the Tepanecans.
528 The Naturall and Morallour true and lawfull King and Lord. Heere you may choose at your pleasure, saying, I will this man, and not that. If you have lost a father, heere you may find both father and mother: make account, O Mexicaines, that the Sunne is eclipsed and darkened for a time, and will returne suddenly. If Mexico hath beene darkened by the death of your King, the Sunne will soon shew, in choosing another King. Looke to whom, and upon whom you shall cast your eyes, and towards whom your heart is inclined, and this is hee whom your god Vitzlipuztli hath chosen. And continuing a while this discourse, he ended to the satisfaction of all men. In the end, by the consent of this Counsell, Izcoalt [Izcoatl?] was chosen King, which signifies a snake of rasors, who was sonne to the first King Acamapixtli, by a slave of his: and although he were not legitimate, yet they made choyce of him, for that he exceeded the rest in behaviour, valour, and magnanimitie of courage. All seemed very well satisfied, and above all, these of Tescuco, for their king was married to a sister of Iscoalt. After the King had beene crowned and set in his royall seat, another Orator stept up, discoursing how the king was bound to his Common-weale, and of the courage he ought to shew in travell, speaking thus: Behold this day we depend on thee: it may be thou wilt let fall the burthen that lies upon thy shoulders, and suffer the old man and woman, the orphan and the widowe to perish. Take pittie of the infants that go creeping in the ayre, who must perish if our enemies surmount us: unfold then and stretch forth thy cloake, my Lord, to beare these infants upon thy shoulders, which be the poore and the common people, who live assured under the shadowe of thy wings, and of thy bountie. Uttering many other words upon this subject, the which (as I have said,) they learne by heart, for the exercise of their
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 529children, and after did teach them as a lesson to those that begarme to learne the facultie of Orators. In the meane time, the Tepanecans were resolute to destroy the Mexicaines, and to this end they had made great preparations. And therefore the new King tooke counsell for the proclaiming of warre, and to fight with those that had so much wronged them. But the common people, seeing their adversaries to exceede them farre in numbers and munition for the warre, they came amazed to their King, pressing him not to undertake so dangerous a warre, which would destroy their poor Cittie and Nation: whereupon being demaunded what advise were fittest to take, they made answer that the King of Azcapuzalco was very pittifull, that they should demand peace, and offer to serve him, drawing them forth those marshes, and that he should give them houses and lands among his subjects, that by this meanes they might depend all uppon one Lord. And for the obtaining heereof, they should carry their god in his litter for an intercessor. The cries of the people were of such force (having some Nobles that approved their opinion), as presently they called for the Priests, preparing the litter and their god, to perform the voyage. As this was preparing, and every one yeelded to this treatie of peace, and to subject themselves to the Tepanecans, a gallant yong man, and of good sort, stept out among the people, who, with a resolute countenance, spake thus unto them: What meanes this, yee Mexicaines, are yee mad? How hath so great cowardise crept in among us? Shall we go and yeeld ourselves thus to the Azcapuzalcos. Then turning to the King, he said: How now, my Lord, will you endure this? Speak to the people, that they may suffer us to finde out some meanes for our honour
530 The Naturall and Moralland defence, and not to yeelde our selves so simply and shamefully into the hands of our enemies. This yong man was called Tlacaellec, nephew to the King, he was the most valiant Captaine and greatest Counsellor that ever the Mexicaines had as you shall see heereafter. Izcoalt, incouraged by that his nephew had so wisely spoken, retained the people, saying they should first suffer him to try another better meanes. Then turning towards his Nobilitie, he said unto them: You are all heere, my kinsmen, and the best of Mexico, hee that hath the courage to carrie a message to the Tepanecans, let him rise up. They looked one upon another, but no man stirred nor offered himselfe to the word. Then this yong man, Tlacaellec, rising, offered himselfe to go, saying, that seeing he must die, it did import little whether it were to-day or to-morrow: for what reason should he so carefully preserve himselfe? he was therefore readie, let him command what he pleased. And although all held this for a rash attempt, yet the King resolved to send him, that he might thereon understand the will and disposition of the King of Azcapuzalco and of his people: holding it better to hasten his nephews death, then to hazard the honour of his Common-weale. Tlacaellec being ready, tooke his way, and being come to the guards, who had commaundement to kill any Mexicaines that came towards them by cunning or otherwise: he perswaded them to suffer him to passe to the king, who wondered to see him, and hearing his ambassage, which was to demand peace of him under honest conditions, answered, that hee would impart it to his subjects, willing him to returne the next day for his answer: then Tlacaellec demanded a pasport, yet could he not obtaine any, but that he should use his best skill: With
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 531this he returned to Mexico, giving his words to the guards to returne. And, although the King of Azcapuzalco desired peace, being of a milde disposition, yet his subjects did so incense him, as his answer was open warre. The which being heard by the messenger, he did all his King commanded him, declaring by this ceremony to give armes, and anointing the King with the unction of the dead, that in his Kings behalfe he did defie him. Having ended all, the King of Azcapuzalco suffering himselfe to be anointed and crowned with feathers, giving goodly armes in recompence to the messenger, wishing him not to returne by the pallace gate, whereas many attended to cut him in peeces, but to go out secretly by a little false posterne that was open in one of the courts of the Pallace. This yong man did so, and turning by secret waies, got away in safetie in sight of the guards, and there defied them, saying, Tepanecans and Azcapuzalcas, you do your office ill: understand you shall all die, and not one Tepaneca shall remaine alive. In the meane time the guardes fell upon him, where he behaved himselfe so valiantly, that hee slew some of them: and seeing many more of them come running, hee retyred himselfe gallantly to the Cittie, where he brought newes that warre was proclaimed with the Tepanecans, and that hee had defied their King.
Of the battell the Mexicaines gave to the Tepanecans, and of the victorie they obtained.
532 The Naturall and Morallcowardise, demaunding leave to departe the Citty, holding their ruin certaine. The king didde comfort and incourage them, promising to give them libertie if they vanquished their enemies, willing them not to feare. The people replied: And if we be vanquished what shall we doe? If we be overcome (aunswered the king) we will be bound presently to yeeld ourselves into your hands to suffer death, eate our flesh in your dishes, and be revenged of us. It shall be so then (saide they) if you loose the victorie, and if you obtain the victorie, we do presently offer our selves to be your Tributaries, to labour in your houses, to sowe your ground, to carrie your armes and baggage when you goe to the warres for ever, wee and our descendants after us. These accordes made betwixt the people and the nobilitie (which they did after fully performe, eyther willingly or by constraint, as they had promised), the king named for his captain generall Tlacaellec, the whole camp was put in order, and into squadrons, giving the places of captaines to the most valiant of his kinsfolkes and friends: then did hee make them a goodly speech, whereby he did greatly incourage them, being now wel prepared, charging all men to obey the commaundement of the Generall whome he had appoynted: he divided his men into two partes, commanding the most valiant and hardie to give the first charge with him, and that all the rest should remaine with the king Izcoatl, until they should see the first assaile their enemies. Marching then in order, they were discovered by them of Azcapuzalco, who presently came furiously foorth the citty, carrying great riches of gold, silver, and armes of great value, as those which had the empire of all that country. Izcoatl gave the signall to battaile, with a little drumme he carried on his shoulders, and presently they
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 533raised a general showt, crying Mexico, Mexico, they charged the Tapanecans, and although they were farre more in number, yet did they defeate them, and force them to retire into their Cittie: then advaunced they which remained behinde, crying Tlacaellec, victorie, victoric, all sodainely entred the Citty, where (by the Kings commandement) they pardoned not any man, no not olde men, women, nor children, for they slew them all, and spoyled the Citty, being very rich. And not content heerewith, they followed them that fled, and were retired into the craggy rocks of the Sierras or neere mountaines, striking and making a great slaughter of them. The Tapanecans being retired to a mountaine, cast downe their armes, demaunding their lives, and offering to serve the Mexicaines, to give them lands and gardins, stone, lime and timber, and to hold them alwayes for their Lordes. Upon this condition Tlacaellec retired his men, and ceased the battell, graunting them their lives upon the former conditions, which they did solemnely sweare. Then they returned to Azcapuzalco, and so with their rich and victorious spoiles to the cittie of Mexico. The day following the king assembled the Nobilitie and the people, to whom he laid open the accord the Commons had made, demaunding of them if they were content to persist therin: the Commons made answer that they had promised, and they had well deserved it, and therefore they were content to serve them perpetually. Whereupon they took an othe, which since they have kept without contradiction.
This done, Izcoatl returned to Azcapuzalco (by the advise of his counsell), he divided all the lands & goods of the conquered among the conquerours, the chiefest parte
534 The Naturall and Morallfell to the King, then to Tlacaellec, and after to the rest of the Nobles, as they best deserved in the battell. They also gave land to some plebeians, having behaved themselves valiantly: to others they distributed the pillage, making small account of them as of cowardes. They appointed lands in common for the quarters of Mexico, to every one his part, for the service and sacrifices of their gods. This was the order, which after they aiwayes kept, in the division of the lands and spoyles of those they had vanquished and subdewed. By this meanes they of Azcapuzalco remained so poore, as they had no lands left them to labor, and (which was worse) they tooke their king from them, and all power to chuse any other then him of Mexico.
Of the warre and victory the Mexicaines had against the Cittie of Cuyoacan.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 535they should receive none of them into Mexico, the which made them of Cuyoacan resolve wholy to warre: but first they would provoke them by some shameful scorne, which was, that having invited them to one of their solemn feasts, after they had made them a goodly banquet, and feasted them with a great daunce after their manner, they sent them, for their fruite, womens apparell, forcing them to put it on, and so to returne home like women to their cittie, reproching them, that they were cowards and effeminate, and that they durst not take armes, being sufficiently provoked. Those of Mexico say, that for revenge they did unto them a fowle scorne, laying at the gates of their cittie of Cuyoacan certaine things which smoaked, by meanes whereof many women were delivered before their time, and many fell sicke. In the end, all came to open warre, and there was a battell fought, wherein they imployed all their forces, in the which Tlacaellec, by his courage and policie in warre, obtained the victory. For, having left king Izcoatl in fight with them of Cuyoacan, he put himselfe in ambush with some of the most valiant souldiers, and so turning about charged them behind, and forced them to retire into their citty. But seeing their intent was to flie into a temple, which was verie strong, he, with three other valiant souldiers, pursued them eagerly, and got before them, seising on the temple and firing it, so as he forced them to flie to the fields, where he made a great slaughter of the vanquished, pursuing them two leagues into the countrey, unto a litle hill, where the vanquished, casting away their weapons and their armes across, yeelded to the Mexicans, and with many teares craved pardon of their overweening follie, in using them like women, offering to bee their
536 The Naturall and Morallslaves: so as in the end, the Mexicaines did pardon them. Of this victory the Mexicaines carried away very rich spoiles of garments, armes, gold, silver, jewells, and rich feathers, with a great number of captives. In this battaile there were three of the principals of Culhuacan that came to aide the Mexicaines to winne honour, the which were remarkable above all. And since being knowen to Tlacaellec, and having made proofe of their fidelitie, he gave them Mexicaine devises, and had them alwayes by his side, where they fought in all places very valiantly. It was apparant that the whole victory was due to the Generall and to these three: for, among so many captives taken, two third partes were wonne by these foure, which was easily knowen by a policie they used: for, taking a captive, they presently cut off a little of his haire and gave it to others, so as it appeared that those which had their haire cut, amounted to that number, whereby they wonne great reputation and fame of valiant men. They were honoured as conquerors, giving them good portions of the spoils and lands, as the Mexicans have alwayes used to doe, which gave occasion to those that did fight to become famous, and to winne reputation by armes.
Of the warre and victorie which the Mexicans had against the Suchimilcos.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 537didde moove them, to their owne mine, as it happens to men of small judgement that have no foresight, who not preventing the the mischefe they imagined, fall into it. The Suchimilcos held opinion, that the Mexicans, by reason of their victories past, should attempt to subdue them, and consulted heereon amongst themselves. Some among them thought it good to acknowledge them for superiors, and to applaude their good fortune, but the contrary was allowed, and they went out to give them battel: which Izcoatl the king of Mexico understanding, he sent his General Tlacaellec against them, with his army: the battell was fought in the same field that divides their limites, which two armies were equall in men and armes, but very divers in their order and manner of fighting; for that the Suchimilcos charged all together on a heape confusedly, and Tlacaellec divided his men into squadrons with a goodly order, so as he presently brake his ennemies, forcing them to retire into their cittie, into the which they entred, following them to the Temple whither they tied, which they fiered, and forcing them to Hie unto the mountaines; in the end they brought them to this poyut, that they yeelded with their armes acrosse. The Generall Tlacaellec returning in great triumph, the priests went fourth to receive him, with their musicke of flutes, and giving incense. The chiefe Captaines used other ceremonies and shews of joy, as they had bin accustomed to doe, and the king with all the troupe went to the Temple, to give thanks to their false god, for the divell hath alwayes beene very desirous hereof, to challenge to himselfe the honor which he deserves not; seeing it is the true God which giveth victories, and maketh them to rule whome he pleaseth. The day following king
538 The Naturall and MorallIzcoatl went unto the citty of Suchimilco, causing himselfe to be sworne king of the Suchimilcos: and for their comfort he promised to doe them good. In token whereof hee commaunded them to make a great cawsey stretching from Mexico to Suchimilco, which is foure leagues, to the end there might bee more commerce and trafficke amongest them. Which the Suchimilcos performed, and in shorte time the Mexicaine governement seemed so good unto them, as they helde themselves happy to have changed their king and commonweale. Some neighbors, pricked forward by envy or feare to their ruines, were not yet made wise by others miseries.
Cuitlavaca was a citty within the lake, which though the name and dwelling be chaunged, continueth yet. They were active to swimme in the lake, and therefore they thought they might much indomage and annoy the Mexicaines by water, which the King understanding, hee resolved to send his army presently to fight against them. But Tlacaellec little esteeming this warre, holding it dishonorable to lead an army against them, made offer to conquer them with the children onely, which he performed in this maner; he went unto the Temple and drew out of the Convent such children as he thought fittest for this action, from tenne to eighteene yeeres of age, who knew how to guide their boates or canoes, teaching them certaine pollicies. The order they held in this warre was, that he went to Cuitlavaca with his children, where by his pollicy hee pressed the ennemy in such sorte, that hee made them to flie: and as he followed them, the lord of Cuitlavaca mette him and yeelded unto him, himselfe, his citty, and his people, and by this meanes he stayed the pursuite. The children
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 539returned with much spoyle, and many captives for their sacrifices, being solemnely received with a great procession, musike and perfumes, and they went to worshippe their gods, in taking of the earth which they did eate, and drawing blood from the forepart of their legges with the Priests lancets, with other superstitious which they were accustomed to use in the like solemnities. The children were much honoured and incoraged, and the king imbraced and kissed them, and his kinsmen and alies accompanied them. The bruite of this victorie raune throughout all the country, how that Tlacaellec had subdued the city of Cuitlavaca with children; the news and consideration whereof opened the eyes of those of Tescuco, a chiefe and very cunning Nation for their manner of life; So as the king of Tescuco was first of opinion, that they should subject themselves to the king of Mexico, and invite him thereunto with his cittie. Therefore by the advise of his Counsell, they sent Ambassadors, good Orators, with honorable presents, to offer themselves unto the Mexicans, as their subjects, desiring peace and amitie, which was gratiously accepted; but by the advise of Tlacaellec he used a ceremony for the effecting thereof, which was that those of Tescuco should come forth armed against the Mexicans, where they should fight, and presently yeelde, which was an act and ceremony of warre, without any effusion of bloud on either side. Thus the king of Mexico became soveraigue Lord of Tescuco, but hee tooke not their king from them, but made him of his privie counsell, so as they have alwayes maintained themselves in this manner untill the time of Motecuma the second, during whose raigne the Spaniards entred. Having subdued the land and citty of Tescuco, Mexico remained
540 The Naturall and MorallLady and Mistris of all the landes and citties about the Lake, where it is built. Izcoatl having enjoyed this prosperitie, and raigned twelve yeeres, died, leaving the realme which had beene given him much augmented by the valour and counsell of his nephew Tlacaellec (as hath afore beene saide) who held it best to choose an other king then himselfe, as shall heereafter be shewed.
Of the fift King of Mexico, called Motecuma, the first of that name.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 541time the custome was brought in, that the King should go in person to make warre in some province, and bring captives to solemnize the feast of his coronation, and for the solemne sacrifices of that day. For this cause King Motecuma went into the province of Chalco, inhabited by a warlike people; from whence (having fought valiantly) he brought a great number of captives, whereof he did make a notable sacrifice the day of his coronation, although at that time he did not subdue all the province of Chalco, being a very warlike nation. Many came to this coronation from divers provinces, as well neere as farre off, to see the feast, at the which all commers were very bountifully entertained and clad, especially the poore, to whom they gave new garments. For this cause they brought that day into the cittie, the Kings tributes, with a goodly order, which consisted in stuffes to make garments of all sorts, in cacao, gold, silver, rich feathers, great burthens of cotton, cucumbers, sundry sortes of pulses, many kindes of sea fish, and of the fresh water, great store of fruites, and venison without number, not reckoning an infinite number of presents, which other kings and lords sent to the new king. All this tribute marched in order according to the provinces, and before them the stewards and receivers, with divers markes and ensignes, in very goodly order: so as it was one of the goodliest things of the feast, to see the entry of the tribute. The King being crowned, he imploied himselfe in the conquest of many provinces, and for that he was both valiant and vertuous, hee still increased more and more, using in all his affaires the counsell and industry of his generall Tlacaellec, whom he did alwaies love and esteeme very much, as hee had good
542 The Naturall and Morallreason. The warre wherein hee was most troubled and of greatest difficultie, was that of the province of Chalco, wherein there happened great matters, whereof one was very remarkable, which was, that they of Chalcas had taken a brother of Motecumaes in the warres, whome they resolved to choose for their king, asking him very curtcously if he would accept of this charge. He answered (after much importunity, still persisting therein), that if they meant plainely to choose him for their king, they should plant in the market place a tree or very high stake, on the toppe whereof they should make a little scaffold, and meanes to mount unto it. The Chalcas supposing it had beene some ceremony to make himselfe more apparent, presently effected it; then assembling all his Mexicaines about the stake, he went to the toppe with a garland of flowers in his hand, speaking to his men in this maner, O valiant Mexicaines, these men will choose mee for their King: but the gods will not permit that to be a King I should committe any treason against my countrie, but contrariwise, I wil that you learne by me that it behoveth us rather to indure death then to ayde our enemies. Saying these wordes he cast himselfe downe, and was broken in a thousand peeces, at which spectacle the Chalcos had so great horror and dispite, that presently they fell upon the Mexicaines and slew them all with their launces, as men whom they held too prowde and inexorable, saying, they had divelish hearts. It chanced the night following, they heard two owles making a mournefull cry, which they did interpret as an unfortunate signe, and a presage of their neere destruction, as it succeeded: for King Motecuma went against them in person with all his power, where he vanquished them, and ruined all their
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 543kingdome; and passing beyond the mountaine Menade [Sierra Nevada], hee conquered still even unto the North sea. Then returning towards the South sea, hee subdued many provinces, so as he became a mighty King, all by the helpe and counsell of Tlacaellec, who in a manner conquered all the Mexicaine nation. Yet hee held an opinion (the which was confirmed) that it was not behoovefull to conquer the province of Tlascalla, that the Mexicaines might have a fronter enemy, to keepe the youth of Mexico in exercise and allarme: and that they might have numbers of captives to sacrifice to their idols, wherein they did waste (as hath beene said) infinite numbers of men, which should bee taken by force in the warres. The honour must be given to Motecuma, or to speake truly, to Tlacaellec his Generall, for the good order and policy setled in the realme of Mexico, as also for the counsells and goodly enterprises which they did execute; and likewise for the numbers of Judges and Magistrates, being as well ordered there as in any common-weale; yea, were it in the most nourishing of Europe. This King did also greatly increase the Kings house, giving it great authoritie, and appointing many and sundry officers, which served him with great pompe and ceremony, hee was no lesse remarkable touching the devotion and service of his idolls, increasing the number of his Ministers and instituting new ceremonies, where unto hee carried a great respect.
Hee built that great temple dedicated to their god Vitzilipuztli, whereof is spoken in the other Booke. He did sacrifice at the dedication of this temple, a great number of men, taken in sundry victories: finally injoying his Empire in great prosperitie: hee fell sicke, and
544 The Naturall and Moralldied, having raigned twenty-eight yeares, onlike to his successor Ticocic, who did not resemble him, neither in valour, nor in good fortune.
How Tlacaellec refused to be King, and of the election and deedes of Ticocic.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 545seeming to him, though he were not king, yet in a maner that he commanded kings, suffering him to carry certaine markes, as a Tiara or ornament for the head, which belonged onely to themselves. Yet this act deserves greater commendation, and to be well considered of, in that he held opinion to be better able to serve his common-weale as a subject, then being a soveraigne Lord. And as in a comedie he deserves most commendation that represents the personage that imports most, bee it of a sheepheard or a peasant, and leave the King or Captaine to him that can performe it: so in good Philosophy, men ought to have a special regard to the common good, and apply themselves to that office and place which they best understand. But this philosophic is farre from that which is practised at this day. But let us return to our discourse, and say, that in recompense of his modestie, and for the respect which the Mexicaine Electors bare him, they demanded of Tlacaellec (that seeing he would not raigne) whom he thought most fit: whereupon he gave his voice to a sonne of the deceased king, who was then very yong, called Ticocic: but they replied that his shoulders were very weake to beare so heavy a burthen. Tlacaellec answered that he was there to help him to beare the burthen, as he had done to the deceased: by meanes whereof they tooke their resolution, and Ticocic was chosen, to whom were done all the accustomed ceremonies.
They pierced his nosthrils, and for an ornament put an emerald therein: and for this reason, in the Mexicaine bookes, this king is noted by his nosthrills pierced. Hee differed much from his father and predecessor, being noted for a coward, and not valiant. He went to
546 The Naturall and Morallmake warre for his coronation, in a province that was rebelled, where he lost more of his own men then hee tooke captives: yet he returned, saying, that hee brought the number of captives required for the sacrifice of his coronation, and so hee was crowned with great solemnitie. But the Mexicaines, discontented to have a king so little disposed to warre, practised to hasten his death by poison. For this cause hee continued not above foure yeares in the kingdome: whereby wee see that the children do not alwaies follow the blood and valour of their fathers: and the greater the glorie of the predecessors hath beene, the more odious is the weakenes and cowardise of such that succeed them in command, and not in merit. But this losse was well repaired by a brother of the deceased, who was also sonne to great Motecuma, called Axayaca, who was likewise chosen by the advice of Tlacaellec, wherein hee happened better than before.
LAND, ANIMALS, AND INHABITANTS OF MEXICO
Of the death of Tlacaelloc, and the deedes of Axayaca, the seventh King of Mexicaines.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 547charge and ensignes of Captaine Generall, with all the preeminences of his father: wherewith the old man remained so well satisfied, as with this content he ended his daies. If hee had not passed to another life, they might have held themselves very happy, seeing that of so poore and small a cittie, wherein he was borne, he established, by his valour and magnanimitie, so great, so rich, and so potent a kingdome. The Mexicans made his funerall, as the founder of that Empire, more sumptuous and stately, then they had done to their former kings. And presently after Axayaca, to appease the sorrow which all the people of Mexico shewed for the death of their captaine, resolved to make the expedition necessary for his coronation. Hee therefore led his army with great expedition into the province of Tequantepec, two hundred leagues from Mexico, where he gave battaile to a mighty army and an infinite number of men assembled together, as well out of that province, as from their neighbours, to oppose themselves against the Mexicans. The first of his campe that advanced himselfe to the combate, was the King himselfe, defying his ennemies, from whome hee made shewe to fly when they charged him, untill he had drawne them into an ambuscadoe, where many souldiers lay hidden under straw, who suddenly issued forth, and they which fled, turned head: so as they of Tequantepec remained in the midst of them, whom they charged furiously, making a great slaughter of them: and following their victory, they razed their citty and temple, punishing all their neighbours rigorously. Then went they on farther, and without any stay, conquered to Guatulco, the which is a port at this day well knowne in the South sea. Axayaca returned
548 The Naturall and Morallto Mexico with great and rich spoiles, where lie was honourably crowned, with sumptuous and stately preparation of sacrifices, tributes, and other things, whither many came to see his coronation. The Kings of Mexico received the crowne from the hands of the King of Tescuco, who had the preeminence. He made many other enterprises, where he obtained great victories, being alwaies the first to leade the army, and to charge the enemy: by the which hee purchased the name of a most valiant captaine: and not content to subdue strangers, he also suppressed his subiects which had rebelled, which never any of his predecessors ever could doe, or durst attempt. We have already shewed how some seditious of Mexico had divided themselves from that common-weale, and built a cittie neare unto them, which they called Tlatelulco, whereas now Saint Jaques is.
These being revolted, held a faction aparte, and encreased and multiplied much, refusing to acknowledge the kings of Mexico, nor to yeeld them obedience. The king Axayaca sent to advise them not to live divided, but being of one bloud, and one people, to joyne together, and acknowledge the king of Mexico: whereupon the Lorde of Tlatelulco made an aunswere full of pride and disdaine, defieing the king of Mexico to single combat with himselfe: and presently mustred his men, commaunding some of them to hide themselves in the weeds of the Lake: and the better to deceive the Mexicans, ho commaunded them to take the shapes of ravens, geese, and other beasts, as frogs, and such like, supposing by this meanes to surprise the Mexicans as they should passe by the waies and cawsies of the Lake. Having knowledge of this defie [defiance], and of his adversaries policie,
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 549he divided his army, giving a part to his generall, the sonne of Tlacaellec, commaunding him to charge this ambuscadoe in the Lake: and he with the rest of his people, by an unfrequented way, went and incamped before Tlatelulco. Presently hee called him who had defied him to performe his promise, and as the two Lordes of Mexico and Tlatelulco advaunced, they commaunded their subjects not to moove, untill they had seene who should be conquerour, which was done, and presently the two Lordes in countered valiantly, where having fought long, in the end the Lorde of Tlatelulco was forced to turne his backe, being unable to indure the furious charge of the king of Mexico. Those of Tlatelulco seeing their captaine flie, fainted, & fled likewise, but the Mexicans following them at the heeles, charged them furiously: yet the Lord of Tlatelulco escaped not the hands of Axayaca: for thinking to save himselfe, he fled to the toppe of the temple, but Axayaca folowed him so neere, as he seised on him with great force, and threw him from the toppe to the bottome, and after set fire on the temple and the cittie. Whilest this passed at Tlatelulco, the Mexicane generall was very hote in the revenge of those that pretended to defeate him by pollicie, & after he had forced them to yeelde, and to cry for mercy, the general sayed he would not pardon them until they had first performed the offices of those figures they represented, and therefore he would have them crie like frogges and ravens, every one according to the figure which he had undertaken, else they had no composition: which thing he did to inocke them with their own policie. Feare and necessitie be perfect teachers: so as they did sing and crie with all the differences of voyces that were commaunded
550 The Naturall and Morallthem, to save their lives, although they were much grieved at the sport their enimies made at them. They say that unto this day, the Mexicans use to jeast at the Tlatelulcans, which they beare impatiently, when they putte them in minde of this singing and crying of beasts. King Axayaca tooke pleasure at this scorne and disgrace, and presently after they retourned to Mexico with great joy. This king was esteemed for one of the best that had commaunded in Mexico. Hee raigned eleaven yeares, and one succeeded that was much inferiour unto him in valour and vertue.
Of the deedes of Autzol the eight King of Mexico.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 551matter; by meanes whereof, both hee and his men might passe to the enemy, where giving them battell, he conquered them and punished them at his pleasure. Then returned hee unto Mexico in triumph, and with great riches, to bee crowned King, according to their custome. Autzol extended the limits of his kingdome farre, by many conquests, even unto Guatimalla, which is three hundred leagues from Mexico. He was no less liberall than valiant: for whenas the tributes arrived (which as I have saide) came in great aboundaunce, hee went foorth of his pallace, gathering together all the people into one place, then commaunded he to bring all the tributes, which hee divided to those that had neede. To the poore he gave stuffes to make apparrell, and meate, and whatsoever they had neede of in great aboundaunce, and things of value, as golde, silver, jewels, and feathers, were divided amongst the captaines, souldiers, and servants of his house, according to every mans merite. This Autzol was likewise a great polititian, hee pulled downe the houses ill built, and built others very sumptuous. It seemed unto him that the city of Mexico had too litle water, and that the lake was very muddy, and therefore hee resolved to let in a great course of water, which they of Cuyoacan used. For this cause he called the chiefe man of the cittie unto him, being a famous sorcerer; having propounded his meaning unto him, the sorcerer wished him to be well advised what hee did, being a matter of great difficulty, and that hee understoode, if he drew the river out of her ordinary course, making it passe to Mexico, hee would drowne the citty. The king supposed these excuses were but to frustrate the effect of his designe, being therefore in choler, he dismissed him home;
552 The Naturall and Moralland a few dayes after hee sent a provost to Cuyoacan, to take this sorcerer: who, having understanding for what intent the kings officers came, he caused them to enter his house, and then he presented himself unto them in the forme of a terrible eagle, wherewith the provost and his companions being terrified, they returned without taking him. Autzol, incensed here with, sent others, to whome hee presented himselfe in forme of a furious tygre, so as they durst not touch him. The third came, and they found him in the forme of a horrible serpent, whereat they were much afraide. The king mooved the more with these dooings, sent to tell them of Cuyoacan, that if they brought not the sorcerer bound unto him, he would raze their citty. For feare whereof, or whether it were of his owne free will, or being forced by the people, he suffered himselfe to be led to the kinge, who presently caused him to be strangled, and then did he put his resolution in practise, forcing a chanell whereby the water might passe to Mexico, whereby hee brought a great current of water into the lake, which they brought with great ceremonies and superstitions, having priests casting incense along the banks, others sacrificed quailes, and with the bloud of them sprinckled the channell bankes, others sounding of cornets, accompanied the water with their musicke. One of the chiefe went attired in a habite like to their goddesse of the water, and all saluted her, saying, that shee was welcome. All which things are painted in the Annales of Mexico: which booke is now at Home in the holy library, or Vaticane, where a father of our company, that was come from Mexico, did see it, and other histories, the which he did expound to the keeper of his Holinesse library, taking great delight to understand
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 553this booke, which before hee could never comprehend. Finally, the water was brought to Mexico, but it came in such aboundaunce, that it had wel neere drowned the cittie, as was fore told: and in effect it did ruino a great parte thereof, but it was presently prevented by the industry of Autzol, who caused an issue to be made to draw foorth the water: by meanes whereof hee repaired the buildings that were fallen, with an exquisite worke, being before but poore cottages. Thus he left the citty invironed with water, like another Venice, and very well built: he raigned eleven yeares, and ended with the last and greatest successor of all the Mexicans.
Of the election of great Motecuma, the last King of Mexico.
554 The Naturall and Moralland the kingdome of Jesus Christ, I will relate more at large the actes of Motecuma, then of the rest.
Before he came to be king, he was by disposition very grave and stayed, and spake little, so as when he gave his opinion in the privy counsell, whereat he assisted, his speeches and discourses made every one to admire him, so as even then he was feared and respected. He retired himselfe usually into a Chappell, appointed for him in the Temple of Vitzilipuzli, where they said their Idoll spake unto him: and for this cause hee was helde very religious and devout. For these perfections then, being most noble and of great courage, his election was short and easie, as a man upon whom al mens eyes were fixed, as woorthy of such a charge. Having intelligence of this election, hee hidde himselfe in this chappell of the Temple, whether it were by judgement (apprehending so heavy and hard a burthen as to govern such a people), or rather, as I believe, through hypocrisie, to show that he desired not Empire. In the end they found him, and led him to the place of councell, whither they accompanied him with all possible joy. Hee marched with such a gravitie, as they all sayd the name of Motecuma agreed very wel with his nature, which is as much to say, an angry Lord. The electors did him great reverence, giving him notice that hee was chosen king: from thence he was ledde before the harth of their gods, to give incense, where he offered sacrifices in drawing bloud from his cares, & the calves of his legges, according to their custome. They attired him with the royall ornaments, and pierced the gristle of his nostrils, hanging thereat a rich emerald, a barbarous & troublous custom, but the desire of rule made all
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 555paine light and easie. Being seated in his throne, he gave audience to the Orations and Speeches that were made unto him, which, according unto their custome were eloquent and artificial). The first was pronounced by the King of Tescuco, which, being preserved, for that it was lately delivered, & very worthy to be heard, I will set it downe word by word, and thus hee sayde: The concordance and unitie of voyces upon thy election, is a sufficient testimonie (most noble yong man) of the happines the realme shall receive, as well deserving to be commaunded by thee, as also for the generall applause which all doe show by means thereof. Wherein they have great reason, for the Empire of Mexico doth alreadie so farre extend it selfe, that to governe a world, as it is, and to beare so heavy a burthen, it requires no lesse dexteritie and courage, than that which is resident in thy firm and valiant heart, nor of lesse wisedome and Judgement than thine. I see and know plainely, that the mightie God loveth this Cittie, seeing he hath given understanding to choose what was fit. For who will not believe that a Prince, who before his raigne had pierced the nine vaultes of heaven, should not likewise nowe obtaine those things that are carthlic to releeve his people, aiding himselfe with his best Judgement, being thereunto bound by the dutie and charge of a king. Who will likewise beleeve that the great courage which thou hast alwaies valiantly shewed in matters of importance, shuld now faile thee in matters of greatest need? Who will not perswade himselfe but the Mexicaine Empire is come to the height of their soveraignetie, seeing the Lorde of things created hath imparted so great graces unto thee, that with thy looke onelie thou breedest admiration in them that beholde thee? Rejoice, then, O happy land, to whom the Creator hath given a Prince, as a firme pillar to support thee, which shall be thy father and thy defence, by whom thou shalt be succoured
556 The Naturall and Morallat neede, who wil be more than a brother to his subiects, for his pietie and clemencie. Thou hast a king, who in regard of his estate is not inclined to delights, or will lie stretched out upon his bed, occupied in pleasures and vices; but contrariwise in the middest of his sweete and pleasant sleepe, hee will sodainely awake, for the care he must have over thee, and will not feele the taste of the most savourie meates, having his spirites transported with the imagination of thy good. Tell mee, then (O happy realme), if I have not reason to say that thou oughtest rejoyce, having found such a King. And thou noble yong man, and our most mightie Lorde, be confident, and of good courage, that seeing the Lorde of things created hath given thee this charge, hee will also give thee force and courage to mannage it: and thou maiestwell hope, that he which in times past hath used so great bountie towardes thee, wil not now denie thee his greater gifts, seeing he hath given thee so great a charge, which I wish thee to enioy manie yeares. King Motecuma was very attentive to this Discourse, which, being ended, they say he was so troubled, that indevouring thrice to answer him, hee could not speake, being overcome with teares, which joy and content doe usually cause, in signe of great humilitie. In the end, being come to himselfe, he spake briefly, I were too blinde, good king of Tescuco, if I did not know, that what thou hast spoken unto me, proceeded of meere favour, it pleaseth you to show me, seeing among so manie noble and valiant men within this realme, you have made choise of the least sufficient and in trueth, I find myself so incapable of a charge of so great importance, that I know not what to doe, but to beseech the Creator of all created things, that he will favour mee, and I intreate you all to pray unto him for me. These words uttered, hee began again to weepe.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 557
How Motecuma ordered the service of his house, and of the warre hee made for his coronation.
558 The Naturall and Morallwhither he led the flower of his people, well appointed. There he warred with such valour and dexteritie that in the end he subdued all the province, and punished the rebells severely, returning with a great number of captives for the sacrifices and many other spoiles. All the citties made him solemne receptions at his returne, arid the Lords thereof gave him water to wash, performing the offices of servants, a thing not used by any of his predecessors. Such was the feare and respect they bare him. In Mexico they made the feasts of his coronation with great preparations of dances, comedies, banquets, lights, and other inventions for many daies. And there came so great a wealth of tributes from all his countries that strangers unknowne came to Mexico, and their very enemies resorted in great numbers disguised to see these feasts, as those of Tlascalla and Mechouacan: the which Motecuma having discovered, he commanded they should be lodged and gently intreated, and honoured as his own person. He also made them goodly galleries like unto his owne, where they might see and behold the feasts. So they entred by night to those feasts, as the king himselfe, making their sportes and maskes. And for that I have made mention of these provinces, it shall not be from the purpose to understand that the inhabitants of Mechouacan, Tlascalla, and Tepeaca, would never yeelde to the Mexicans, but did alwaies fight valiantly against them; yea, sometimes the Mechouacans did vanquish the Mexicans, as also those of Tepeaca did. In which place the Marquis Don Fernand Cortes, after that he and the Spaniards were expelled Mexico, pretended to build their first cittie, the which he called (if I remember rightly) Segura de la Frontiera. But this peopling continued
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 559little: for having afterwards reconquered Mexico, all the Spaniards went to inhabite there. To conclude, those of Tepeaca, Tlascalla, and Mechouacan have beene alwaies enemies to the Mexicans, although Motecuma said unto Cortes that he did purposely forbeare to subdue them, to have occasion to exercise his men of warre, and to take numbers of captives.
Of the behaviour and greatnes of Motecuma.
560 The Naturall and Morallto the judges, provoking them to do injustice. If they offended, they were presently punished with death, without remission or respect, were they Noblemen or his kinsmen: yea, his owne brethren. He was little conversant with his people, and seldome seene, retyring himselfe most commonly to care for the government of his realme. Besides that hee was a great justicier and very noble, hee was very valiant and happy, by meanes whereof hee obtained great victories, and came to this greatnes, as is written in the Spanish histories, whereon it seemes needelesse to write more. I will onely have a care heereafter to write what the bookes and histories of the Indies make mention of, the which the Spanish writers have not observed, having not sufficiently understood the secrets of this country, the which are things very worthy to be knowne, as we shall see heereafter.
Of the presages and strange prodigies which happened in Mexico before the fall of their Empire.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 561this might partly serve as an advertisement to men, and to be the beginning of the paine and chastisement, by the feare and amazement they bring. It is written in the second booke of Macabees that before that great change and persecution of the people of Israel, which was caused by the tyranny of Antiochus, surnamed Epiphanes, whome the holy Scriptures call the root of sinne, there were seene for forty dayes together thorowout all Jerusalem great squadrons of horsemen in the ayre, who with their armour guilt, their lances and targets, and uppon furious horses, with their swordes drawne did strike, skirmish and incounter one against the other: and they say that the inhabitants of Jerusalem seeing this, they prayed to our Lord to appease his wrath, and that these prodegies might turne to good. It is likewise written in the booke of Wisedome, That when God would drawe his people out of Egypt, and punish the Egyptians, some terrible & fearefull visions appeared unto them, as fires seene out of time in horrible formes. Joseph in his booke of the Jewish warres sheweth many and great wonders going before the destruction of Jerusalem, and the last captivitie of his wicked people, whome God justly abhorred: and Eusebius of Cesarea, with others, alleadge the same texts, authorizing prognostications. The Histories are full of like observations in great changes of states and commonweales, as Paulus Orosius witnesseth of many: and without doubt this observation is not vaine nor unprofitable: for although it be vanitie, yea, superstition, forbidden, by the lawe of our God, lightly to beleeve these signes and tokens, yet in matters of great moment, as in the changes of nations, kingdoms, and notable laws, it is no vaine thing, but rather certaine and assured, to beleeve
562 The Naturall and Morallthat the wisdome of the most High dooth dispose and suffer these things, foretelling what shoulde happen, to serve (as I have saide) for an advertisement to some and a chasticement to others, and as a witnes to all, that the king of heaven hath a care of man: who as he hath appointed great and fearefull tokens of that great change of the world, which shall bee the day of Judgement, so doth it please him to send wonderful signes to demonstrate lesser changes in divers partes of the world, the which are remarkable, whereof he disposeth according to his eternall wisdome. Wee must also understand that although the divell be the father of lies, yet the King of Glorie makes him often to confesse the trueth against his will, which hee hath often declared for very feare, as hee did in the desart by the mouth of the possessed, crying, that Jesus was the Saviour come to destroy him, as he did by the Pythoniss, who saide that Paul preached the true God, as when he appeared and troubled Pilates wife, whom he made to mediate for Jesus a just man. And as many other histories besides the holy Scripture gave diverse testimonies of idols, in approbation of christian religion, wherof Lactantius, Prosperus, and others make mention. Let them reade Eusebius in his bookes of the preparation of the Gospel, and those of his demonstrations where he doth amply treate of this matter. I have purposely spoken this, that no man should contemne what is written in the Histories and Annales of the Indies touching presages and strange signes, of the approching end and ruine of their kingdome, and of the Divelles tyranny, whom they worshipped altogether. Which in my opinion is worthy of credite and beliefe, both for that it chanced late, and the memory is yet fresh, as also for that
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 563it is likely that the Divell lamented at so great a change, and that God by the same meanes begane to chastice their cruell and abominable idolatries. I will therefore set them downe heere as true things. It chanced that Motecuma, having raigned many yeers in great prosperity, and so pufft up in his conceit, as hee caused himselfe to be served and feared, yea, to be worshipped as a god, that the Almighty Lord beganne to chastice him, and also to admonish him, suffering even the very Divelles whome he worshipped to tell him these heavy tidings of the ruine of his kingdome, and to torment him by visions, which had never bin seen: wherewith hee remained so melancholy and troubled, as he was voyde of judgeinent. The idoll of those of Cholula, which they called Quetzalcoatl, declared that a strange people came to possesse his kingdomes. The king of Tescuco (who was a great Magician, and had conference with the Divell) came one day at an extraordinarie houre to visite Motecuma, assuring him that his gods had tolde him that there were great losses preparing for him and for his whole realme: many witches and sorcerers went and declared as much: amongst which there was one did very particularly foretell him what should happen: and as he was with him hee tolde him that the pulses of his feete and hands failed him. Motecuma, troubled with these news, commanded all those sorcerers to be apprehended: but they vanished presently in the prison, wherewith hee grewe into such a rage, that hee might not kill them, as hee putte their wives and children to death, destroying their houses and families. Seeing himselfe importuned and troubled with those advertisements, he sought to appease the anger of his gods: and fur that cause hee laboured to
564 The Naturall and Morallbring a huge stone, thereon to make great sacrifices: For the effecting whereof hee sent a great number of people with engines and instruments to bring it: which they could by no meanes moove, although (being obstinate) they had broken many instruments. But as they strove still to raise it they heard a voyce joyning to the stone, which said they laboured in vaine, and that they should not raise it, for that the Lorde of things created would no more suffer those things to be doone there. Montecuma, understanding this, commaunded the sacrifice to be perfonrmed in that place, and they say the voyce spake againe: Have I not told you that it is not the pleasure of the Lord of things created that it should be done: and that you may well know that it is so, I will suffer my selfe to be transported a little, then after you shall not moove mee. Which happened so indeede: for presently they carried it a small distance with great facility, then afterwards they could not moove it, till that after many prayers it suffered it selfe to be transported to the entry of the citty of Mexico, where sodainly it fel into the Lake, where, seeking for it, they could not finde it, but it was afterwards found in the same place from whence they had remooved it, wherewith they remayned amazed and confounded. At the same time there appeared in the heavens a great flame of fire, very bright, in the forme of a Pyramide, which beganne to appeare at midnight, and went still mounting untill the Sunne rising in the morning, where it stayed at the South, and then vanished away. It shewed it self in this sort the space of a whole yeare, and ever as it appeared the people cast foorth great cries as they were accustomed, beleeving it was a presage of great misfortune. It happened also that fire tooke the Temple, whenas no body was within
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 565it, nor neare unto it, neither did there fall any lightning or thunder: whereupon the guardes crying out, a number of people ran with water, but nothing could helpe, so as it was all consumed: and they say the fire seemed to come forth of peeces of timber, which kindled more by the water that was cast upon it. There was a Comet seene in the day time, running from the west to the east, casting an infinite number of sparkles, and they say the forme was like to a long taile, having three heads.
The great lake betwixt Mexico and Tescuco, without any wind, earthquake, or any other apparent signe, beganne sodainely to swell, and the waves grewe in such sort, as all the buildings neare unto it fell downe to the ground. They say at that time they heard many voices, as of a woman in paine, which sayde sometimes, O my children, the time of your destruction is come, and otherwhiles it sayde, O my children, whither shall I carry you, that you perish not utterly? There appeared, likewise, many monsters with two heads, which, being carried before the king, sodainely vanished. There were two that exceeded all other monsters, being very strange: the one was, the fishers of the lake tooke a bird as bigge as a crane, and of the same colour, but of a strange and unseene form. They caried it to Motecuma, who at that time was in the pallace of tears and mourning, which was all hanged with blacke, for as he had many palaces for his recreation, so had he also others for times of affliction, wherewith hee was then heavily charged and tormented, by reason of the threatnings his gods had given him by these sorrowfull advertisements. The fishers came about noone, setting this bird before him, which had on the toppe of his head a thing bright and transparent,
566 The Naturall and Morallin forme of a looking glasse, wherein he did behold a warrelike nation comming from the east, armed, fighting, and killing. He called his Divines and Astronomers (whereof there was a great number), who, having seen these things, and not able to yeelde any reason of what was demaunded of them, the bird vanished away, so as it was never more seene: where upon Motecuma remained very heavy and sorrowfull. The other which happened was a labourer, who had the report of a very honest man, came unto him, telling him, that being the day before at his worke, a great Eagle flew towardes him, and tooke him uppe in his talents, without hurting him, carying him into a certaine cave, where it left him: the Eagle pronouncing these words, Most mightie Lorde, I have brought him whome thou hast commaunded me. This Indian labourer looked about on every side, to whome heo spake, but hee sawe no man. Then he heard a voyce which sayde unto him, Doost thou not knowe this man, whome thou seest lying upon the ground; and looking thereon, he perceived a man lie very heavy asleepe, with royall ensignes, floures in his hand, and a staffe of perfumes burning, as they are accustomed to use in that countrcy, whome the labourer beholding, knew it was the great king Motecuma, and answered presently: Great Lorde, this resembles our King Montecuma. The voyce saide againe, Thou saiest true, behold what he is, and how he lies asleepe, carelesse of the great miseries and afflictions prepared for him. It is nowe time that he pay the great number of offences hee hath doone to God, and that he receive the punishment of his tyrannies and great pride, and yet thou seest how carelesse hee lies, blinde in his owne miseries, and without any feeling. But to the end thou maiest the better see him, take the sfaffe of perfumes hee holdes
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 567burning in his hand, and put it to his face: thou shalt then find him without feeling. The poore laborer durst not approach neere him, nor doe as he was commaunded, for the great feare they all hadde of this king. But the voyce saide, Have no feare, for I am without comparison greater than this King, I can destroy him, and defend him, doe therefore what I commaund thee. Whereupon the laborer took the staffe of perfumes out of the kings hand, and put it burning to his nose, but he mooved not, nor showed any feeling.
This done, the voice said unto him, that seeing he had found the king so sleepy, he should go awake him, and tell him what he had seene. Then the Eagle, by the same commandment, tooke the man in his talents, and set him in the same place where he found him, and for accomplishment of that which it had spoken, hee came to advertise him. They say, that Motecuma looking on his face, found that he was burnt, the which he had not felt till then, wherewith he continued exceedingly heavy and troubled. It may be, that what the laborer reported, had happened unto him by imaginary vision. And it is not incredible, that God appointed by the meanes of a good Angell, or suffered by a bad, that this advertisement should be given to the labourer for the kings chasticement, although an infidell, seeing that we read in the Holy Scriptures, that infidells and sinners have had the like apparitions and revelations, as Nabucadonosor, Balaam, and the Pithonisse of Saul. And if some of these apparitions did not so expresly happen, yet, without doubt, Motecuma had many great afflictions and discontentments, by reason of sundry and divers revelations which he had, that his kingdom and law should soon end.
568 The Naturall and Morall
Of the newes Motecuma received of the Spaniards arrival in his Country, and of the Ambassage he sent them.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 569which was in the beginning of the yeare 1518, they discovered a fleet at sea, in the which was the Marquise of Valle Don Fernande Cortes, with his companions, a newes which much troubled Motecuma and conferring with his counsell, they all said, that without doubt, their great and antient Lord Quetzalcoatl was come, who had saide, that he would returne from the East, whither he was gone. The Indians held opinion, that a great Prince had in times past left them, and promised to returne. Of the beginning and ground of which opinion shall be spoken in another place. They therefore sent five principall Ambassadors with rich presents, to congratulate his comming, saying, they knewe well that their great Lord Quetzalcoatl was come, and that his servant Motecuma sent to visit him, for so hee accounted himselfe. The Spaniards understood this message by the meanes of Marina, an Indian woman whom they brought with them, and understood the Mexicane tongue. Fernande Cortes finding this a good occasion for his entry, commanded to deck his chamber richly, and being set in great state and pompe, he caused the Ambassadors to enter, who omitted no showes of humilitie, but to worshippe him as their god.
They delivered their charge, saying, that his servant Motecuma sent to visit him, and that he held the country in his name as his lieuetenant, that he knew well it was the Topilcin which had beene promised them many yeares since, who should returne again unto them. And therefore they brought him such garments as he was wont to weare, when hee did converce amongst them, beseeching him to accept willingly of them, offering him many presents of great value. Cortes receiving
570 The Naturall and Morallthe presents, answered that he was the same they spake of, wherewith they were greatly satisfied, seeing themselves to be curteously received and intreated by him (for in that, as wel as in other things, this valiant captaine deserved commendations): that if this course had been continued, to win them by love, it seemed the best occasion was offered that might be devised, to draw this country to the Gospel by peace and love: but the sinues of these cruel homicides and slaves of Satan required punishment from heaven, as also those of many Spaniards, which were not in small number. Thus the high Judgements of God disposed of the health of this nation, having first cut off the perished rootes: and as the Apostle saieth, the wickednes and blindenes of some, hath beene the salvation of others. To conclude, the day after this Ambassage, all the Captaines and Commanders of the fleete came unto the Admirall, where understanding the matter, and that this realme of Motecuma was mightie and rich: it seemed fit to gaine the reputation of brave and valiant men among this people, and that by this meanes (although they were few), they should bee feared and received into Mexico. To this end they discharged all their artillerie from their shippes, which being a thing the Indians had never heard, they were amazed, as if heaven had fallen upon them. Then the Spaniards beganne to defie them to fight with them: but the Indians not daring to hazard themselves, they did beate them and intreate them ill, showing their swordes, lances, partisans, and other firmes, wherewith they did terrific them much. The poore Indians were by reason heereof so fearefull and amazed, as they changed their opinion, saying, that their Lord Topilcin came not in this troup. But
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 571they were some gods (their enemies), come to destroy them. Whenas the Ambassadors returned to Mexico, Motecuma was in the house of audience: but before he would heare them, this miserable man commanded a great number of men to be sacrificed in his presence, and with their blood to sprinkle the Ambassadors, supposing by this ceremony (which they were accustomed to do in solemne Ambassages), to receive a good answer. But understanding the report and information of the maner of their shippes, men, and armes, he stoode perplexed and confounded: then taking counsell thereon, he found no better meanes then to labour to stoppe the entrie of these strangers by conjurations and magicke Artes. They had accustomed often to use this meanes, having great conference with the divell, by whose helpe they sometimes obtained strange effects. They therefore assembled together all the Sorcerers, Magicians, and Inchanters, who being perswaded by Motecuma, they tooke it in charge to force this people to returne unto their country. For this consideration, they went to a certaine place which they thought fit for the invocation of their divells, and practising their artes (a thing worthy of consideration), they wrought all they could: but seeing no thing could prevaile against the Christians, they went to the king, telling him that they were more than men, for that nothing might hurt them, notwithstanding all their conjurations and inchantments. Then Motecuma advised him of another pollicie, that faining to be very well contented with their comming, he commanded all his countries to serve these celestiall gods that were come into his land. The whole people was in great heavinesse and amazement, and often newes came that the Spaniards inquired for the King, of his manner of life,
572 The Naturall and Morallof his house & meanes. He was exceedingly vexed herewith; some of the people & other Necromancers advised him to hide himselfe, offering to place him whereas no creature should ever finde him. This seemed base unto him, and therefore he resolved to attend them, although it were dying. In the end he left his houses and royall pallaces to lodge in others, leaving them for these gods as he said.
Of the Spaniards entrie into Mexico.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 573so to deceive him: whereupon Motecuma was so confounded, that for the feare thereof, he returned to his first imaginations and practises, to force the christians to retyre, by the invocation of conjurers and witches. And therefore he assembled a greater number then before, threatning them that if they returned without effecting what he had given them in charge, not any one should escape, whereunto they all promised to obey. And for this cause all the divells officers went to the way of Chalco, by the which the Spaniards should passe, when, mounting to the top of a hill, Tezcalipuca, one of their principall gods, appeared unto them, as comming from the Spaniards camp, in the habite of Chalcas, who had his breast bound about eight folde with a orde of reeds, hee came like a man beside himselfe, out of his wits, and drunke with rage and furie. Being come to this troupe of witches and conjurers, he staied, and spake to them in great choller, Why come you hither: what doth Motecuma pretend to doe by your meanes? He hath advised himselfe too late: for it is now determined that his Kingdom and honour shall be taken from him, with all that he possesseth, for punishment of the great tyrannies he hath committed against his subjects, having governed not like a Lord, but like a traitour and tyrant. The inchanters and coniurers, hearing these words, knew it was their idoll, and, humbling themselves before him, they presently built him an altar of stone in the same place, covering it with flowers which they gathered thereaboutes, but he contrariwise, making no account of these things, beganne againe to chide them, saying, What come you hither to do, yee traitours? Returne presently and behold Mexico, that you may understand what shall become thereof. And they say that, turning towards Mexico to behold it, they did see it flaming
574 The Naturall and Morallon fire. Then the divell vanished away, and they, not daring to passe any farther, gave notice thereof to Motecuma, whereat he remained long without speaking, looking heavily on the ground: then he said, What shall we doe if god and our friends leave us, and contrariwise, they helpe and favour our enemies? I am now resolute, and we ought all to resolve in this point, that happen what may, we must not flie nor hide ourselves, or shew any signe of cowardice. I onely pittie the aged and infants, who have neither feete nor hands to defend themselves. Having spoken this, he held his peace, being transported into an extasie. In the end the Marquis approaching to Mexico, Motecuma resolved to make of necessitie a vertue, going three or foure leagues out of the cittie to receive him with a great majesty, carried upon the shoulders of foure Noblemen, under a rich canopie of gold and feathers: when they mette, Motecuma discended, and they saluted one another very curteously. Don Fernando Cortes said unto him that he should not care for any thing, and that he came not to take away his realme, nor to diminish his authoritie. Motecuma lodged Cortes and his companions in his royall pallace, the which was very stately, and he himselfe lodged in other private houses. This night the souldiers for joy discharged their artillery, wherewith the Indians were much troubled, being unaccustomed to heare such musickc. The day following Cortes caused Motecuma and all the Nobles of his Court to assemble in a great hall, where, being set in a high chaire, he said unto them that hee was servant to a great prince, who had sent them into these countries to doe good workes, and that having found them of Tlascalla to be his friendes (who complained of wrongs and greevances done unto them daily by them of Mexico), he
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 575would understand which of them was in the blame, and reconcile them, that heereafter they might no more afflict and warre one against another: and in the meane time he and his bretheren (which were the Spaniards) would remaine still there without hurting them: but contrariwise, they would helpe them all they could, he laboured to make them all understand this discourse, using his interpreters & truchmen. The which being understoode by the King and the other Mexicane Lords, they were wonderfully well satisfied, and shewed great signes of love to Cortes & his company. Many hold opinion that if they had continued the course they began that day, they might easily have disposed of the king and his kingdome, and given them the law of Christ with out any great effusion of blond. But the judgements of God are great, and the sins of both parties were infinite: so as not having followed this course, the busines was deferred: yet in the end God shewed mercy to this nation, imparting unto them the light of his holy Gospel, after he had shewed his Judgement, and punished them that had deserved it, and odiously offended his divine reverence. So it is that by some occasions many complaints, griefs, and jealosies grew on either side. The which Cortes finding, and that the Indians mindes began to be distracted from them, he thought it necessary to assure himself, in laying hand upon king Motecuma, who was seazed on, and his legs fettered. Truly this act was strange unto all men, and like unto that other of his, to have burnt his ships, and shut himselfe in the midst of his enemies, there to vanquish or to die. The mischiefe was, that by reason of the unexpected arrival of Pamphilo Narvaez at the true cross [Vera Cruz], drawing the country into mutiny, Cortes was forced to absent
576 The Naturall and Morallhimselfe from Mexico, & to leave poor Motecuma in the handes of his companions, who wanted discretion, nor had not moderation like unto him: so as they grew to that discention, as there was no meanes to pacifie it.
Of the death of Motecuma, and the Spaniards departure out of Mexico.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 577Motecuma caused the Lord to advise them to pacifie themselves, and not to warre against the Spaniards, seeing that (hee being a prisoner) it could little profite him. The which being understood by a yong man called Quicuxtemoc, whom they now resolved to make their king, spake with a loud voice to Motecuma, willing him to retyre like a villaine, that seeing he had bin such a coward as to suffer himselfe to be taken, they were no more bound to obey him, but rather should punish him as he deserved, calling him woman for the more reproach, and then hee beganue to draw his bowe and to shoote at him, and the people beganne to cast stones at him, and to continue their combate. Many say that Motecuma was then hurt with a stone, whereof he died. The Indians of Mexico affirme the contrarie, and that he died as I will shew hereafter. Alvaro & the rest of the Spaniards, seeing themselves thus pressed, gave intelligence to Captaine Cortes of the great danger they were in: who having with an admirable dexteritie and valour given order to Narvaes affaires, and assembled the greatest part of his men, he returned with all speede to succour them of Mexico, where observing the time the Indians rest (for it was their custom in war to rest every fourth day:) He one day advanced with great policy and courage, so as both he and his men entred the pallace, whereas the Spaniards had fortified themselves: they then shewed great signes of joy in discharging their artillery. But as the Mexicans furie increased (being out of hope to defend themselves,) Cortes resolved to passe away secretly in the night without bruite. Having therefore made bridges to passe two great and dangerous passages, about midnight they issued forth as secretly as they could, the greatest part of his people having passed the first bridge, they were discovered by an Indian woman before they could passe The
578 The Naturall and Morallsecond, who cried out their enemies fled, at the which voice all the people ran together with a horrible furie: so as in passing the second bridge, they were so charged and pursued, as there remained above three hundred men slaine and hurt in one place: where at this day there is a smal hermitage, which they unproperly cal of Martyrs. Many Spaniards (to preserve the gold & jewells which they had gotten), perished, and others staying to carry it away, were taken by the Mexicans, & cruelly sacrificed to their idols. The Mexicans found king Motecuma dead, and wounded as they say with poiniards, and they hold opinion that that night the Spaniards slew him with other Noblemen. The Marquis in his relation sent to the Emperour, writes the contrary, & that the Mexicans killed him that night with a son of Motecuma, which he led with him amongst other noblemen, saying, that all the treasure of gold, stones, and silver fell into the lake & was never more seene. But howsoever, Motecuma died miserably, & paied his deserts to the just judgement of our Lord of heaven for his pride & tyranny: his body falling into the Indians power, they would make him no obsequies of a king, no, not of an ordinarie person, but cast it away in great disdaine & rage. A servant of his having pittie of this kings miserie (who before had bene feared and worshipped as a God) made a fier thereof, and put the ashes in a contemptible place. Returning to the Spaniards that escaped, they were greatly tyred and turmoiled, the Indians following them two or three daies very resolutely, giving them no time of rest, being so distressed for victualls, as a few graines of Mays were divided amongst them for their meate. The relations both of the Spaniards & Indians agree, that God delivered them here miraculously, the Virgin Mary defending them on a little hill, whereat this day, three leagues from Mexico, there is a Church
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 579built in remembrance thereof, called our Lady of succour. They retyred to their antient friends of Tlascalla, whence, by their aide & the valour & pollicie of Cortes, they returned afterwards to make war against Mexico, by water and land, with an invention of brigantines, which they put into the lake, where, after many combates, and above threescore dangerous battailes, they conquered Mexico, on S. Hippolitus day, the 13 of August 1521. The last king of the Mexicans (having obstinately maintained the wars) was in the end taken in a great canoe, whereinto he fled, who, being brought, with some other of the chiefest noblemen, before Fernando Cortes, this pettie king, with a strange resolution and courage, drawing his dagger, came neere to Cortes, and said unto him, Untill this day I have done my best indevour for the defence of my people: now am I no farther bound, but to give thee this dagger to kill me therewith. Cortes answered, that he would not kill him, neither was it his intention to hurt them: but their obstinate folly was guiltie of all the misery and afflictions they had suffered, neither were they ignorant how often he had required peace and amity at their hands. He then commanded them to be intreated curteously. Many strange & admirable things chanced in this conquest of Mexico: for I neither hold it for an untruth, nor an addition, which many write, that God favoured the Spaniards by many miracles: for else it had bin impossible to surmount so many difficulties without the favour of heaven, and to subject this nation with so few men. For although we were sinners, & unworthy so great a favour, yet the cause of our God, the glorie of our faith, the good of so many thousand soules, as were in these countries, whome the Lord had predestinate, wrought this change which wee now see by supernaturall meanes, and proper to himselfe which calls the blinde and prisoners,
580 The Naturall and Morallto the knowledge of himselfe, giving them light and libertie by his holy Gospel. And to the end you may the better understand this, and give credite thereunto, I will aledge some examples which, in my opinion, are fit for this history.
Of some miracles which God hath shewed at the Indies, in favour of the faith, beyond the desert
of those that wrought them.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 581it in all their necessities, and obtained all they demanded: so as they brake downe their idolls, and beganne to carry the crosse for their badge, demanding preachers to instruct and to baptise them. For this reason, the province to this day hath beene called S. Cruz de la Sierra. But to the end we may see by whom God wrought these miracles, it shall not be unfit to show how that this souldier, after he had some yeares done these miracles, like an Apostle, and yet nothing reformed in his lewd course of life, left the province of Charcas, and continuing in his wicked courses, was publikcly hanged at Potosi. Polo (who knew him wel) writes all this, as a notable thing happened in his time. Cabeqa de Vaca, who since was governour of Paraguay, writes what happened unto him in his strange perigrination in Florida, with two or three other companions, the onely remainder of an army, where they continued ten yeares with these Barbarians, traveling and searching even unto the South sea, being an author worthy of credite: he saieth, that these Barbarians did force them to cure certaine diseases, threatning them with death if they did it not; they being ignorant in any part of phisicke, and having nothing to apply, forced by necessitie, made evangelicall medicines, saying the praicrs of the Church, and making the signe of the crosse, by meanes whereof they cured these diseases, which made them so famous, as they were forced to exercise this office in all townes as they passed, the which were innumerable, wherein our Lord did aide them miraculously, and they themselves were thereat amazed, being but of an ordinarie life; yea, one of them was a Negro. Lancero was a souldier of Peru, of whom they knew no other merit but to be a souldier: he spake certaine good wordes upon wounds, and making the signe of the crosse, did presently cure them: so as they did
582 The Naturall and Morallsay, (as in a proverbe), the psalme of Lancero. Being examined by such as held authority in the Church, his office and works were approved. Some men worthy of credite report (and I have heard it spoken), that in the citte of Cusco, whenas the Spaniards were besieged and so straightly pressed, that without helpe from heaven it was impossible to escape, the Indians casting fire on the tops of the houses, whither the Spaniards were retyred (in which place the great Church is now built), & although the covering were of a kind of straw, which they call Chicho, and that the fire they cast, was of the wood of fat & slimy firre trees; yet nothing was set on fire, nor burnt, for that there was a woman did quench it presently, the which the Indians did visibly see, as they confessed afterwards being much amazed. It is most certaine, by the relations of many, and by the histories which are written, that in divers battailes which the Spaniards had, as well in New Spaine as in Peru, the Indians their enemies did see a horseman in the aire, mounted on a whit horse, with a sword in his hand, fighting for the Spaniards, whence comes the great reverence they beare at the Indies to the glorious Apostle Saint James. Other whiles they did see in some battailes the image of our Ladie, from whom the Christians have received in those partes incomparable favours and benefites: if I should particularly relate all the workes of heaven as they happened, it would make a very long discourse. It sufficeth to have said this, by reason of the favour which the Queene of glorie did to our men when they were pressed and pursued by the Mexicans, the which I have set downe, to the end we may know how our Lord hath had a care to favour the faith and Christian religion, defending those that maintained it, although happily by their workes they deserved not so great favours and benefites
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 583from heaven. And therefore we ought not to condemne all these things of the first Conquerours of the Indies, as some religious and learned men have done, doubtlesse with a good zeale, but too much affected. For although, for the most part, they were covetous men, cruell, and very ignorant in the course that was to be observed with the Infidels, who had never offended the Christians, yet can we not deny but on their part there was much malice against God and our men, which forced them to use rigor and chastisement. And, moreover, the Lord of all (although the faithfull were sinners), would favour their cause and partie, even for the good of the Infidells, who should bee converted unto the holy Gospel by this meanes, for the waies of God are high, and their paths admirable.
Of the maner how the Divine Providence disposed of the Indies, to give an entrie to Christian Religion.
584 The Naturall and MorallNorth Ocean sea unto the South, being feared and worshipped, not as a man, but rather as a god. Then was it, that the most high Lord had determined that that stone of Daniel, which dissolved the Realmes and Kingdoms of the world, should also dissolve those of this new world. And as the lawe of Christ came whenas the Romane Monarchie was at her greatnes: so did it happen at the West Indies, wherein we see the just providence of our Lord. For being then in the world (I meane in Europe, but one head and temporall Lord, as the holy Doctors do note, whereby the Gospel might more easily be imparted to so many people and nations. Even so hath it happened at the Indies, where having given the knowledge of Christ to the Monarkes of so many Kingdomes, it was a meanes that afterwards the knowledge of the gospell was imparted to all the people: yea, there is herein a speciall thinge to be observed, that as the Lordes of Cusco and Mexico conquered new landes, so they brought in their owne language, for although there were (as at this day) great diversitie of tongues, yet the courtlie speech of Cusco did, and doth at this day, runne above a thousand leagues, and that of Mexico did not extend farre lesse, which hath not beene of small importance, but hath much profited in making the preaching easie at such a time, when as the preachers had not the gift of many tongues, as in old tymes. He that woulde knowe what a helpe it hath beene for the conversion of this people in these two greate Empyres, and the greate difficultie they have founde to reduce those Indians to Christ, which acknowledge no Soveraigne Lord, let him goe to Florida, Brasil, the Andes, and many other places, where they have not prevailed so much by their preaching in fiftie yeares, as they have done in Peru and Newe Spaine in lesse than five.
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 585If they will impute the cause to the riches of the countrie, I will not altogether denie it. Yet were it impossible to have so great wealth, and to bee able to preserve it, if there had not beene a Monarchie. This is also a worke of God in this age, that we, Preachers of the gospell being so colde and without zeale, Merchants and Soldiers, with the heat of covetousness and desire of command, search and discouer newe people whither wee passe with our August, commodities. For as Saint \i>Austin saith, the Prophesie of evangel., ^saias is fulfilled, in that the Church of Christ is extended, not onely to the right hand, but also to the left: which is (as he declareth) by humaine and earthly meanes, which they secke more commonly than lesus Christ. It was also a great providence of our Lord, that whenas the first Spaniardes arrived there, they founde ayde from the \i>Indians themselves, by reason of their partialities and greato divisions.
This is well knowne in Peru, that the division betwixt the two brothers Atahualpa and Guasca, the great King Guanacapa their father being newly dead, gave entry to the Marquis Don Francis Pizarre, and to the Spaniards, for that either of them desired his alliance, being busied in warre one against the other. The like experience hath beene in New Spaine, that the aide of those of the province of Tlascalla, by reason of their continuall hatred against the Mexicaines, gave the victory and siegniory of Mexico to the Marquis Fernando Cortes and his men, and without them it had beene impossible to have wonne it, yea, to have maintained themselves within the country.
They are much deceived that so little esteeme the Indians, and judge that (by the advantage the Spaniards have over them in their persons, horses, and armes, both offensive
586 The Naturall and Moralland defensive), they might easily conquer any land or nation of the Indies.
Chille standes yet, or, to say better, Aranco and Tucapel, which are two cities, where our Spaniards could not yet winne one foote of ground, although they have made warre there above five-and-twenty yeares, without sparing of any cost. For this barbarous nation, having once lost the apprehention of horse and shotte, and knowing that the Spaniards fall as well as other men, with the blow of a stone or of a dart, they hazard themselves desperately, entring the pikes uppon any enterprise. How many yeares have they levied men in New Spaine, to send against the Chychymequos, which are a small number of naked Indians, armed onely with bowes and arrowes: yet, to this day, they could not bee vanquished, but contrariwise, from day to day they grow more desperate and resolute. But what shall wee say of the Chuchos, of the Chiraguanas, of the Pilcocones, and all the other people of the Andes? Hath not all the flower of Peru beene there, bringing with them so great provision of armes and men, as we have seene? What did they? With what victories returned they? Surely they returned very happy in saving of their lives, having lost their baggage and almost all their horses. Let no man thinke (speaking of the Indians), that they are men of nothing: but if they thinke so, let them go and make triall. Wee must then attribute the glory to whom it appertaines, that is, principally to God, and to his admirable providence: for if Motecuma in Mexico, and the Ingua in Peru, had bin resolute to resist the Spaniards, and to stoppe their entrie, Cortes and Pizarre had prevailed little in their landing, although they were excellent Captaines. It hath also beene a great helpe to induce the Indians to receive the law of Christ, the subjection
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 587they were in to their Kings and Lords, and also the servitude and slaverie they were helde in by the divells tyrannies and insupportable yoke. This was an excellent disposition of the Divine Wisedome, the which drawes profite from ill to a good end, and receives his good from anothers ill, which it hath not sowen. It is most certaine that no people of the West Indies have been more apt to receive the Gospel then those which were most subiect to their Lords, and which have beene charged with the heaviest burthens, as well of tributes and services, as of customes and bloodie practises. All that which the Mexicane Kings, and those of Peru did possesse, is at this day most planted with Christian religion, and where there is least difficultie in the government and ecclesiasticall discipline. The Indians were so wearied with the heavy and insupportable yoke of Sathans lawes, his sacrifices and ceremonies, whereof wee have formerly spoken, that they consulted among themselves to seeke out a new law, and another God to serve. And therefore the law of Christ seemed unto them, and doth at this day seeme just, sweete, clean, good, and full of happinesse.
And that which is difficult in our law, to beleeve so high and soveraigne Misteries, hath beene easy among them, for that the Divell had made them comprehend things of greater difficultie, and the self-same things which he had stolen from our Evangelicall law, as their maner of communion and confession, their adoration of three in one, and such other like, the which, against the will of the enemy, have holpen for the easie receiving of the truth by those who before had imbraced lies. God is wise and admirable in all his works, vanquishing the adversarie even with his owne weapon, hee takes him in his
588 The Naturall and Morallowne snare, and kills him with his owne sword. Finally, our God (who had created this people, and who seemed to have thus long forgot them), when the houre was come, heo would have the same divells, enemies to mankinde, whom they falsely held for gods, should give a testimony against their will, of the true law, the power of Christ, and the triumph of the crosse, as it plainely appeares by the presages, prophesies, signes, and prodiges, heere before mentioned, with many others happened in divers partes, and that the same Ministers of Sathan, Sorcerers, Magitians, and other In dians have confessed it. And we cannot deny it (being most evident and knowne to all the world), that the Divell dareth not hisse, and that the practises, oracles, answers, and visible apparitions, which were so ordinary throughout all this infidelitie, have ceased, whereas the Cross of Christ hath beone planted, where there are Churches, and where the name of Christ hath beeue confessed. And if there be at this day any cursed minister of his, that doth participate thereof, it is in caves, arid on the toppes of mountaines, and in secret places, farre from the name and communion of Christians. The Soveraigne Lord be blessed for his great mercies, and for the glory of his holy name. And in truth, if they did governe this people, temporally and spiritually, in such sort as the law of Jesus Christ hath set it downe, with a mild yoake and light burthen, and that they would impose no more uppon them then they can well beare, as the letters patents of the good Emperour of happy memorie doe command, and that they would employ halfe the care they have to make profite of these poore mens sweats and labours, for the health of their soules, it were the most peaceable and happy Christian part of all the world. But our sinnes are often an occasion
Historie of the Indies. lib. 7. 589that God doth not impart his graces so abundantly as he would. Yet I will say one thing, which I holde for truth, that although the first entry of the Gospel hath not beene accompanied (in many places), with such sinceritie and Christian meanes as they should have used; yet God, of his bounty, hath drawn good from this evill, and hath made the subiection of the Indians a perfect remedie for their salvation. Let us consider a little what hath beene newly converted in our time to the Christian Religion as well in the East as in the West, and how little suretie and perseverance in the faith and Christian religion there hath beene, in places where the new converted have had full libertie to dispose of themselves, according to their free will. Christianitie, without doubt, augments and increaseth, and brings forth daily more fruite among the Indian slaves: and contrariwise ruin is threatened in other partes where have beene more happy beginnings. And although the beginnings at the West Indies have beene laboursome, yet our Lord hath speedily sent good worke-men and his faithfull Ministers, holy men and Apostolical, as Friar Martin of Valence, of the order of S. Francis, Friar Domincke de Gerancois, of the order of S. Dominicke, Friar John de Roa, of the order of S. Austen, with other servants of our Lord, which have lived holily, and have wrought more then humaine things. Likewise, Prelates and holy Priests, worthy of memory, of whom we heare famous miracles, and the very acts of the Apostles: yea, in our time, we have knowne and conferred with some of this qualitie.
But for that my intention hath beene onely to touch that which conccrnes the proper history of the Indians them selves, and to come unto the time that the father of
590 The Naturall and Morallour Lord Jesus Christ saw fit to show the light of his word unto thorn; I will passe no farther, leaving the discourse of the Gospel at the West Indies for another time, and to a better understanding: Beseeching the Soveraign Lord of all, and intrcating his servants humbly to pray unto his Divine Majestie that it would please him of his bountio often to visit and to augment by the gifts of heaven this new Christendomc, which these last ages have planted in the farthest bounds of the earth. Glory, Honour, and Empire be to the King of the ages for ever and ever.
(under construction)Another precise correspondence is the practice of fleeing to the summits of pyramids as places of last defense and, consequently, of eventual surrender. Conquered cities were depicted in Mesoamerica by symbols for broken towers or burning pyramids. Mormon records this practice. Other practices of his day were human sacrifice and cannibalism, vile behaviors well attested for Mesoamerica (see Mormon 4:14; Moroni 9:8, 10).  For towers as the last refuge in battle, see Alma 50:4; 51:20; Moroni 9:7. Compare with Fray Diego Durán, The Aztecs: The History of the Indies of New Spain, trans. Doris Heyden and Fernando Horcasitas (New York: Orion Press, 1964), 68: "The Tecpanecs, retreating toward their city, intended to use their temple as a last stronghold, but Tlacaelel [an Aztec leader] reached the temple before them and, taking possession of its entrance, ordered one of his men to set it on fire, having made prisoner all those who were within." Durán, p. 89: "When we reach Totoltzinco the king of Texcoco will set fire to the temple and the battle will come to an end."