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Elias Boudinot
The Second Advent...
(1st ed., Trenton, NJ, 1815)

  • Title Page    Preface    Contents
  • Introduction (pp. 01-07)
  • Scriptures, &c. (pp. 08-142)
  • Inferences, &c. (pp.143-186)
  • The Witnesses (pp. 187-265)
  • End Times, &c. (pp. 266-346)
  • Roman Empire (pp. 346-486)
  • Present Age, &c. (pp. 487-512)
  • Short Summary (pp. 513-578)

  • transcriber's comments

  • Age of Revelation (1801)   |   A Star in the West (1816)   |   Biographical Info.

    This web-document is still under construction

    "Oh! scenes surpassing fable, and yet true "Scenes of accomplished bliss! "Praise in her streets, and in her spacious courts, "Is heard Salvation.
    "One song employs all nations, and all cry, "Worthy the Lamb, for he was slain for us." -- Cowper.

    TRENTON, (N. J.) PUBLISHED BY D. FENTON, & S. HUTCHINSON. ............ 1815.


    [ ii ]

    District of New-Jersey, ss.

    { SEAL} BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the second day of March in the thirty-ninth year of the independence of the United States of America, A. D. 1815, Daniel Fenton and S. Huchinson, of the said district, have deposited in this office, the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit:

    "The Second Advent, or coming of the Messiah in glory, shewn to br a Scriptural doctrine, and taught by Divine revelation, from the beginning of the world. By an American laymen.
      "Oh! scenes surpassing fable, and yet true
      "Scenes of accomplished bliss!
      "Praise in her streets, and in her spacious courts,
      "Is heard Salvation.
      "One song employs all nations, and all cry,
      "Worthy the Lamb, for he was slain for us." --

    In conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, entitled "An act for the Encouragement of Learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned." And also, to the Act entitled, "An Act supplementary to an Act, entitled 'An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned;' and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints."

    ROBERT BOGGS,      
    Clerk of the District of New-Jersey.   


    [ iii ]


    TO have a better understanding of the following work, it is necessary that the reader should be informed of the circumstances attending its commencement, and the manner in which it has been carried on to the present period. Some time about the year 1790, the important events of that day made a deep impression on the author's mind and led him to examine the Scriptures with great attention, from Genesis to the Revelation of St. John. The solemn exhortation of the apostle to his readers to hearken to what the Spirit saith to the Churches; and repeated six times within the bounds of two chapters, fixed his attention to the important call. -- He made the prophetic declarations in the Scriptures, for a while, the peculiar object of his daily studies; at the same time humbly supplicating for aid from, and looking to the Spirit of God, who dictated those prophesies, for being led into all necessary truth, in enquiring into their genuine meaning. He must acknowledge that the passing of the day alarmed him; and he thought he saw the signs of the latter day, foretold in the sacred record, thickening upon him. But here his fears arose, lest he might unwittingly slide into the error of judging of the prophecies altogether by the events, instead of comparing the events with the prophesies. To prevent this, he determined to guard against error, by forming a short compendium of what, on great consideration, comparing those prophesies yet to be fulfilled, with those which had already taken place, he verily believed was the meaning of the Spirit of God in the revelation of his will to his Church, as to what was to take place, as the signs of the second coming of the Saviour, to this our world.

    In doing this he was surprized to find that this glorious event, at the end of Daniel and John's 1260, 30, and 90 days, or years, was the great and leading object of the sacred volume from the beginning to the end. This is the latter days and the day of judgment of Daniel -- The great day of judgment, or the judgment of the great day of the Jews, and the kingdom of Heaven, the kingdom of God, and the times of refreshing and the restitution of all things of the New Testament. In short, it appears to be like a thread running through the whole web, and in which all the lesser objects seem like the woof of the web, to give a complexion and character to the whole system of divine grace and mercy.

    After consulting the Sacred Text, with close attention and critical precision, and comparing the result with the opinions of the


    iv                                             PREFACE.                                            

    most judicious writers on the important subject, he reduced to writing what he concluded was the design and meaning of the predictions and forewarnings of the Prophets, compared with those of Christ himself and his apostles. He then waited to see how far he was warranted in his conclusions by the events which were about to take place, if his construction was right.

    To accomplish this he was obliged to keep a short diary of what was passing on the theatre of Europe. The many instances of exact conformity with the words and spirit of the Scriptures, convinced the author that the wonderful transactions daily passing in the kingdoms of Europe, were an exact fulfilment of the predictions of the Sacred record. That the antichrist foretold, as coming on the earth after the Man of Sin, had literally appeared in the new government of France, having Napoleon Buonaparte for her head, can scarcely be denied by any observing mind, who has become acquainted with the late history of that nation since the year 1790, and compared it with the language of holy writ. -- The emphatic calls of Christ and his apostles on his Church and followers, to be watching and well prepared for this important era, which was to be of such essential and interesting consequence to their eternal welfare, appeared to be the author in so strong a light that he thought it an important obligation to continue his attention to the subject till almost the year 1798, or beginning of 1799, when he was taken off from the subject by avocations that could not be well avoided. Some years afterwards, his convictions on the subject being strengthened by the continuance of important events, corroborating all his views of the prophetic declarations, he was tempted to communicate his ideas, and the observations he had made, to a few judicious friends, whose approbation encouraged him to think of making them public. But the state of his health and other imposing circumstances, leaving him small hopes of ever seeing them printed, he, for a time, determined to leave them in manuscript to those who should come after him, to act as they thought best.

    However, he has lately been prevailed on to make the attempt, from a hope that it will call man's attention to a subject he has convinced himself is all important to the Church of Christ, and to exert himself to do what lay in his power towards completing the work, that it may avail, so far as is plainly and clearly founded on the written will of God.


    [ v ]



    The Scriptures contain a well organized system through the whole -- It is manifest in all the conduct of the great author -- It can only be accomplished by the establishment of the kingdom of Christ -- To this end the apparatus of nature and Providence hastens -- In this world Christ received insult, sufferings and reproach -- In this world also, as mediator, he shall receive glory, homage, adoration and praise -- Hence the earliest dawn of hope to our first parents was ushered in, with the promise, that the seed of the woman should bruise the serpent's head -- Enoch prophesied of his coming -- Noah a strong figure of this event -- The promise more explicit to Abraham -- References to the second coming of the Messiah, in almost every Book of the Old Testament

    THE  PSALMS. Fol. 8.

    David does not explicitly distinguish between the first and second coming -- the greatest part of his language, can only apply to the last -- Instances given -- The 67th Psalm, a prayer for this kingdom -- As the time hastened on, most of the inspired prophets speak of this great event, in an explicit manner

    ISAIAH. Fol. 12.

    Styled the evangelical prophet, foreteld the first coming in express terms -- The second coming plainly foretold by the circumstances and glory attending it here on earth -- The Jews and Israel are again to unite and become one people -- Israel, Egypt and Assyria together to be acknowledged as the people of God -- The earth to be covered with the knowledge of God -- The happiness of that kingdom -- Jehovah will call from the East his Eagle -- and from a far distance land the man of his council -- A sign will be given to the nations -- The prophet's joy at the prospect of this great event -- A standard lifted up against the enemy -- The reason given for this charge -- The Jews to be brought as an offering to the Lord, out of all nations.

    EZEKIEL. Fol. 25.

    Alsp goves a prophetic declaration of the second advent of the Saviour -- Clearly shews the return of the Jews -- God will be their king, and David their prince -- The land of Israel again to be inhabited

    vi                                             CONTENTS.                                             

    and became one nation -- God will make a covenant of peace with them -- a new temple to be built in Jerusalem, different from the former one -- a new division of the land, differing from that of Moses and Jishua -- God to dwell in Jerusalem, in the midst of the children of Israel forever -- Just before this great event, uncommon distress to take place, by which God will manifest his glory.

    ZECHARIAH. Fol. 31.

    These wonderful predictions are repeated by this prophet, who lived 80 years after Isaiah -- He describes the Messiah and asserts that he shall dwell in the midst of Jerusalem -- Points out the time, ascertained by certain events that will take place -- In the issue God shall come, and all his saints with him -- The manner and means by which the great event is to be brought about -- Holiness to the Lord, to be inscribed on the bells (rather bridels) of the horses -- Elijah's coming as his fore-runner.

    DANIEL. Fol. 36.

    Is (with Isaiah) the only exception to the observation, that no express distinction is made between the first and second coming of the Saviour -- The second advent pointed out with precision -- Revealed to him as being a type of the Jews, -- but to Nebuchadnezzar who was a type for the Gentiles, both revealed to him -- Daniel's vision interpreted to him -- Jews' mistakes on this subject -- Probable causes of them -- These events the firm objects of Abraham's faith -- Greatly influenced the pious Jews -- The first authors of the materiality of the soul, silenced by Origen -- Resurrection of the saints at the second advent, confirmed by the practice of Judas Maccabeus -- The Jews under a difficulty arising from the double views contained in the prophecies -- Instances -- Daniel's prophesy leaves no doubt of the meaning -- Daniel's weeks and their calculation -- Events that will introduce these great objects of Hope -- The king or government of a fierce countenance -- Sir Isaac Newton's opinion -- The angel repeats his instructions to Daniel -- Great trouble and disress will precede the glorious kingdom of Christ.

    MICAH. Fol. 72.

    Gives a prophetic view of the same joyous event.

    ZEPHANIAH. Fol. 73.

    Does the same.

    OBSERVATIONS. Fol. 74.

    There appears a continued series of analogy and design carried on by divine prescience relative to the second coming of Christ in glory -- Objections of minute philosophers, vain -- God's dealings


                                                  CONTENTS.                                              vii

    with the Jews, left on record for important purposes -- In general, divine revelation only regards the actions of kingdoms and nations, so far as they respect his Church and people -- The folly of pretended philosophers ...

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    viii                                                 CONTENTS.                                               


    His subject more particularly leading to this event, he dwells on it with great earnestness ...

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                                                    CONTENTS.                                                ix

    He asserts that Enoch, the seventh from Adam, had foretold this great and awful period ...

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    The 15 verses recited -- The first vision of the apostle ...

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    A great Earthquake, or overturning the political state of the government ...

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    Till 360 or 400 years after John's vision, or till somewhere about the year 500 ...

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    BOTTOMLESS PIT. Fol. 330.

    This government full proof of the time of witnesses finishing their prophesy ...

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    The state of the Herman Literati, a confirmation -- By these means France prepared for a revolution ...

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    -- The French armies under the direction of the Girondists every where successful ...

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    -- Emigrants murdered, said to be 2700 ...

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    in a manifeso of the emperor of Germany -- Nobility and clergy reduced to beggary -- The empress of the world, carrying on the secret designs of Almighty God -- forming a prophetic chronology, when the promised kingdom of Christ begins and ends -- False Messiahs -- Archduke Charles of Austria, his character of Bonaparte -- Here the work is left.


    Difficulties in chronology -- Arise from copies of the Pentateuch and the Hebrew Bible -- Mistakes in the genealogy of the Jews from Abraham -- Obviated by the zeal of archbishop Usher, in obtaining the Samaritan pentateuch -- State of the reckoning of each -- The world rather older by one than the other -- Mr. Faber's work on prophesy.


    The judgement day, &c. &c. all Jewish terms -- Most of the expressions in the New Testament taken from the same source -- The kingdom of Christ and of God have the same meaning and refer to the second advent of Christ -- The Jewish liturgy -- Chaldee paraphrase, Talmud, the Jewish writers and their traditions, with the house of Elias confirm the same -- The Jewish opinions, manifest from the questions by the disciples, particularly James and John -- Peter calls it the times of refreshing and the restitution of all things -- Confirmed by the writers of the Apocrypha -- The opinion of the whole orthodox ancient Christian Church, by Justin Martin in his dialogue with Trypho the Jew -- Enoch and the descendants of Noah held the same doctrines -- Must have been handed down to their children after the flood -- Thus the heathen received it -- Origin in his tract against Celsus mentions it -- Several instances from Heathen writers -- So the whole system of Divine Revelation -- Polycrates's Observations -- Edward King's do. -- The doctrine confirmed by John -- Extract from Warner on the common prayers.


    Conclusion from what has appeared -- If it has been shown that revelation has been made, opening up the purposes of God for reconciling the world to himself -- to which end different dispensations have been ordained -- Fixed ages or eras established -- At the end of the present age a more glorious state of things foretold -- Beginning with the second advent of the Messiah -- Edward King's observations -- If certain duties are required, essential to our happiness -- We have been warned of the rise of a government uncommon in all its parts -- From the bottomless pit -- The slaying and resurrection of the witnesses -- And other signs of the times -- Do not these call aloud on the servants of God to discern these

    xviii                                               CONTENTS.                                             

    signs of the times -- The children of God to share in these sufferings encouraged to hope -- Awful address of St. Paul to the Thessalonians -- The destruction coming on the world to be political as well as religious -- Therefore, every character to consider -- Address to friends, of the Roman hierarchy -- Mr. Mede on the the seventh trumpet -- When this beast destroyed, the rest will soon follow -- The great day of the battle of Armageddon -- The great city divided into three parts -- The cities of the nations fall -- The beast and the kings of the earth make war against him who sat on the throne -- The Old Testament bears witness to this awful period -- Mr: Mede on the fourth and fifth vial -- How far this prophesy has been fulfilled -- Particulars of the destruction of Rome by John -- Mystical Babylon to have her Euphrates -- These facts sufficient to alarm European governments -- Protestant nations also deeply concerned -- These governments belong to the Heaven and earth of Papal Rome -- They have the mark of the beast -- Slave trade -- Observations of a pious writer -- The United States of America have also reason to fear~Congress establishing their seal and flag -- America has greatly departed from original principles -- Address to her citizens -- William Penn, a servant of Christ -- Maryland settled by the persecuted -- They also to answer for the slave trade -- Antichrists in America -- The latter times of the Roman government nearly accomplished -- They have the free use of Revelation -- The witnesses of God with them in a living state -- Blessed with political freedom -- The ordinances of the Gospel -- Public worship a most complete exmple of genuine freedom and equality -- Mrs. Barbauld's elegant description of it -- Are favoured with the Scriptures and Men of piety and learning -- Prophesies now closig to a point -- What prophesy is -- Jerusalem trodden down of the Gentiles -- State of the Jews -- The times of the Gentiles drawing to an end -- Pretended philosophers laugh at these doctrines -- Peter's admonition to them -- The question of the second advent herein fully established -- Porteus, bishop of London, his opinion -- No pretensions to determine the time with precision further than it will not exceed the year 6000 -- Have no knowledge but from the Scriptures -- Sufficient has appeared to assure us that many of the preliminary steps have taken place -- The Roman government the fourth kingdom -- Jerome's assertion -- Mr. Mede has put the question out of doubt -- Rome has received her death wound -- Extract from Sharpe's essays -- Events to come on very fast till the seventh vial -- Agree with bishop Newton relating to the unfulfilled prophesies -- The doctrine of the Millenium, steers clear of extremes -- Address of Christ to his people -- the nations of Europe particularly interested in these events -- Calculated to rouse the friends of Zion, both Christian and Jew -- The last deeply interested -- Jonathan Ben Uzziel's opion of the four kingdoms -- The present generation no excuse for infidelity -- Christ the prince of the kingdoms of this earth -- Address to the Jews -- Philo's character of the Messiah -- Objections to

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    Christ's personal appearance on earth, founded on metaphysical arguments, passed by as unworthy of notice -- The object in the situation of Moses -- Dr. Doddridge's comment on Matt. 19th ch. 28th v. -- Whatever Almighty goodness has promised, Almighty power will effect -- The union of the soul with a glorified body, the perfection of human nature -- Kett's opinion on the sleep of the soul -- Words of Scripture repeated -- This work finished with a repetition of the 34th and 35th ch. of Isaiah -- And Lowth's notes And a Psalm of David -- Hymn by an unknown hand.

    [ page xx is blank ]


    [ 1 ]





    In contemplating the scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, a careful observer will necessarily remark, not only an uniformity of design, but also one continued well organized system of conduct, established from the beginning of the world, and predicted to continue to the end of it.

    This authentic history of God's providence throughout, points with an uniform direction to one great object. It is kept constantly in view, amidst all the dark and mysterious, or bright and luminous conduct of the supreme and adorable Creator of the universe, relative to the government of the world; and the final disappointment and overthrow of the powers of darkness, in the restoration of our guilty race, to the favor of God our maker.

    If the scriptures be true, this can only be done by the establishment of the glorious kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ, the mediator between God and man, on his second coming, to the glory of God

    2                             PRELIMINARY  OBSERVATIONS.                           

    the Father, and the joy and comfort of his faithful people, of all nations, languages and tongues.

    To this end, all the vast apparatus of nature and providence, from the beginning of the world, has constantly hastened. -- All the partial or particular dispensations of the governor of the universe towards individual nations or people, have been merely so many necessary steps or means to elucidate, foretel, or accomplish this all important event.

    In short, to use the words of an eminent writer, * "the history of the Old and New Testament," hath a secondary or prophetical sense in many instances.

    Its great events, are signs and figures of things not seen as yet, and many of them are in force as such, at this hour. -- Great things are still to be expected, of which we can form no conception, but as they are set before us in the figures of sacred history.

    God shall descend, and this earth be on fire; and the trumpet shall sound; and the tribes of mankind shall be assembled, as formerly the Jews were at Mount Horeb -- "Distress shall come on a wicked world, when its iniquity shall be full, as destruction did on devoted Canaan, proud Babylon and apostate Jerusalem.

    In this world, the blessed Redeemer, God's only begotten son, -- the express image of his substance †

    * Jones.

    Person, as mentioned in our translation, is certainly not the meaning of the Greek word Uposaseos. vide Parkh in loco and Campbell on the gospels, Diss. x. part v. Sec. 9, &c.

                                PRELIMINARY  OBSERVATIONS.                            3

    received insult, contumely and reproach. -- In this world, he was cruelly scourged, mocked at and spit upon -- In this world, he was condemned at Pilate's bar as a common malefactor -- crowned with a crown of thorns, and crucified between two thieves -- In this world, since his resurrection and ascension, he hath been despised, rejected of men, crucified afresh, and his blood shed for the remission of the sins of ungrateful men, denied by those who profess his name, and treated as an unholy thing.

    How consonant to reason then is it? How analogous to all the dispensations of the righteous governor of the universe? How agreeable to the terms of the covenant of grace, and the promises to the suffering redeemer, that in this world, and by its redeemed inhabitants, for which he has given himself up to affliction and death, he should also receive honor and glory, power and dominion, homage and adoration? Thus he shall see the blessed effects of the travail of his soul and therewith be satisfied.

    The Lord Jesus Christ could only suffer in his human nature -- He was never despised or rejected in heaven, as to his divinity -- He was always, as God and the lamb, loved, adored and worshipped by all the heavenly host. -- St. John, the beloved disciple, testifies, "that he heard the voice of many angels round about the throne; and the living creatures and the elders: and the number of them was ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands, saying with a loud voice, worthy is the lamb that was


    4                               PRELIMINARY  OBSERVATIONS.                             

    slain, to receive power and riches, and wisdom and strength, and honor and glory and blessing! and every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard he saying, blessing, and honor, and glory, and power; be unto him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the lamb for ever and ever! * And the four living creatures said amen! and the four and twenty elders fell down and worshipped him that liveth for ever" † After this "he beheld and lo a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the lamb, clothed with white robes and palms in their hands, and cried with a loud voice saying, salvation to our God who sitteth on the throne, and unto the Lamb.

    The angelic host esteemed it their highest honor to attend him, in his first advent in the flesh, to this our world; and did joyfully recount the glad tidings to the wondering shepherds of Bethlehem.

    They also, with wonder and amazement, attended his temptation in the wilderness; and comforted him in his agonies in the garden of Gethsemane. They devoutly attended his resurrection, and with hosanna's ascended with him to glory. Indeed, legions of angels were always ready to obey his commands,

    * This is exactly thc description given of the throne of God by Daniel.

    † Rev. v. 11. to end.

    ‡ Ibid vii. 9 and 10.


                                  PRELIMINARY  OBSERVATIONS.                              5

    even while sojourning in the flesh. It was daily their anxious solicitude to look into the mysteries of his incarnation and sufferings.

    It was, then, in his flesh as mediator -- as the substitute and propitiation for the sins of men, that he received all the obloquy and abuse. It was in the flesh he suffered and died.

    In the flesh, therefore, as our mediator and great high-priest -- the captain of our salvation; and in this same rebellious world, and from this same guilty race, must he receive the glory, honor, power, majesty, praise and dominion, that are so justly due to him, for all that he has done and suffered for the sons and daughters of Adam.

    Hence we find the earliest dawn of grace and hope to our guilty and despairing; first parents, was ushered in, though obscurely, with the blessed promise, that the seed of the woman should bruise the serpent's head, while he should only bruise his heel. The next encouragement given to them, and which has been preserved on record by the apostle Jude, in his 14th and 15th verses, is more encouraging: -- "And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold! the Lord cometh, with ten thousands of his saints, to execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of their ungodly deeds, which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches, which ungodly sinners have spoken against him."


    6                               PRELIMINARY  OBSERVATIONS.                             

    After this, a strong figure of the deliverance of mankind by the great captain of our salvation, was given to the world, in the preservation of Noah and his family, with a portion of every species of living creatures, in the ark, during the universal deluge.

    Soon after, we find the promise more explicitly made to Abraham, who had been obedient to the call of God, and left his father's house and his country (which was sunk in idolatry, having forsaken the worship of the one only living and true God) to go whither soever God should lead him. To him the plan of salvation by the mediator, was further opened, by showing him the Messiah, his humiliation of suffering, and his coming in glory. Thus; Abraham saw his day, and was glad, for it was then that God did promise that he would assuredly give to Abraham, as the reward of his faith and obedience the whole land of Canaan, in which he then sojourned (a type of the heavenly inheritance,) but of which he held not the least possession; and though at that time a private individual, without power, influence or authority -- in a strange land; yet in him, God did promise, that all the nations of the earth should be blessed; still directing the eye of his faith, to the glorious and triumphant state of the Messiah, who, according to the flesh was to proceed from his loins.

    "Thus he who was promised to Adam immediately on the fall, under the more obscure description of the seed of the woman, who should bruise the head,


                                  PRELIMINARY  OBSERVATIONS.                              7

    of the serpent, was now announced to the world, as the seed of Abraham, in whom all the families of the earth should be blessed. And henceforward we have prediction upon prediction -- ordinance upon ordinance -- promise upon promise -- event upon event, leading to, rising above, improving and enlarging upon each other, like a gradual light of the ascending sun, from the early dawn to the perfect day. We perceive types, shadows, ceremonies, and sacrifices, disappearing little by little; patriarchs, priests, prophets, lawgivers and kings, retiring one after another, and giving place to the Lord our judge, our lawgiver, our king to save us, as the twinkling fires of the night hide their diminished heads, and as the vapors disperse, before the glorious orb of day. *

    There are particular and express referrences to the Messiah, as well to his incarnation, sufferings, death and resurrection, as to his second coming in glory, in almost every book of the Old Testament, particularly in the numerous types and shadows of the law given to Moses in the Holy Mount, till we come to the Psalms; and sir Isaac Newton, who, though so great a philosopher. thought the study of the scriptures among his highest honors, says, "That there is scarce a prophecy in the Old Testament concerning Christ, that doth not, in something or other, relate to his second coming." †

    * 2d. Vol. Sacred Biography, 17.

    † On Daniel fol. 122.

    [ 8 ]

    T H E   P S A L M S.


    WE shall now begin a more particular examination into the revelation of this mysterious truth, from the Psalms inclusive, to the end of the apocalypse of St. John.

    In that book of divine poetry, called the Psalms, David and the other authors of them, under the inspiration of the holy spirit, speak indefinitely of the Messiah's coming into this our world, not particularly distinguishing between his first and second coming. They describe not only his state of humiliation in the flesh, but in the most exalted language, the victorious reign of the Messiah, which in its nature and extent, as there foretold, when compared with what we now know of his first coming, can only be true as it refers to his second coming.

    It is expressly foretold therein, "that the Heathen are to be given to him as an inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth as a possession -- He is to break them with a rod (or sword) or iron, and to dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel -- He is to judge the world in righteousness, and to minister judgment to the people in uprightness. -- His throne, as then established, is to be forever and ever; and the sceptre of his kingdom a righteous sceptre -- A fire is to burn before him, and it is to be very tempestuous round about him. All the earth is to worship him, and sing


                                                  THE  PSALMS.                                               9

    unto his name. Princes and ambassadors are to come to him from Egypt. Ethiopia is to stretch out her hands unto God. He is to judge (or vindicate) the poor of his people, -- to save the children of the needy, and break in pieces the oppressor. -- The promised Messiah "is to have dominion from sea to sea, and from the river to the ends of the earth," that is, from the Mediterranean sea to the Persian Gulf, and from the river Euphrates to the ends of the earth; figurative expressions, to typify the whole habitable earth. They who dwell in the wilderness are to bow before him, and his enemies are to lick the dust. The kings of Tarshish * and of the Isles, shall bring presents: the kings of Sheba and Seba, shall offer gifts: yea all kings shall fall down before him -- all nations shall serve him -- his name is to remain forever and forever; to be continued (or propagated) as long as the sun and men are to be blessed in him. All nations are to call him blessed -- his seed are to be established forever, and his throne built up to all generations -- he is to subdue the people under him, and the nations under his feet -- he is to choose out an heritage for his people, even the excellency of Jacob whom he loved -- all the ends of the earth are to remember and turn unto the Lord, and all the kindreds of the nations shall worship before him, for the kingdom is to be the Lord's and he is to be governor among the nations. -- The Psalmist in an ecstasy of joy, on a prophetic view of this glorious event, cries

    * That is, Spain or some great commercial country.


    10                                               THE  PSALMS.                                               

    out -- "Clap your hands all ye people, for the Lord is to be a great king over all the earth: he shall subdue the people under him, and the nations under his feet. -- God is king of all the earth; -- and over the heathen. -- Through the greatness of thy power, shall thine enemies submit themselves unto thee -- All the earth shall worship thee, and sing of thee -- they shall sing unto thy name."

    The whole 67th Psalm is a prayer for this great kingdom -- "that the way of God may be known on the earth and his saving health among all nations -- All nations whom thou hast made, shall come and worship before thee, O Lord, and shall glorify thy name." -- In the 110th Psalm, it is expressly asserted of the Messiah, "The Lord upon thy right hand shall strike through kings in the day of his wrath -- He shall judge among the Heathen -- He shall fill the places with the dead bodies -- He shall wound the Heads over many (or great) countries" literally in the Hebrew, "the Head over much Country." *

    Thus the inspired Psalmist foretels in emphatic language, the kingdom of the Messiah, which has never yet been verified, although we have seen his first coming in the flesh; and if it is ever to he made good by the event, it must be in some future time, and of course, at the second coming of our glorious Immanuel, as he has himself foretold in his word.

    But it appears, as time advanced, and the end drew nearer, that the declarations of many successive

    * Horn.


                                                  THE  PSALMS.                                               11

    and inspired prophets, gave the most explicit and exact predictions of this blessed event, and particularly Isaiah, Ezekiel, Zechariah, Daniel, Micah, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, as well as the other prophets, who have also been very minute on this subject.


    [ 12 ]

    I S A I A H.


    ISAIAH, who is with great propriety stiled "the evangelical prophet," speaks very expressly on this head, and foretels, in sublime terms, "that a virgin was to conceive and bear a son and his name was to be Immanuel, (or God with us.) For unto his people a child was to be born; unto them a son was to be given --The government was to be on his shoulders -- His name was to be called Wonderful -- Counsellor -- The mighty God -- The Father of the everlasting; age, or the age to come -- The Prince of Peace -- Of the increase of his Government and Peace there was to be no end. A rod was to come forth out of the trunk of Jesse, and a cyon to grow out of his roots; and the spirit of Jehovah was to rest upon him; the spirit of wisdom and understanding -- The spirit of counsel and strength -- The spirit of the knowledge and fear of Jehovah."

    The same evangelical prophet, distinguishes what was to happen in after times, when he says, "that in the latter days (afterwards explained by Daniel more particularly) as meaning the latter end of the 4th kingdom mentioned in his visions that is, the Roman empire or government, (as it was always understood by the Jews before the coming of Christ) the mountain of the Lord's House, should be established in the tops of the mountains, and exalted


                                                  I S A I A H.                                               13

    above the hills, and all nations should flow into it -- and many people should go and say, come ye and let us go up to the mountain of Jehovah; to the house of the God of Jacob, and he will teach us of his ways; and we will walk in his paths; for from Zion shall go forth the law; and the word of Jehovah from Jerusalem, and he shall judge among the nations, and work conviction in many people, -- and they shall beat their swords into plough-shares, and their spears into pruning-hooks. Nation shall not lift up their swords against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.

    The wolf is then to take up his abode with the lamb and the leopard lye down with the kid -- and the calf and the young lion and the fatling shall come together, and a little child shall lead them.

    The heifer and the she-bear shall feed together. Together shall their young ones lie down, and the lion shall eat straw like the ox; and the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp; and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice den -- They shall not hurt nor destroy in all the holy mountain, for the earth is to he full of the knowledge of Jehovah, as the waters cover the depths of the sea. -- The root of Jesse is to be an ensign to the people, and to him shall the nations repair and his resting place shall be glorious."

    About this happy period, in fulfilment of the promises of his word, the dispersed Jews are to be


    14                                               I S A I A H.                                               

    collected together a second time, from the nations of the east, and from the western regions (called in our translations, the islands of the sea) -- "And he shall lift up a signal to the nations; and he shall gather the outcasts of Israel, and the dispersed of Judah shall he collect from the four extremities of the earth. -- And all animosity and envy of the tribes with one another, are to cease.

    They shall together invade the borders of the Philistines westward -- together shall they spoil the children of the east.

    Jehovah shall smite with a drought the tongue of the Egyptian sea, and be shall strike his hand over the river with his vehement wind, and he shall strike it into seven streams, and make them to be passed over dry shod; and there shall be a highway for the remnant of his people, which shall remain from Assyria, as it was unto Israel in the day when he came up out of the land of Egypt -- And his people are to return unto their own land, for he is to have mercy on Jacob, and yet to choose Israel, and give them rest in their own land; and strangers shall cleave to the house of Jacob, and bring the them into their own place; and the house of Jacob shall possess them in the land of Jehovah, as servants, and hand-maidens to his people in their own land; and they shall take them captives, whose captives they were, and they shall rule over their oppressors -- a present is at that time to be brought to him of a people scattered and peeled; and that from a nation


                                                  I S A I A H.                                               15

    terrible from their beginning; a nation meted out and trodden under foot, whose land the rivers have nourished, to the place of the name of the Lord of hosts, the mount Zion.

    In that day, there shall be a high way from Egypt to Assyria; and the Assyrian shall come into Egypt, and the Egyptian into Assyria -- and the Egyptian shall worship with the Assyrian -- at the same time Israel is to be reckoned a third, together with Egypt and with Assyria, even: a blessing in the midst of the earth, whom the Lord of hosts shall bless; saying blessed be Egypt my people and Assyria the work of mine hands, and Israel mine inheritance.

    The earth shall then be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea; and God will destroy the covering cast over all people and the vail that is spread over all nations, and the reproach of his people shall be taken away from the earth -- Every valley is then to be exalted, and every mountain and hill are to be made low; and the crooked paths are to be made straight; and the rough places plain, and the glory of the Lord is to be revealed, and all flesh are to see it. The desert and the waste shall then be glad; and the wilderness shall rejoice and flourish, and the well-watered plain of Jordan shall also rejoice: the glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it; the beauty of Carmel and Sharon -- these shall then behold the glory of Jehovah; the majesty of our God.

    The eyes of the blind are to be unclosed; and the ears of the deaf are to be opened. The lame are to


    16                                               I S A I A H.                                               

    bound like the hart; and the tongue of the dumb is to sing; for in the wilderness shall burst forth waters, and torrents in the desert; and the glowing sand shall become a pool, and the thirsty soil, bubbling springs. No lion shall be there; nor shall the tyrant of beasts come up there; but the redeemed of the Lord shall walk there; and the ransomed of the Lord shall return and come to Zion with songs and everlasting joy upon their heads, and all sorrow and sighing shall flee away. The voice of weeping is no more to be heard in her, nor the voice of a distressful cry -- There is no more to be in her an infant short lived; nor an old man that has not filled his days; for he that dieth an hundred years old, shall die a boy; for as the days of a tree, so shall be the days of his people. The wolf and the lamb shall feed together; and the lion shall eat straw like an ox; but as for the serpent, dust shall be his food. For God will pour out his spirit on the seed of Israel, and his blessing on their offspring; and they shall spring up as grass among the waters, and the willows beside the aqueducts.

    One shall say, I belong to Jehovah, another shall be called by the name of Jacob; and this shall inscribe his hand to Jehovah, and shall be surnamed by the name of Israel. All the remote people of the earth shall look unto him, and be saved.

    Jehovah will call from the east the Eagle; * and from a far distant land, the man of his counsel, to

    * If you suppose the north-west parts of America, are near the north-east parts of Asia, near Kamschatka, as the late


                                                  I S A I A H.                                               17

    bring to pass the design he has formed, and he shall execute it; for the Messiah shall raise up the cions of Jacob and restore the breaches of Israel. He shall be a light to the nations, and salvation to the ends of the earth -- Kings shall see him and rise up, princes shall worship him.

    Jehovah will lift up his hands to the nations, and to the people will he exalt his signal; and they shall bring his sons in their bosoms, and his daughters shall be borne on their shoulders -- Kings shall be their foster fathers, and queens their nursing mothers.

    They from the west shall revere the name of Jehovah; and they from the rising sun, his glory; when he shall come like a river, strengthened in its course, which a strong wind driveth along; and the Redeemer shall come to Zion, and turn away iniquity from Jacob.

    In that day (when the Jews shall be about to be restored to their former prosperity) Jehovah shall summon on high the host that is on high (or the ecclesiastical polity of the nations, perhaps both the Popish and the Mahometan) and on earth the kings of the earth; (or the civil polity or constitutions of the Roman earth or

    discoveries seem to give reason to believe; and if the lost tribes of Israel passed over this strait to America and are to be found there, as Messrs. Elliot, Penn, and others have supposed; then it is possible the Eagle and the man of his counsel may come from that far distant land, and by passing over the same strait to the north-east part of Asia, may be said to come from the east.


    18                                               I S A I A H.                                               

    monarchy) and they shall be gathered together as in bundle (or body) for the pit, and shall be closely imprisoned in the prison (alluding to the practice of crowned heads, casting their prisoners into dungeons, and leaving them in a miserable condition, without examining speedily into their respective deserts) but after many days, account shall be taken of them; (that is, God shall remember them and restore them to a state of comfort) -- and the moon shall be confounded and the sun shall be ashamed for, (or because) Jehovah God of hosts shall reign on mount Zion, and in Jerusalem; and before his ancients shall be glorified"

    So glorious is this event to be, that the prophet breaks out, as in an ecstasy of joy, "O Jehovah, thou art my God: I will exalt thee: I will praise thy name, for thou hast effected wonderful things. Counsels of old times! promises immutably true! -- For thou hast made the city an heap (perhaps the city of Rome, or some other large city of Europe) the strong fortified citadel, a ruin -- the palaces of the proud ones, that it should be no more a city -- that it never should be built up again -- Therefore shall the fierce people glorify thee -- The city of the formidable nations shall far thee: for thou hast been a defence to the poor, a defence to the needy in his distress: a refuge from the storm, and a shadow from the heat! And Jehovah God of hosts shall make for all the people in this mountain a feast of delicacies, exquisitely rich, and of old wines perfectly refined;


                                                  I S A I A H.                                               19

    and on this mountain shall he destroy the covering, that covered the face of all the people, and the veil that was spread over all the nations." *

    The seed of Jacob are (then) to be brought from the east, and to be gathered from the west -- The north is to give up, and the south not to keep back. His sons are to be brought from afar, and his daughters from the ends of the earth.

    Having sworn by himself, the word went forth out of his mouth in righteousness, that unto him every knee shall bow, and every tongue shall swear.

    And when the enemy shall come in as a flood, the spirit of the Lord shall lift up a standard against him, and the Redeemer shall come to Zion, and to them who turn from transgression in Jacob. The nations are to walk in his light, and kings in the brightness of his sun-rising -- The riches of the sea are to be poured in upon him, and the wealth of the nations is to come unto him -- The nations are to wait, and the ships of Tarshish † among the first, to bring the sons of Israel from afar, their silver and their gold with them, because of the name of Jehovah their

    * From this it is pretty evident that there is a veil at present on all nations with regard to the 2d coming of Christ, which the restoration of the Jews will have a tendency to remove. This is typified by the veil that, even to this day, it is said, that the readers in the Jewish worship have, hanging over their faces while they read the law of Moses to the congregation.

    † If the Spaniards in South America should ever proper as a commercial people, they may be meant.


    20                                               I S A I A H.                                               

    God, and of the holy one of Israel, for he hath glorified them. -- And the sons of strangers are to build the walls, and their kings shall minister unto them: their gates are to be opened continually: not to be shut day nor night, that men may bring in the wealth of the nations; and that their kings may come pompously attended; for that nation and that kingdom which will not serve them, shall perish.

    The glory of Lebanon is to come unto her: the fir tree, the pine and the box together, to beautify the place of his sanctuary, and to glorify the place whereon he shall rest his feet.

    The sons of their oppressors shall come bending before them; and all that scornfully rejected them, shall do obeisance at the soles of their feet. --Jerusalem is to be made an everlasting boast; a subject of joy, for perpetual generations -- She is to suck the milk of the nations, and at the breast of kings to be fostered; and to know that Jehovah is her saviour and redeemer, the mighty one of Jacob -- For brass, she is to have gold, and for iron, silver -- for wood, brass, and for stones, iron. -- Her inspectors are to be peace, and her exactors, righteousness.

    Violence will no more be heard in her land, nor wasting or destruction in her borders. Her walls are to be called salvation and her gates praise -- The sun will no more be her light by day, nor the brightness of the moon by night; but Jehovah is to be to her an everlasting light, and God her glory -- Her


                                                  I S A I A H.                                               21

    people are to be all righteous and to inherit the land forever, that God may be glorified. -- His ancient people the Jews (though now dispersed to the very ends of the earth, and a hissing and a bye word to all nations) shall then build up the ruins of old times: they shall restore the ancient desolations, repair the cities laid waste, the desolation of continued ages.

    Strangers shall then feed their flocks, and the sons of the alien shall be their plough-men and vine-dressers.

    They are to be named priests of Jehovah -- ministers of God shall be their title. They shall eat the riches of the nations, and in their glory they are to boast -- Their seed shall be illustrious among the nations, and their offspring in the midst of the people. -- All who see them shall acknowledge that they are the seed, which the Lord hath blessed -- The Lord is to comfort Zion -- He is to comfort all her waste places, and make her wilderness like Eden; and her desert like the garden of the Lord.

    As the earth bringeth forth her bud, and as the garden causeth the things that are sown in it to spring forth, so the Lord will cause righteousness and praise to spring forth before all nations.

    The command of God is to go through the gates -- to prepare the way for his people -- to cast up the causeway -- to clear it from the stones -- lift up on high a standard for the nations -- for behold Jehovah


    22                                               I S A I A H.                                               

    proclaimeth unto the ends of the world; say ye to the daughters of Zion, lo! thy Saviour cometh -- behold his reward is with him and the recompence of his works before him; and they are to be called, the holy people -- the redeemed of Jehovah; sought out, a city not forsaken."

    The reason is clearly given, for this wonderful change in the state and circumstances of God's people, so unlike what they are at present, scattered over the earth, with scarcely a spot to place their feet, which they can call their own; excluded from their city and promised land, which are now in the possession of a powerful nation, and so despised by all the inhabitants of the earth,, that they have scarce a ray of hope left, but from faith in the word of God by his prophets; this alone keeps up their spirits in this day of gloomy darkness to them. God having declared most expressly by his prophet, "that he will create new heavens and a new earth, and that the former shall not be remembered or come into mind any more;" by which it is to be understood throughout the scriptures, the political forms of government in the world, with the grandeur and lustre of their dominions, their political heights and glory.

    But his people shall rejoice and exult in the age to come, which Jehovah creates; for he will create Jerusalem a subject of joy, and her people of gladness, and Jehovah will exult in Jerusalem and rejoice In his people. -- The key of the house of David, shall be then laid on the shoulders of the Messiah, "as an


                                                  I S A I A H.                                               23

    ensign of royalty and government, so that he shall open and no man shall shut; and he shall shut and no man shall open."

    "Jehovah is to come (as introductory to this glorious day) with fire and with his chariots like a whirlwind to render his anger with fury, and his rebuke with flames of fire; for by fire and by his sword, will Jehovah execute judgment on all flesh, and the slain of Jehovah shall be many. -- Jehovah shall come and gather all the nations and tongues together, and they shall come and see his glory; and he will impart to them a sign -- and those who escape will be sent to the Heathen, and the isles afar off, that have not heard of his name, neither have seen his glory; and they shall declare his glory among the nations.

    The Jews are then to be brought for an offering unto the Lord, out of all nations, on horses, in chariots and litters; and upon mules and dromedaries to his holy mountain Jerusalem; and of them shall be made priests and levites -- so that from one new moon to another, and from one sabbath, to another, all flesh shall come and worship before the Lord."

    So explicitly and particularly has this evangelical prophet promulgated the glorious state of Christ's victorious kingdom on earth, at his second advent; as nothing any ways answerable to this transporting description, has yet happened in the world since his first coming in the flesh, it must be yet to come.


    24                                               I S A I A H.                                               

    But this joyous event, has not been left to the testimony of one, or two witnesses; the prophet Ezekiel is not far short of the happy Isaiah, in his views of what God has designed for his people in the latter days.


    [ 25 ]

    E Z E K I E L.


    IT has been owing to an unfortunate propensity of allegorizing or spiritualzing only, the express and comforting promises of a God of truth, that this book has given so little comfort to the people of God. -- According to Ezekiel's prophetic declarations at the second advent of our Saviour, God is to sanctify his holy name (which had been profaned by his ancient people the Jews) among those nations, with whom God had scattered his people (the Jews) for their sins, and the heathen were thereby to know that he was God, when he should be sanctified in them before their eyes; for he will take his people the Jews from among the nations, and gather them out of all countries, and bring them into their own land. -- "Then he is to sprinkle clean water upon them, and they shall be clean -- He is to give them a new heart and put a new spirit within them; to take away the stony heart out of their flesh, and give them a heart of flesh. -- They shall dwell in the land that he gave to their fathers, and they shall be his people, and he will be their God. Their now desolate land is to be tilled and to become like the garden of Eden, and the waste, desolate and ruined cities are to become fenced and inhabited, whereby the heathen shall know the Lord.


    26                                           EZEKIEL.                                                          

    The Lord is to gather the house of Israel from the people among whom they are scattered, and will be sanctified by them in the sight of the heathen, and they are to dwell in their land that he has given to his servant Jacob.

    They are to dwell safely therein, and build houses, and plant vine-yards. Yea they shall dwell with confidence, when God has executed judgment upon all those that despise them round about, and they are to know that he is the Lord.. their God. -- God is to search for his sheep, and to seek them out: as a shepherd seeketh out his flock in the day that his sheep are scattered, so will God seek out his sheep (the people of Israel) and will deliver them out of all places where they have been scattered in the cloudy and dark day -- He will bring them out from the people and gather them from the countries; and will bring them to their own land and feed them upon the mountains of Israel by the rivers, and in all the inhabited places of the countries.

    God will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even his servant David, and the Lord will be their God, and his servant David a Prince among them -- God will make a covenant of peace with them, and will cause the evil beasts to cease out of the land, and his people shall dwell safely in the wilderness, and sleep in the woods -- and they shall be safe in their land, and shall know the Lord, when he shall have broken the bands of their yoke and delivered them out of the hands of


                                              EZEKIEL.                                                           27

    those that served themselves of them; and they shall no more be a prey to the heathen, neither shall the beast of the land devour them, but they shall dwell safely and none shall make them afraid. -- The mountains of Israel are again to shoot forth branches, and yield fruit to his people Israel, for they are at hand to come -- Men and beasts are to be multiplied, and the cities to be inhabited, and the wastes builded. His people are to be settled after their old estates, and God will do to them better than at the beginning. -- God will open their graves and cause them to come up out of their graves, and he will bring them into the land of Israel; and they shall know that he is the Lord, when he shall have opened their graves, and brought them up therefrom, and he will put his spirit in them, and they shall live; and he will place them in their own land -- He will make them one nation in the land, upon the mountains of Israel; and one king shall be to them all, and they shall no more be two nations; neither shall they defile themselves any more with idols, so they are to be his people, and he will be their God, and David will be their prince forever -- and he will make a covenant of peace with them, and multiply them, and set his sanctuary in the midst of them for ever more." -- A new temple is to be built in Jerusalem according to the measures of the angel in the prophetic vision, "and the glory of the God of Israel is to come into it from the way of the east; and his glory is to fill the house."


    28                                           EZEKIEL.                                                          

    This is to be "the place of his throne, and the place of the soles of his feet, where he is to dwell in the midst of the children of Israel forever. The Levites are to be ministers in the sanctuary, or keepers of the charge of the house; but on account of their going astray with Israel, they shall no longer do the office of priest, or come near to any holy things; but the sons of Zadock who kept the charge of the sanctuary, when the children of Israel went astray, they shall be priests and ministers unto the Lord, and keep the charge and be judges in controversies between the people."

    A different division of the land of Canaan among the tribes, than that ordered by Moses, is to take place; with a special allotment for the use of the sanctuary and provision for the princes -- Joseph is to have two portions, and the stranger who sojourns there is to have an allotment also in the tribe in which he lives -- Special provision is likewise to be made by means of a river, that heads in the temple, and runs through the desart into the sea; by which the seas, wherever the waters of this river shall come, are to be healed; and thereby all these waters shall produce fish in the greatest plenty, for the use of the inhabitants; and its borders are to be covered with trees, which are to bear fruit every month, for food; and their leaves shall not fade, neither shall their fruit be consumed. -- The fruit is not only to be meat, but their leaves are to be medicinal, because the waters issue out of the sanctuary.


                                              EZEKIEL.                                                           29

    The city is to he four square, with three gates on each side, to be called after the names of the twelve tribes of Israel -- It is to be round about 18,000 measures; and the name of the city from that day shall be, "The Lord is there."

    But previous to and just before this great event, the peculiar distress foretold in almost every other part of scripture, must take place. "For God calls on every bird of prey, and the wild beasts of the field, to gather together from all places to his sacrifice, which he has slain for them on the mountains of Israel, and they shall eat flesh, and drink blood -- They shall eat the flesh of mighty men and drink the blood of the rulers of the earth; rams and calves and goats and all stalled calves -- And they shall eat fat till they are satiated; and drink blood (till they are intoxicated) of my sacrifice which I have slain for them -- And they shall be filled with, (and devour) at my table, horse and charioteer, mighty men and every man of war, saith Jehovah the Lord -- And I will manifest my glory in them, and all nations shall see my judgment which I have executed upon them. And the house of Israel shall know that I am Jehovah their God, from that day and forward. And all nations shall know, that because of their sins, the house of Israel went into captivity; by means of which (sins) they acted deceitfully towards me, and I have turned away my face from them, and have delivered them into the hands of their enemies, and they all fell by the sword According to their uncleannesses,


    30                                           EZEKIEL.                                                          

    and according to their iniquities have I done unto them -- For this reason, saith Jehovah, God, now will I turn again the captivity of Jacob, and have mercy upon the house of Israel, and I will be zealous because of my name, my holy name. Ad they shall receive their ignominy and (the reward of) all their iniquity, which they iniquitously committed when they dwelt in their land in peace -- But there shall not be any one making them afraid, when I shall bring them again from among the Gentiles, and when I shall gather them together from the countries of the nations -- and they shall know that I am the Lord their God, on my appearing to them among the Gentiles. And I will gather them into their land, and will not forsake them any more." *

    * King's translation.


    [ 31 ]

    Z E C H A R I A H.


    THE account of these prophetic wonders, are also continued by Zechariah, who lived 50 years after Ezekiel.

    He says, "the man whose name is the Branch, shall grow up out of his place, and he shall build the temple of the Lord, and bear the glory, and sit and rule upon his throne. -- And he shall not only be a king, but a priest also on his throne; and the council of peace shall be between them both."

    The Lord is to return to Zion and dwell in the midst of Jerusalem, and she is to be called a city of truth, and the mountain of the Lord of hosts, the holy mountain. -- Old men and women are yet to dwell in the city of Jerusalem, and every man with his staff in his hand for very age. -- And the inhabitants of one city, shall go to another city saying, "let us go speedily and pray before the Lord, and to seek the Lord of hosts: I will go also. -- Yea many people and strong nations shall come to seek the Lord of hosts in Jerusalem, and to pray before the Lord.

    The daughter of Zion is called on greatly to rejoice; and the daughter of Jerusalem to shout; for her king cometh unto her. -- He is to speak peace to the heathen, and his dominion shall be from sea to sea; and from the river to the ends of the earth."


    32                                           ZECHARIAH.                                                          

    And in order to ascertain the period of time with certainty, and to distinguish clearly between the first and second coming of this glorious prince; the prophet declares "that in that day, whenever it shall be, the Lord will destroy all the nations that come against Jerusalem; and will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and supplication; and they shall look upon meLord God shall then come, and all the saints with him; and in that day living waters shall go out from Jerusalem; half of them towards the eastern sea, and


                                              ZECHARIAH.                                                           33

    half of them towards the hinder sea, in summer and winter shall it be; and the Lord shall be king over all the earth; and there shall be one Lord, and his name one."

    All this is too descriptive, and too minute, to suppose them designed, as merely allegorical -- the language being so frequently express and positive.

    This would be unworthy the grandeur of the subject, and the dignity of the kingdom of God so expressly revealed in his word. -- The promises of God are yea and amen -- not a tittle of them shall fail, but all things written in the prophets and the psalms concerning him, shall be fulfilled -- even where the language in scripture is plainly and necessarily figurative as to part of its principal object, often it carries a double reference, and the literal is fulfilled, as well as the figurative.

    The prophet proceeds to foretel the manner in which these great events are to be brought about -- This was necessary, as it had been foretold, that previous to this glorious day, there should be a great falling away among the professors of the gospel, and that the enemies of Christ, and his faithful people, should greatly prevail, even so as to endanger the safety of the elect or church of God, had it been possible.

    Zechariah therefore further informs us, that this "will be the plague wherewith the Lord will smite all the people that shall fight against Jerusalem --


    34                                           ZECHARIAH.                                                          

    their flesh shall consume away, while they stand upon their feet -- their eyes shall consume away in their holes, and their tongues shall consume away in their mouths -- There shall be a great tumult from the Lord among them, and they shall lay hold every one on the hand of his neighbor; and his hand shall rise up against the hand of his neighbor; and Judah shall fight at Jerusalem and the wealth of the heathen shall be gathered together, gold and silver and apparel in great abundance -- And so shall be the plague of the horse, of the mule, of the camel and of the ass, and of all the beasts that shall be in their tents -- And every one that is left of all the nations which shall come against Jerusalem, shall afterwards go up from year to year to worship the king, the Lord of hosts, and to keep the feast of tabernacles; and who so will not come up, of all the families of the earth unto Jerusalem to worship the king the Lord of hosts, even upon them shall be no rain."

    The prophet concludes the descriptive scene, by declaring; with great certainty of expression, that in that day which he had been speaking of, so greatly should a spirit of righteousness prevail, "that holiness to the lord, should be inscribed on the bells (or rather bridles, as it is in the margin of our bibles) of the horses." -- And I will here add in addition to these prophetic declarations under the old testament dispensation, that Malachi finishes his prophecy with, "behold I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful


                                              ZECHARIAH.                                                           35

    day of the Lord; and he shall turn (or restore) the heart of the fathers to the children; and the heart of the children to the fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse."

    It is remarkable that John the baptist came in the power and spirit of Elias, and was the harbinger of Christ's first coming, but he did not restore the heart the fathers to the children; and the heart of the children to the fathers -- this is reserved for the real Elijah, the great harbinger of Christ's second coming in glory, here called the great and dreadful day of the Lord, when all that the prophet has predicted shall be literally fulfilled.

    Our Saviour himself tells his disciples, in Matthew xvii. 11. after John was beheaded, "that Elias truly shall first come," and to distinguish him from John, as Malachi did, adds, "and shall restore all things."

    In all these prophetic declarations, throughout the old testament, the coming of our Lord and Saviour is foretold indefinitely, without distinguishing in express terms between his first and second coming; but leaves the devout enquirer to the nature of the prophecies, and what their peculiar terms suggest.


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    [ 130 ]

    J U D E.


    Jude tells us that Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, in that early day, had foretold this great and awful period, which so substantially occupied the faith and hope of God's people, saying, "behold the Lord cometh with ten thousand of his saints, to execute judgment upon all and to convince all that are ungodly among them, of all their ungodly deeds, which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him."

    conceived which those who are unlearned and not well settled in the faith, like unto these scoffers, stumble, as they do at the other scriptures, taking occasion thereby to stagger and doubt of the truth of God; so perverting the scriptures from their right end, by making them the means of your destruction, which were given by God as a means whereby they might believe and be saved."

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    142                               THE APOCALYPSE  OF  JOHN.                            

    distress and misery that must come on the ungodly, before the nations of the earth can be thoroughly purged, and the glorious kingdom of the Messiah be completely established, yet I do most sincerely pray, that thou wouldst thus come quickly, as thou hast said, that a speedy end may be put to all moral evil, and the knowledge of God cover the earth as the waters cover the seas; to which every real christian, when in the exercise of a lively faith, will also add his hearty "amen! and even so come Lord Jesus!"


    [ 143 ]

    I N F E R E N C E



    Having thus, in as brief a manner as the subject would admit, taken a general view of the scripture testimony, as contained in the old and new testaments, to this essential doctrine of the christian revelation; and attended to the many uniform prophetic declarations concerning it, as the grand leading event on which all the rest depend; holding it up as the chief object of our faith and hope, we are prepared to draw the natural conclusion, that Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, to day and forever, has been the great subject of all the revelations, made by God to his people from the beginning of the world; and that all the provisions for the general instruction and support of the church and people of God, during their pilgrimage in this world, have tended to the same end, as clearly appears from the nature and compliction of the whole taken together. It is now pretty generally agreed, that, the very particular and express communication of things that were certainly to come to pass, supernaturally made to the beloved disciple John, when under a cruel and severe banishment to the desert island of Patmos, was made, and ordered to be written for the support and comfort of the servants of Jesus Christ, during the fiery trials


    144                 INFERENCE  FROM  WHAT  HAS  BEEN  SAID.                

    they were to undergo for almost two thousand years...

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    [ 168 ]

    ON  THE


    OF  THE



    When the eternal God, who is the great first sovereign cause of all things, and who is not obliged to give an account of, or reason for, his conduct to any of his creatures, condescends of his own mere good pleasure, to instruct and teach mankind, his infinite wisdom takes the surest and most likely method of accomplishing his divine purpose, in a way consistent with the free agency of man, and the great plan of his original creation. -- The divine scriptures contain this mode of instruction, which the great author of nature has adopted for the recovery of the fallen race of Adam; and as they were designed for all times and for every nation, as a universal instructor, it was necessary they should be conceived in a universal language; this could be no other, than that of nature; and as the design of the scriptures is to teach us the invisible things of God, which are not the objects of our senses, but of faith and hope; it became absolutely necessary that they should be communicated by the medium of natural things, which are the objects of our senses; by which means every


                                   OF THE  SCRIPTURES.                                169

    sensible object becomes a letter or syllable, of this profitable language, and that to all nations, languages and tongues, teaching the invisible things of God, by the things that are made. Therefore, as Mr. Taylor says, hieroglyphics which represent the sense of the mind, by outward figures or actions, were the first and most ancient literature.

    "The prophetic style (says the late learned bishop of Gloucester) was constructed on the symbolic principles of the hieroglyphics, which were not vague, uncertain things, but fixed and constant analogies, determinable in their own nature, or from the steady use that was made of them; and a language formed on such principles, may be reasonably interpreted upon them." * And in another place, he says, "For as in hieroglyphic writing, the sun, moon and stars were used to represent states, and empires, kings, queens and nobility; their eclipse and extinction, temporary disasters, or entire overthrows, &c. so in like manner the holy prophets call kings and empires by the names of the heavenly luminaries; their misfortunes and overthrow are represented by eclipses and extinction; stars falling from the firmament are employed to denote the destruction of the nobility, &c. In a word, the prophetic style seems to be a speaking hieroglyphic. †

    Dr. Johnson of Holywood says on the subject, "alphabetical characters and words are not

    * Divine Leg. of Mos. vol. 2, page 90.

    † lbid, Lib. 4, sect. 4.


    170                                OF THE  SCRIPTURES.                                

    natural, but are only arbitrary signs, and therefore do change, with the changes of times and of men; but hieroglyphics and symbols, are either pictures of things actually existing, or of ideas which these things naturally excite, and therefore not arbitrary, but natural signs, fixed and permanent as the things themselves -- For the same reason, the symbolical is a universal language -- Every alphabetical language, is loose and changeable, for instance, the Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish, French and English languages were, or are, each the language of a particular district of territory, and are altogether unintelligible to the illiterate inhabitants of any other district; and they have all undergone such changes, that the language of one period, is scarcely intelligible to the inhabitants of the same country in another period of time: since then prophecies are intended for all countries and ages, the symbolical language being universal and unchangeable, must for such a purpose, be the best adapted. *

    Hence the figurative language of the holy scriptures, is the only language that could possibly answer the purpose, as extending to all mankind in every generation; and as an elegant writer expresses himself, "we find it assisting and leading our faculties forward, by an application of all visible objects to a figurative sense, from the glorious orb which shines in the firmament, to a grain of seed which is buried in the earth."

    * Introd. fol. 5.


                                   OF THE  SCRIPTURES.                                171

    When Epaminondas was opposing a number of confederate nations, united with the Spartans as their head, he wished to convince his soldiers of the necessity of their greatest exertions against the Spartans particularly, as the only effectual means of accomplishing their design of full and complete victory, he took a great serpent, in the presence of his army, and bruising its head, shewed them, that thereby, the rest of the body was of no force. *

    The story of Joseph's dream of the sun, moon and eleven stars doing ibeisance to him is full in point. Which see.

    The tribe of Judah is represented by a young lion. Issachar by a strong ass. Dan by a serpent lurking in the road, and so the other patriarchs.

    This may serve to shew the nature of this hieroglyphical language. The Jews understood this manner of writing, being the learning of that age; and it made a greater impression than abstract reasoning, however well conducted. So the government of the world by divine providence and his extraordinary interposition in favor of good men, is represented by a ladder, standing upon the earth, and reaching to heaven, with angels ascending and descending on it, to receive and execute the orders of God.

    Thus our Saviour himself "taught the people in parables, and without a parable taught he them

    * Polyoen, Stratag. lib. 2.


    172                               OF THE  SCRIPTURES.                                

    nothing." The scriptures then are a universal teacher...

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    186                                   THE 11th CHAPTER, &c.                                 

    express declaration, that when the time does arrive, it will be to the world at large, as a thief in the night, though it should be well known to his people, who should diligently attend to his word. "for yourselves know perfectly that the day of the Lord cometh as a thief in the night." *

    We are expressly encouraged, as before observed, to search into the meaning of the spirit of God in these scriptures, when the time of the end shall be near approaching; and are called upon to hear what the spirit saith unto the churches; and as this time of the end, or dissolution of the Roman hierarchy and government, is apparently drawing nigh, it may not be amiss to enquire how the scriptures themselves, have determined the circumstances of these witnesses, as connected with the finishing their prophecy or the end of the 1260 years, by which "the wise may understand." This may be hastened by every one casting in his mite, though in many circumstances he may be mistaken -- a single idea from each, may at last lead to the great truth.

    * 1st Thess. v. ch. 2d verse.


    [ 187 ]



    These witnesses then, are spoken of by St. John, as known subjects, and who were then in being. -- They are particularly said to be Christ's witnesses; and therefore who had been in habit of testifying to the truth. These were to receive a special power from him, to continue their teachings for the term mentioned, in opposition to the powers of the earth, and especially the man of sin in the temple of God, presiding over the churches, notwithstanding all the persecutions they were to undergo.

    I humbly conceive, however I may differ from many great and learned men, that these were not to be a succession of witnesses, but the same specific witnesses, and who had been so from the beginning. -- Had the meaning been of a succession of witnesses, they could not with propriety have been said to have been two, and that they should continue for 1260 years, for it is not the continuance of testimony that is the jet of this subject, but the power given to "his two witnesses" personally to continue during this period; and it is their prophecy or testimony or teaching by virtue of that power that is also to be continued during that period; for a succession of


    188                                           THE WITNESSES.                                          

    witnesses teaching would not have been so remarkable an event...

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                                        OF THE WITNESSES                                   265

    life? Is all pure gold to be condemned and rejected, because the dishonest and unprincipled, have invented a thousand ways of debasing it? -- Do men act thus in human affairs? Will a host of dishonest men, tarnnish the character of one of known integrity, and uprightness? It is by their fruits ye shall know them. "Do men gather grapes from thorns, or figs from thistles."


    [ 266 ]




    Rev. ch. 11, verses 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19. "And the seventh Angel sounded, and there were great voices in Heaven, saying, the kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever. And the four and twenty elders, which sat before God, on their seats, fell upon their faces and worshipped God, saying, we give thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, which art, and wast, and art to come, because thou hast taken to thee thy great power, and hast reigned." &c. &c.

    THESE verses have been quoted for the purpose of shewing to the Church of Christ, the great importance of the slaying and resurrection of the witnesses, with regard to enabling the wise among her children, to discern the signs of the times, and the blessed consequences of the apparent confusion and disorder of 1290 years. As the death and resurrection of Christ, from the dead, brought to life and immortality to light; so will the death and resurrection of his faithful witnesses, open up to the Church, the whole economy and plan of the Gospel, as it relates to her deliverance, from her depressed and suffering state, with the resurrection of the Prophets, Saints, and those who have feared God, both small and


                                   THE TIME OF THE END, &c.                               267

    great, and the introduction of the latter day glory, under the immediate and visible government of her King...

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    [ 282 ]




    It has been justly remarked by Mr. Mede, that to fix the duration of the Church's purity, or the beginning of the reign of the man of sin, we ought not to look so much for the commencement of the power of the Pope as an individual, as upon the apostasy of the Church from the purity of Christian worship, by means of spiritual fornication or the worshipping of idols, of which the Pope was to be the head, and his city (spiritually called Babylon) the metropolis; but the body was to be the Roman empire, divided into ten kingdoms, and reunited under this head, preserving the image of the former Roman government. * This new idolatry, is that treading

    * Therefore the beginning of that apostasy, or spiritual idolatry and fornication, by the worshipping of images, and the doctrine of the intercession of saints and angels, instead of the one mediator, Jesus Christ, as involving every other heresy, must be looked for, as the commencement of the great aera from which all others must be reckoned (and not the temporal power of the Pope,) notwithstanding those other heresies may have preceded it, "for the devising of idols was the beginning of spiritual fornication, and


                              THE TIME OF THE DESTRUCTION, &c.                          283

    down, or profaning the court of the Temple of God; that is, of his visible worship in the Church of Christ, by this kind of new Gentilism, unto which the forty-two months are attributed, as well as to the beast.

    the invention of them, the corruption of life, for the worshipping of idols, not to be named, is the beginning, the cause, and the end of all evil." * The apostle foretels this event. † Speaking; of the mystery of Godliness in the 16th verse, which should be connected with the 1st verse of the next chapter, which was "God manifest in the flesh, justified in the spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory," says "yet the spirit had expressly foretold, that in the latter times, (notwithstanding all this) some should depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits and doctrines of devils," or rather, as it is in the original, of Demons; that is, that there should be a departing from the faith of the assumption of Christ to the right hand of the throne of glory and incommunicable majesty in Heaven, whereby he hath a name given to him above every name, and whereof no creature in Heaven or earth can be capable. What then, is the essence of this dreadful evil, so denounced by the Spirit of God? It is the doctrine concerning demons, or demon Gods. These among the Pagans, were an inferior sort of deities, existing between the Gods and men, as mediators. Plato says, "every demon is a middle being between God and mortal men. God is not to be approached by men, but all commerce and intercourse is performed by the mediation of demons." So says Apuleius -- "Demons are middle powers, by whom both our desires and merits pass unto the Gods. They are carriers between men on earth and the Gods in Heaven, Hence of prayers, thence of gifts! Vide Park. Lexicon, title Deimonion, page 139,140. So the apostle, 1 Cor. 8 ch. 5 & 6 -- "for though there be that are called Gods, whether in Heaven or in earth, (as there are Gods many and Lords many,) but to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in

    * Wisd. of Solom. 14 ch. 12 & 27 v.

    † In his first epistle to Timothy, 3 ch. 16 v. & 4 ch. 1 v.


    284                          THE TIME OF THE DESTRUCTION, &c.                          

    Pages 284-393 not yet transcribed.


    294                 TIME OF THE DESTRUCTION OF THE POWERS.                

    temple of God, shewing himself that he is God." And this power of the Roman emperor as Pontifex Maximus, was that which St. Paul mentions "only he who now letteth, will let, until he be taken out of the way," as if he had said, the established power and authority of the Roman emperor, as Pontifex Maximus, will prevent the rising of the man of sin in power, till the Roman empire shall be shaken to its centre, and "then" taking advantage of that important period, "shall that wicked one be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the breath of his mouth, and shall destroy by the brightness of his coming: even him (that is the man of sin) whose coming is after the working of Satan, with all powers, and signs, and lying wonders, and with all deceiveableness of unrighteousness, in them who perish." We shall be exposed to be misled, if we do not attend to the character of the Pontifex Maximus under the Roman government; it being generally conceived by the translation into the English word High Priest, that it was the same office, as that of Priest with us. But the real signification of the word is the great sacrificer. The word Priest is a modern word, derived from the Saxon word Priester, Presbyter or Presbuteros, in the Greek, and so answers to the Presbyter or Bishop of the New Testament. But there is no officer in the Church of Christ, that comes up to the idea of a Pontifex Maximus of the ancient Pagans, whose duty it was to slay and offer continual sacrifices, and to foretel future events from the appearance of the entrails of the beasts, from whence their title was taken, and should have been translated into English, the great or chief sacrificer.

    I am aware of the danger of indulging a visionary spirit in tracing and calculating times and periods, not expressly


                           OR, GOVERNMENT OF ROME PAGAN.                       295

    revealed in the Scripture: therefore in any attempt that has been made, to show when the prophesy of the witnesses in sackloth commenced, no pretensions to knowledge on this subject are presumed, farther than what is set forth by the Holy Spirit. But, as has been already observed, there are duties enjoined to be performed, and certain evil consequences to be avoided in those times called the last times, the latter times, and the last times of the latter times, it becomes therefore the duty of every Christian to inquire of their approach, while there can be no necessity of knowing absolutely the very precise moment. We have but barely looked back to facts that we know have come to pass, and have compared them with the words of prophesy, in the best manner we are capable; at the same time claiming, as has been before hinted, a great latitude and every proper indulgence for, or on account of our ignorance of precise dates of chronologic truths, the manner of reckoning time, &c. &c.

    If what has been said shows sufficiently, that the purity of the Church continued but 360 or 365 years, or thereabouts, from the prophesy of St. John in 96, or 100, and that from the end of that period, to wit, about 460 till the year 500, the apostasy of the Church was completed, by the establishment of idolatry in the worship of images, saints, and angels, which is the whoredom of the Church in forsaking the true God, or rather having other mediators than the Lord Jesus. Then the time of the reign of the man of sin, or the commencement of the 1260 years, being also that of the witnesses prophesying in sackloth, follows of course, and continued till about the year 1760; and as the rise of the man of sin appears to have been progressive from 460 to 500, so, it may be supposed, his fall will also be progressive from 1760 to 1800. This


    296                 TIME OF THE DESTRUCTION OF THE POWERS.                

    may, in some measure, account for Daniel's remarkable addition of 30 days to the number of 1260, which will bring us to the year 1790. Daniel goes one step farther, and declares those peculiarly blessed, who shall live to see the end of 1335 day or years, which brings us to the year 1835, as a period of great joy and exultation. *

    * This addition of 45 years to the 1290, seems to be prefigurative of the space between the commencement and finishing the signs of the times, or the remarkable events immediately ushering in the advent of the Saviour, as the burning of Rome -- the total destruction of the man of sin -- the return of the Jews, &c. &c. -- The children of Israel were 45 years from their leaving, Egypt, to their taking actual possession of Canaan: it was about 45 years from the birth of Christ to the calling of the Gentiles.

    Since writing this, I have taken up Dr. Priestly's comparison of Moses and the Hindoos, where, in page 402, he says, of Daniel's other prophesy of 2300 days or years, "that having neglected to mention the date from which it is reckoned, it ought to be accounted from the time of the vision, in like manner as the prophesy in Gen. xv. 13. of the 400 years service of the Israelites in Egypt, which was literally fulfilled, if reckoned from the time of the vision, but did not exceed 215 years, of actually dwelling, in Egypt." If this is done, he says the prophesy will end in 1760; and if the promise to Abraham, of the last return of the Jews to their own land is taken in, (or at the beginning of) the fourth generation, an) each generation to have intended 1000 years, as is contended by some able writers, then it will happen about the year 1835. And it is worthy of notice, that the angel, when communicating with Daniel, says, "these things," which he was about to reveal to him, "were noted in the Scripture of 'Truth:" the Scripture could be no other, than those parts of the Old Testament then written. Vid. Dan. x. and 21.

    It is remarkable, that when the prophesy relates to the Church of Christ the period is mentioned by 1260 days, according to the measurement by the Sun, the author of light, but when it relates


                           OR, GOVERNMENT OF ROME PAGAN.                       297

    These several periods seem to be remarkably important in Daniel's prophesy, and promise to be productive of extraordinary events to the Church of Christ; and particularly to be the latter times of the last times, when the great wonders related in his prophesy will be more clearly understood by events that may then happen, when the wise shall begin to understand.

    to the Heathen emperor, or the power of the Dragon, it is mentioned by months which are governed by the moon, as ruling the night. In Daniel it is called a time, times, and half a time -- that is three years and an half, or 1260 days. The time of the Gentiles treading under foot the holy city, was to be forty and two months, equal to 1260 days. The time of the witnesses prophesying in sackloth was 1260 days. The woman fleeing into the wilderness, was to be fed 1260 days. When she fled into the wilderness from the power of the Dragon, where she was nourished for a time, times, and half a time, equal as before to 1260 days, from the face of the serpent. Power was given to the Dragon to speak great things and blasphemies, forty and two months.

    The children of Israel, in passing through the wilderness, also had precisely 42 encampments, predictive of the 42 months or 1260 days of the Church or woman being in the wilderness. All these terms refer to one and the same period.

    Still I would not be contentious about precise times. There is but one other construction that, in my opinion, has much weight with it -- that is the year 606, at which time the Pope was more formally vested with temporal power, though he was well established in it before -- and at the same time the impostor Mahomet appeared in the world, who might be the star falling from Heaven. The difference of time is but trifling, when considering events on so great a scale -- the necessary consequences will be the same, and mankind are equally interested in observing a conduct, highly proper in either case.


    [ 298 ]




    IN the beginning of this century, Theodoric, the successful king of the Ostrogoths, having removed the emperor of Rome out of the way, and seized the throne, determined to settle his new government in peace, so as to render it durable in his family; he therefore did not hesitate to acknowledge the supremacy of the emperor at Constantinople, though in reality it was vox and praetrea nihil, being barely in words, and a mere pretence.

    The next great object he turned his attention to, was the Bishop of Rome, whom he found best calculated to give a permanent degree of stability to the new acquired authority of the purple. This idea he formed with great judgment, on the knowledge he had of the entire subjection of the people to the authority of the bishops in general, and particularly of him who sat in the chair of St. Peter, and who they generally considered as the chief pontiff and vicar of Christ himself, and who began to assert his independence on every human power, and on whom all the other bishops were in a manner becoming dependent. Theodoric accordingly took this important engine for the accomplishment of his purposes, but oppressed


                         THE STATE OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH, &c.                     299

    the bishop of Rome with emoluments and honours, according as his avarice or love of power suggested. The Christian system had been heretofore taught in native beauty, and perfect simplicity, in which it was originally promulgated by Christ and his apostles. But few disputes about vain subtleties or researches into the hidden things of God, had began to disgrace the real Church of Christ, as her severe discipline never suffered Heretics and Schismatics to continue in communion with the Catholic and Apostolic Church.

    But it must here be remarked, for the sake of historical accuracy, that in the latter end of the last century, while the man of sin was rising to his state of manhood, that offences in the church began to increase and multiply. "No opportunity," says Mr. Gibbon, "could be more favourable for the display of the Pope's ambition, his deceit, and his superstition, than the unhappy state of the Christian world in the 5th century. The members of the eastern and western Churches, were divided into parties by religious disputes, the most unimportant; in consequence of which they persecuted each other with the greatest animosity and rancour. They were erroneous in the faith, and degenerate in practice." Their credulity and ignorance fully prepared them for the reception of him whose coming was after the working of Satan, with all power and signs and lying wonders. * Although, as yet, they had kept from spiritual whoredom or image worship.

    The Pope of Rome had began to shew his attachment to power and a fondness to lord it over God's heritage. In 445 Leo obtained a rescript from Valentinian the 3d. commanding all bishops to hold and observe as a law,

    * 2d Thess. ii, 9,


    300                      THE STATE OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH,                     

    Pages 300-345 not yet transcribed.


    346                PRESENT APPEARANCE OF THINGS, BOTH CIVIL             

    The Christian Fathers, and indeed the whole Christian Church of the first three centuries, contemplated these awful events, with great emotion, as the harbingers of their promised deliverance -- Their faith and hope in the promises of the Gospel were strong and powerful, and they rejoiced in the firm expectation of the second coming of their Lord and master, in glory. They rushed, even to martyrdom, with joy, as they expected by suffering with their crucified Redeemer in his humiliation, they should partake with him in his glory and exaltation.




    IF we turn our attention to the present state of Rome, including Italy, to Germany, Britain, France, Spain, and Portugal, and indeed all the European part of ancient Rome with which we are best acquainted, the most careless observer must allow, that the vial appears to have been already "poured out upon the seat of the Beast, and his kingdom has become full of darkness -- they have gnawed their tongues for pain, and blasphemed the God of Heaven."


               AND RELIGIOUS, IN THE ANCIENT ROMAN EMPIRE.         347

    That a government extraordinary in its commencement, unusual and sudden in its progress, and supernaturally powered and victorious in all its struggles with its neighbours, has lately risen up...

    (pages 347 to 351 have not yet been transcribed)


    352            PRESENT APPEARANCE OF THINGS, BOTH CIVIL.             

    being verified. "And the ten horns which thou sawst upon the beast (that is, those powers that before had but one mind, and had given their power and strength unto the beast) these shall hate the whore, and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh and burn her with fire, for God hath put it in their hearts to fulfil his will, and to agree, and give the kingdom unto the beast, until the words of God shall be fulfilled. *

    From 1764 to 1775, the disputes between Great Britain, (another of the ten kingdoms) and her colonies

    * But although the fall of the Papal power would probably have been effected, without the intervention of the French revolution, from the natural progress of knowledge, it is not unworthy of observation, that whilst those powers, which hitherto had been the avowed supporters of Papal pretensions against the spread of heresy and schism, had become rebellious against Papal rights, consecrated by sacred prescription, and, in some cases, menaced even the personal authority of the Pontiff; the schismatic princes of the north affected to treat the holy see with unequivocal marks of deference and distinction. Frederick the great, and Catharine (of Russia) regarding the Pope, less as a fallen and vanquished enemy than a respectable relic of a worn out, superstition, sometimes amused themselves by the singularity of affectionate correspondence, and the interchange of benevolent offices with the holy Father. The king of Poland had bowed with resignation, when the code of the enlightened Zamoiski, restraining the jurisdiction of the Papal see, and abridging the privileges of the clergy and the monastic orders, had met the indignation of the Pontiff; and through the ecclesiastical influence, the refusal of the diet. Gustavus III. had published an edict, giving full toleration to the Catholics of Sweden, and had paid his respects to the holy father in the seat of his spiritual empire: and the stern independents of the other hemisphere, every way remote from the modern Babylon, had solicited and obtained, through the organs of congress, a consecrated primate for the Catholic part of their community." †

    † New Ann. Reg. 1798, p. 298, 299.


               AND RELIGIOUS, IN THE ANCIENT ROMAN EMPIRE.            353

    began, and were carried on to such a crisis, by the obstinate and unreasonable determination of the British cabinet to bring them to unconditional submission, as to produce the war of 1776, by which she lost the thirteen American colonies, who, with the aid the king of France, secured their independence, and in 1783 were acknowledged, by the crown of Great Britain, as separated from her jurisdiction, and an independent nation, under the style and title of "the United States of America."

    By this glorious and important revolution, an asylum for all the oppressed of the earth, of every nation, and every party, was not only secured in this free and fertile region, but the principles of rational liberty were established and made known to the world, and the inestimable fact (till now scarcely credited) of a people governing themselves, strictly speaking, verified by actual experiment.

    But before we proceed any further in our intended investigation, it will tend to cast much light on our future observations, to take a short review of the state of things in Germany and France, for some years before and at this time, as far as relates to the project of a reform of the governments, by many who called themselves philosophers and friends of the human race.

    When king James, of England, abdicated the crown, and with his followers took refuge in France, they carried with them the knowledge of Free Masonry; and for their amusement erected several lodges in that kingdom, which, in a few years, spread over the continent. The known principle of secrecy, fundamental in the institution of this society, which, in England, had ever been, at least politically, innocent, was made use of


    354            PRESENT APPEARANCE OF THINGS, BOTH CIVIL.             

    (as to name) for political purposes on the continent, by the disaffected to government, and religion in general, and screened certain new formed societies, under the name of lodges, from public suspicion.

    In process of time they became sources of disaffection to kings and religious establishments of every name, though supported and protected by the friends of both. These societies, however foreign to, yet under the name of free masons, became places of free political investigition, sporting the most dangerous sentiments, unawed by any fear of the animadversions of the executive powers, from the known obligations of secrecy laid on every member.

    Various additional degrees, made more palatabale to the vain and ambitious, by several flattering orders, with stars and garters, were ingrafted on the three simple orders of ancient Masonry.

    These societies, for a time, were very pleasing to the late king of Prussia, from whom was carefully kept, their schemes against kingly government; but they were attentive to humour his aversion to the Christian religion. They were patronized by him and his friends Voltaire and D'Alembert, with the principals of the pretended philosophers of the day, by whom they became united with various other societies established for the express purpose of opposing and destroying the religion of Jesus Christ. * When united, they greatly increased, under

    * In 1761, Voltaire writes to the king of Prussia, "Had I but one hundred thousand men, I well know what I woulddo with them." Frederick answers, "It is not the lot of arms to destroy the wretch, (meaning Jesus Christ.) He will perish by the force of truth." But, in 1775, he thinks that force must be used to strike the last blow at religion. Voltaire again: "To Bayle


               AND RELIGIOUS, IN THE ANCIENT ROMAN EMPIRE.            355

    the different names of Free Masonry -- Illuminati --the . German Union -- Amis Reunis -- Chevalier Bienfaisant -- Philalethes -- Sublime Masonry -- Jacobins --Cordeliers, &c. &c

    They received great addition to their celebrity, by the accession of the Duke de Chartres, the richest subject in France, Rosseau, Diderot, and others, who were more than industrious to propagate the principles of revolution, rebellion, atheism, and infidelity, wholly subversive of good government, religion, and morality. *

    Even the Christian religion, which was the principal object of their bitterest enmity, when it would serve

    your forerunner, and to yourself, no doubt, is due the honour of that revolution, working in the minds of men. But to speak the truth, it is not yet complete; bigots have their party, and it will never he perfected, but by a superior force. From government must the sentence issue, that shall crush the wretch. Ministers (of state) may forward it, but the will of the sovereign must accede; -- without doubt, this will be effectuated in time, but neither of us can be spectators of that long wished for moment."

    Voltaire says, "O my brethren, we should march like the Macedonian phalanx -- it was only vanquished, when it opened. Let real philosophers unite in a brotherhood, like the Free Masons; let them assemble and support each other; let them be faithful to the association. Such an academy will be far superior to that of Athens, and to all those of Paris. Rosseau declares he wrote his new Eloisa for this express purpose. If you are not sufficiently zealous, you bury your talents, you seem only to contend, while you should abhor and destroy the monster.

    Such is our situation that we shall be the execration of mankind, if we have not the better sort of people on our side; -- we must gain them, cost what it will. Labour, therefore, in the vine-yard -- he who knows no other difference between himself and us but by his dress, wishes to die on a heap of Christians, immolated at his feet. †

    † 3d vol. Kett. p. 51


    356            PRESENT APPEARANCE OF THINGS, BOTH CIVIL.             

    their turn, was attempted to be brought to their aid, to deceive those who appeared attached to it. They persuaded them "that the peculiar doctrines of the Gospel were the objects of the Society's pursuit, as they were all typical of the final triumph of reason and philosophy over error and superstition. That these philosophers were possessed of the important secret, intended to be communicated to the world by its great founder, which had not, till this period, taken place, because the time had not before come that the world could bear it, as he had told his disciples, while he was yet with them."

    Before the year 1750 these ideas became very general, and the lodges became schools for making proselytes to every strange and absurd doctrine.

    The Duke de Chartres, or Orleans, was, in process of time, made grand master of one of the most famous of these lodges, at Lyons, known by the name of Loge des Chevalier Bienfaisant. This nobleman, from his education, principles, and practice, was ripe for any and every iniquity either in Church or State. His immense riches raised his vanity and ambition to expect and seek after the government of the world. To obtain his unbounded desires, he made no hesitation in adopting the maxim "that the end would sanctify the means," whatever they might be, which was a fundamental and established principle of these societies. These lodges now extended through France, under the name of the affiliated lodges: were instituted at Paris, Strasburgh, Lyle, Thoulouse, Alsace, Lorraine, and other places; and, for some time, took the name of Philalethes.

    "In 1764 they instituted a club at the house of Baron Holback, at Paris, of which Voltaire was elected honorary and perpetual President. To conceal their real design, which was the diffusion of this new philosophy,


               AND RELIGIOUS, IN THE ANCIENT ROMAN EMPIRE.            357

    they called themselves Oeconomists. From this club was issued an inundation of books and pamphlets, calculated to impair and overturn religion, morals and government; and which spreading all over Europe, imperceptibly took possession of public opinion. As soon as the sale was sufficient to pay the expenses, inferior editions were printed and given away, or sold at a very low price -- circulating libraries of them formed, and reading societies instituted: while they constantly denied these productions to the world, they contrived to give them a false celebrity through their confidential agents and correspondents, who were not themselves always entrusted with the entire secret."

    This is greatly confirmed by my lord Orford's letters, in the year 1765. He writes from France, "The Dauphin will hold out but a very few days -- His death, that is, the near prospect of it, fills the philosophers with the greatest joy, as it was feared he would endeavour the restoration of the Jesuits. You will think the sentiments of the philosophers very odd state news. But do you know who the philosophers are, or what the term means here? In the first place it comprehends almost every body; and, in the next, means men who, avowing war against Popery, aim, many of them, at a subversion of all religion, and still many more, at the destruction of regal power. How do you know this? you will say, you who have been confined to your chamber. True, but in the first period, I went every where, and heard nothing else; in the latter I have been extremely visited, and have had long and explicit conversations with many who think as I tell you, and with a few of the other side, who are no less persuaded that there are such intentions." *

    * 5th vol. p. 123.


    358            PRESENT APPEARANCE OF THINGS, BOTH CIVIL.             

    In 1768, and to 1770, they became united, under the parent lodge of Lyons. There is sufficient evidence to presume that here the most dangerous principles both to Church and state were adopted. The lodge of Paris was afterwards moulded into the Jacobin club, and soon ruled the kingdom. Those of Alsace and Lorraine, with Spire and Worms, invited general Custine into Germany; and delivered Mentz into his hands. One Zimmerman, an abandoned enthusiast in the service of these

    * At an early period of the revolution in France, this fraternity of illuminated Free Masons took the name of Jacobins, from the name of the convent where they met. "They then counted 300,000 adepts, and were supported by two millions of men, scattered through France, armed with torches and pikes, and all the necessary implements of revolution." Till the 12th August, 1792, the French Jacobins had only dated the annals of their revolution by the year of their pretended liberty. On that day, when the king was carried prisoner to the temple, after it had been declared that he had forfeited his right to the crown, the assembly decreed that to the date of liberty the date of equality should be added in future, in all public acts, and the decree itself is dated the fourth year of liberty, and the first day and year of equality. It was on that day, for the first time, that the secret of Free Masonry was made public. That secret, so dear to them, and which they had preserved with all the solemnity of the most inviolable oath. At the reading of this famous decree they exclaimed, "We have at length succeeded, and France is no other than an immense lodge. The whole French people are Free Masons, and the whole universe will soon follow their example. I witnessed this enthusiasm. I heard the conversations to which it gave rise. I saw Masons, till then reserved, who freely and openly declared, yes! at length the grand object of Free Masonry is accomplished! all men are equal and brothers -- all men are free. That was the whole substance of our doctrine -- the object of our wishes --the whole of our grand secret!" †

    † Banuel.


               AND RELIGIOUS, IN THE ANCIENT ROMAN EMPIRE.            359

    societies, went about through France, preaching liberty and the principles of illuminatism. He would mount the rostrum, when urging his revolutionary system, and with a sabre in his hand, would bawl out, "Behold Frenchmen, this is your God, this alone can save you." When Custine broke into Germany, Zimmerman got admission to him, and offered to deliver Manheim into his hands; to accomplish which, he proposed to set some corners of the city on fire, and assured him of support. Custine declined the offer. When he was afterwards on his trial, this wretch appeared against him, and accused him of treachery to the common cause. Custine answered, "hardly," said he, "had I set my foot in Germany, when this man, and all the fools in the country, besieged me, and would have delivered up to me their towns and villages. What occasion had I to do any thing to Manheim, when their prince was neutral."

    It was from similar sources that so many brilliant victories have been given to the French arms through out Europe, as some individuals of these fraternities were generally sent forward as pioneers. They previously insinuated themselves into offices and commands of the most important nature, and high trusts, on purpose to betray their employers in the hour of conflict; and thus to introduce the sans-culotte Jacobins into every kingdom in Europe.

    This was the more easily accomplished, as these lodges were frequented by persons of all ranks, and of every profession, who were bound by the most solemn obligations to prefer the interests of the order to every other consideration.


    360            PRESENT APPEARANCE OF THINGS, BOTH CIVIL.             

    The idle and the frivolous found amusement and glittering things to tickle their satiated fancies, while men of understanding, who were restless, disappointed, or fond of change, were deluded by the prospect of universal dominion, founded on a new philosophy, that would free mankind from all religious scruples and civil obligations, and thus bring on the ancient though savage life of Druidism, and the Heathen philosophy. At this same time the republicans, the democrats, and the revolutionists, were gratified with the idea of dethroning kings, destroying aristocracy, and establishing liberty and equality, over the face of Europe.

    Thus many unguarded and unsuspicious men became the dupes and tools of the declamatory eloquence of the crafty and licentious abbeys, sophisters, and writers of every denomination.

    In a few years, improbable as it may appear at first view, even the emperor Joseph, with other royal adepts, became poisoned with these principles, covered artfully by various pretences, to suit the purposes of those disorganizers. These lodges became frequented, in Germany, by a prince bishop, and the greatest part of his chapter; and all the office-bearers, were dignitaries of the Church, which they were designed to destroy, to its very foundation. The orations delivered before them, were as pointed against superstition and credulity as if written by Voltaire himself.

    Voltaire, D'Alembert, Diderot, D'Argenson, Egalite, Rosseau, Condorcet, Robinet, Mirabeau, Mably, La Harpe, the Duc de Lazune, Abbe Perigord Talleyrand bishop of Autun, Petion, Abbe Bertholis, Marmontel, Abbe Seys, and Annacharsis Cloots, with various other prominent characters in the French revolution,


               AND RELIGIOUS, IN THE ANCIENT ROMAN EMPIRE.            361

    belonged to these societies. Mirabeau and Tallyrand bishop of Autun, were wardens of the lodge of Jacobins.

    In this manner were the most corrupt and immoral principles spread over the kingdom of France, under the mask of moral instruction, and that in a manner unperceived or unnoticed by the government.

    In 1773 the new philosophy was protected in Russia, by the empress; and the defenders of religion were at the last gasp in Poland, under the influence of king Poniatowski. The friends of revelation were already discountenanced and brow-beaten by the government of Prussia, under Frederick, the father of every violence against revealed religion. In the north of Germany the philosophy prevailed in every quarter, under the smiles of princes and dukes.

    Frederick writes, "Philosophy is beginning to penetrate into superstitious Bohemia, and into Austria, the former abode of superstition. In our Protestant countries we go on much brisker. In Paris, many philosophers are to be found behind the counters."

    These lodges are said to have increased to the number of 266, under the Duc de Chartres, (or Egalite) but the most famous partizan in this nefarious business, and one who, in Germany, had the chief hand in improving the system of illuminatism, in the most villainous projects, was Dr. Adam Weishaupt, professor of the canon law, in the University of Ingoldstadt. He had been educated among the Jesuits, but afterwards became their bitter enemy. His aim was to obtain the government of the world for his order. He endeavoured to persuade the Jesuits to join him, but his schemes were so big with destruction to all order and decorum in human life; so ruinous to every civilized government,


    362            PRESENT APPEARANCE OF THINGS, BOTH CIVIL.             

    that he could get but two of that older to join him, which produced the enmity to them above mentioned.

    In 1783 his pernicious doctrines leaked out, and elector Palatine being greatly alarmed, instituted a court of inquiry to examine into their principles and conduct, when on the examination of four professors of the Marianen academy, who belonged to the order, "It appeared that the order was said to have abjured Christianity. Sensual pleasures were restored to the rank they held in the epicurean philosophy -- self murder was justified, on stoical principles -- death was declared an eternal sleep -- patriotism and loyalty were called narrow-minded prejudices, and incompatible with universal benevolence. Continual declamations were made on liberty and equality, as the unalienable rights of men The baneful influence of accumulated property was declared an insurmountable obstacle to the happiness of any nation, whose chief laws were framed for its protection and increase. Nothing was so frequently discoursed of as the propriety of employing, for a good purpose, the means which the wicked employed for evil purposes; and it was taught that the preponderancy of good in the ultimate result, consecrated every mean employed; and that wisdom and virtue consisted in properly determining this balance."

    However, the society denied all this -- yet the elector broke up the order, banished the professor Weishaupt, with many others, and some were imprisoned; yet, notwithstanding this just punishment, the society soon rose with fresh vigour, under a new name.

    To form some small idea of the designs of the principal supporters of this adventurous fraternity, it will be


               AND RELIGIOUS, IN THE ANCIENT ROMAN EMPIRE.            363

    necessary to transcribe the oath or declaration of a candidate for the degree of "llluminatus minor," at large. "I. N. N. protest before you, the worthy plenipotentiary of the venerable order into which I wish to be admitted, that I acknowledge my natural weakness and inability; and that I, with all my possessions, rank, honours, and titles, which I hold in political society, am at bottom only a man; I can enjoy these things only through my fellow men, and through them, also, I may lose them. The approbation and consideration of my fellow men are indispensably necessary, and I must try to maintain them by all my talents. These I will never use to the prejudice of universal good, but will oppose, with all my might, the enemies of the human race and of political society. I will embrace every opportunity of saving mankind, by improving my understanding and my affections, and by imparting all important knowledge, as the good and statutes of this order require of me. I bind myself to perpetual silence, and unshaken loyalty and submission to the order, in the persons of my superiors: here making a faithful and complete surrender of my private judgment, my own will, and every narrow-minded employment of my power and influence. I pledge myself to account the good of the order as my own, and am ready to serve it with my fortune, my honour, and my blood. Should I, through omission, neglect, passion, or wickedness, behave contrary to this good of the order, I subject myself to what reproof, or punishment, my superiors shall enjoin. The friends and enemies of the order shall be my friends and enemies; and, with respect to both, I will conduct myself as directed by the order; and am ready, in every lawful way, to devote myself to its increase and promotion,


    364            PRESENT APPEARANCE OF THINGS, BOTH CIVIL.             

    and therein to employ all my ability. All this I promise and protest, without secret reservation, according to the intention of the society, which require from me this engagement. This I do, as I am, and as I hope to continue, a man of honour."

    A drawn sword is then pointed at his breast, and he is asked, will you be obedient to the commands of your superiors? He is threatened with unavoidable vengeance, from which no potentate can defend him, if he should ever betray the order. In the explanation of these terms of devotion to the order, they say, speaking of the authority due to the ruling powers of civil government, being of inferior moral weight to that due to the order, "these powers are despots, when they do not conduct themselves by its principles; and it is, therefore, our duty to surround them with its members, so that the profane may have no access to them. Thus we are able, most powerfully to promote its interests. If any person is more disposed to listen to princes than to the order, he is not fit for it, and must rise no higher. We must do our utmost to procure the advancement of the Illuminati into all important civil offices."

    These are the means by which they gained an ascendancy among the nobility, the clergy, and the laity, of almost every government in Europe. Nay, after various experiments, finding women necessary to carry on their abominable practices, they established various lodges of ladies, whose moral principles they first totally perverted, by eradicating every former idea of chastity and virtue from their minds; "there is no way," say they, "of influencing men, so powerful, as by the means of the women. These should; therefore, be our chief study; we should insinuate ourselves into their good opinion --


               AND RELIGIOUS, IN THE ANCIENT ROMAN EMPIRE.            365

    give them hints of emancipation from the tyranny of public opinion, and of standing up for themselves. It will be of immense relief to their enslaved minds, to be freed from any one bond of restraint; and it will fix them the more, and cause them to work for us with zeal, without knowing that they do so: for they will only be indulging their own desires of personal admiration." Again, "the great strength of our order lies in its concealment; let it never appear in any place in its own name, but always covered by another name, another occupation. None is fitter than the three lower degrees of Free Masonry; the public are accustomed to it -- expects little from it; and, therefore, takes little notice of it. The power of this order must surely be turned to the advantage of its members -- all must be assisted, they must be preferred to all persons, otherwise of equal merit. Money, services, honour, goods, and blood, must be expended for the fully proved brethren; and the unfortunate must be relieved by the funds of the society."

    Let me here ask the reader to compare these principles and hard terms, with the requirements of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, which, in the end, is to procure for the real disciple and subject of the divine grace promised therein, eternal life and everlasting happiness; and behold the incalculable difference and miserable servitude of sin and satan, and adore the infinite riches and invaluable blessings of redeeming love.

    It is noted in the minutes and journals of the order as follows: "By the activity of our brethren, the Jesuits have been kept out of all the professional chairs of Ingoldstadt, and our friends prevail. The widow Duchess has set up her academy entirely according to our


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    plan, and we have all the professors in the order; five of them are excellent; and the pupils will be prepared for us. We have got A_____ put at the head of the treasury, and he has the Church money at his disposal. By properly using this money we have been enable to put our brother B_______s's household in good order, which he had destroyed by going to the Jews. We have supported more brethren under similar misfortunes. Our ghostly brethren have been very fortunate this last year, for we have procured for them several good benefices, parishes, tutorships, &c. All the German schools, and the benevolent society, are at last under our direction. We have got several zealous members in the courts of justice, and we are enabled to afford them pay, and other good additions. Lately we have got possession of the Bartholomew institution for young clergymen, having secured all its supporters; -- through this medium we shall be able to supply Bavaria with priests."

    They say, in the list of their lodges, that they have several in America. They accounted all princes usurpers and tyrants; and all privileged orders their abettors, -- they aimed to establish one common government in Europe, and universal atheism.

    We are indebted to the late valuable work of Dr. Robertson, of Edinburgh, for the greatest part of this short abstract of these societies; it is well worth the perusal of every man who is a lover of order, or wishes to understand the revolutionizing system of many of the first founders of the French republic. Dr. Robertson's character, if some of the first people in this country from Scotland, are to be believed, is well established for learning, integrity, and strict veracity. I have not hesitated to use his language as well as his facts. This learned treatise has


               AND RELIGIOUS, IN THE ANCIENT ROMAN EMPIRE.            367

    been lately reprinted in Philadelphia, and the narration, as well as the veracity of the author, in general, has been greatly supported by a letter from Mr. William Smith, of Connecticut, who declares, "that during the late revolutionary war, while the French navy lay at Newport, in Rhode-Island, which was in the year. 1778, a Dr. Renauld, chaplain to the admiral's ship, a German by birth, gave him the following account: -- That he (the chaplain) was under great apprehensions, lest at his return to France, he should share the fate prepared for all ecclesiastics, if the king of Prussia and Voltaire's scheme should succeed." * -- in that case, he supposed, the whole world would be deluged with blood. He said, that a project was said to be set on foot, some time before Voltaire's death, to commence a crusade against Christianity, and to extirpate all the silly followers of the wretch, (meaning the great author of our holy religion.)

    * From the secret correspondence of these philosophers, it appears, that in 1743, Voltaire was plotting, with the king of Prussia, to plunder the ecclesiastical princes, and the religious orders, of their possessions. In 1764 he sent a memorial to the duke of on the abolition of Tythes, in hopes of depriving the clergy of their subsistence. In 1770 he writes, "I like to cover these harlequin bull-givers, (the Popes) with ridicule, but I had rather plunder them." D'Alembert advised, that the clergy should be deprived of their consequence in the state, before they were plundered of their possessions, and that the danger of letting the clergy form a distinct body in the state, should therefore be represented in strong colours. Frederick says, "If we wish to diminish fanaticism we must not begin with the bishops; but if we succeed in lessening the friarhoods, especially the mendicant orders, the people will cool, and they being less superstitious, will then allow the power to bring down the bishops as best suits their states. This is the only possible mode of proceeding." †

    † 3 Kett. p. 106.


    368            PRESENT APPEARANCE OF THINGS, BOTH CIVIL.             

    Their plans to abolish the Sabbath day -- extirpate the priesthood, and destroy the Holy Scriptures; so that by removing all restraints from the consciences, the bands of society might be entirely dissolved, and all civil government disorganized, under the specious pretence of enlargement and freedom. He knew not the name of the society collectively, but the individual name was Ego-ipse, signifying self-existence.

    There was said to be upwards of 50,000 of them in France. Talleyrand Perigord, bishop of Autun, was at their head, and much in the same proportion were they in all the kingdoms of Europe, they having in each country, one or more principals. It was said, that the society was intimately connected with Free Masonry, that it was apprehended every Mason was an Ego-ipse. It had got into the several universities and academies upon the continent, with a view to mature and spread the diabolical system of universal devastation and bloodshed. He observes, that the leading principles of the Ego-ipse society were, that no relation or connection exists between one man and another; -- that all things are eternally existing from necessity; -- that the names of father, mother, sister, brother, husband, and wife, are fraudulent impositions of priest-craft, to bind the unwary in chains of ignorance of man's true nature and inherent divinity; -- that every man is his own God, his own lawgiver, * and amenable only to himself; -- that men, unenlightened by true philosophy, are no more than so many blocks of wood or stone; and if a kick of the foot, or a push

    * The noted Thomas Paine, in his Age of Reason, says, that he does not believe in the Creed of the Jewish Church, the Roman Church, the Greek Church, nor of any Church that he knows of; his own mind being his own Church.


               AND RELIGIOUS, IN THE ANCIENT ROMAN EMPIRE.            369

    of the hand, can remove these out of one's way, a ball, or a thrust of a sword, with equal ease and propriety, can remove the other. It was apprehended that the leading men of this association contemplated the subversion of all governments, religious as well as civil, and, in time, the exaltation of themselves to supereminent grandeur and opulence, upon the ruin and misery of millions.

    If this scheme succeeded in Europe, it was said, they would penetrate into Greece, then into Egypt, with a view of extending their conquests over the kingdoms of Africa and Asia --Christianity seemed to be the principal object of their detestation, and they were determined to extirpate it if possible, and to revive the old Heathen philosophy and superstition of Druidism."

    Does not all this fully show, that at this time one of the great prerequisites of the commencement of the government of the beast, or antichrist, was manifested to every reflecting mind, "That transgressors had come to the full."

    This account given so long ago, with so many corroborating and peculiar circumstances, shows the relator to have been well acquainted with the principles of illuminatism, and strongly supports Dr. Robertson's facts and reasonings, and aids our forming a proper opinion for the late unaccountable success of the French arms throughout the continent.

    My confidence in Dr. Robertson's account, is farther strengthened by personal information received from a lady of my acquaintance, of a most excellent character, who assured me, that while living in the city of London, a few years ago, perhaps about ten, a person of distinction was sent over from France to London, to initiate her father, (who was a worthy Clergyman) herself, and sister


    370            PRESENT APPEARANCE OF THINGS, BOTH CIVIL.             

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    486            PRESENT APPEARANCE OF THINGS, BOTH CIVIL.             

    awful distance from him. He had incense burnt in the apartments, which he was expected to visit. He told the senate, on receiving their address, on his assuming the consulship for life, that he was called by the Almighty to restore the reign of order, justice, and peace, upon earth. In the beginning of the war between England and France, he allowed the clergy of the latter to entitle him the new Cyrus, and the Christ of Providence. -- He got the Jews together, and set them haranguing about him till they hailed him the chosen of the Lord -- His cherished anointed -- The minister of eternal justice -- The living image of the Deity. He admitted the hair-brained students of Leipsic to address him in the language almost of deification. On his return to Paris, after the peace of Tilist, he disclosed the impious object that was lurking in his mind, by ordering a temple of victory opposite the legislative mansion, and his palace, to be placed between them. To humor the same feeling, on his return from Bayonne, (in 1808) the people of the South of France were ordered to strew branches if palm trees before him; and instead of his being received by the municipal bodies, the archbishop of Thoulouse was directed to issue his mandamus to the clergy, prescribing the peculiar ceremonies they were to use on his entering their parishes. In his Catechism, which he published, he tells his people, and orders them to believe, that he is the image of God upon earth, and that to honour and serve him, is to honour and serve God himself."

    Here we shall leave this part of our work, though in an unfinished state, and wait the event, which appears to be awful and alarming, under every view of the subject, to the nations of Europe, and proceed to the consideration of the seventh head.


    [ 487 ]




    There are difficulties difficulties in the chronology of the world, that have long puzzled the ablest proficients in that branch of science; and perhaps will ever puzzle them till the great period arrives, which shall solve all difficulties, and ascertain, with precision, the great eras of Revelation. Cum Elias venerit, solvet nodos.

    The present difficulties, in some measure, arise from the difference in the copies of the Pentateuch with each other, as well as with the New Testament. The Hebrew numerals were very easily mistaken by copyists, and may have caused some small mistakes, in the account of the ages of men and countries. The letter koph, in Hebrew, stands for 100, and the letter mem for 40, yet the last differs from the first, but by a slight stroke of the pn. In the 11th chapter of Genesis 32d verse, it is said that the days of Terah were 205 years, and Terah died in Haran or Charran; yet St. Stephen in recounting the genealogy of the Jews from the patriarch Abraham, in 7th Acts, 4th verse, says, "that when his father was dead, Abraham removed into the land of Canaan," and in Genesis 12th ch. 4th v. he is then said to be but 75 years old, and in


    488               THE  PRESENT  AGE  OF  THE  WORLD,            

    11th ch. and 26th v. that Terah begat Abraham at the 70th year of his age, so that according to this statement, at his death, Terah could have been but 145 years old...

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    500               BUT IT IS TIME TO INQUIRE INTO THE IDEAS, &c.              

    It was in this expectation that on the last journey of Jesus to Jerusalem, that the multitude were so ready "to spread their garments in the way -- and to cry, Hosanna to the son of David! Blessed is he who cometh in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest!" And who, on finding their hopes disappointed, by his capture and condemnation, were as ready to cry crucify him! crucify him!

    In one of Peter's sermons, at his first setting out, we find him declaring this glorious kingdom "as the times of refreshing from the presence of the Lord; and the times of restitution of all things, which God had foretold by the mouth of all his holy prophets, since the world began" -- so that this kingdom was not a novel thing, but appears to have been the subject of the prophecies; of the Old Testament, from Genesis to Malachi, as we have already partially shewn."

    All these opinions of the ancient Jews, are justified by the language of the Apocriphical Esdras, in his 2d book 2d. ch. 16th and 31st v. "And those who are dead will I raise up again from their places, and bring them out of their graves, for I have known thy name, O Israel -- Remember thy children who sleep, for I shall bring them out of the sides of the earth, and shew mercy unto them, for I am merciful, saith the Lord Almighty." And again, in 1st ch. 38-40 v. " And now brother, behold what glory; and see the people who come from the east: unto whom I will give for leaders, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, Hosea, Amos, and Micah, Joel, Obadiah, and Jonah, Nahum' and Habbakuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zachariah and Malachi, who is called also the angel of the Lord." So in 3d ch. Wisdom, 7th and 8th v. "And in the time of their visitation they shall shine. -- They


                    OF THE ANCIENTS, BOTH JEWS AND GENTILES.                 501

    shall judge the nations, and have dominion over the people, and their Lord shall remain for ever."

    Thus in Tobit, 13th ch. 17th and 18th v. "And the streets of Jerusalem shall be paved with beryl and carbuncle and stones of Ophir. And all her streets shall say Hallelujah! and they shall praise him saying, blessed be God who hath extolled it for ever!" 14th ch. 5th and 6th v. "And God again will have mercy on them, and bring them again into the land, where, they shall build a temple, but not like to the first, until the time of that age be fulfilled, and afterwards they shall return from all places of their captivity, and build up Jerusalem gloriously, and the house of God shall be built in it for ever with a glorious building, as the prophets have spoken thereof: And all nations shall turn and fear the Lord God truly, and shall bury their idols."

    Trypho, the Jew, in his dispute with Justin Martyr, says, " but tell me the truth, do you confess the restoration of Jerusalem, and the gathering together of your people, and that they shall triumph together with Christ and the patriarchs and the prophets, and those who are of our lineage, and those, who before your Christ came, were proselytes? Or do you grant these things, that you may seem to get the better of us in dispute?" To which Justin answers, "I am not brought to such a pinch that my words and thoughts should differ; -- but I, and all entirely orthodox Christians, do both know the future resurrection of the body, and the thousand years in that Jerusalem that shall be re-edified, adorned, and enlarged, as the prophets Isaiah, Ezekiel, and others do declare. For thus Isaiah, of the time of those thousand years, "for there shall be a new Heaven and a new earth, and the former shall not be remembered, neither shall they come


    502               BUT IT IS TIME TO INQUIRE INTO THE IDEAS, &c.              

    into their minds; but they shall find joy and rejoicing in those which I create: for behold! I make Jerusalem to triumph, and my people to rejoice. And I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and joy in my people, and the voice of weeping shall no more be heard in her, nor the voice of crying." * But when he says, "for the days of my people shall be as the days of the tree of life," we understand that the thousand years are implicitly pointed at. -- For as it was said to Adam, "in that day that thou eatest of the tree, in that same day thou shalt die," we know be did not accomplish one thousand years. We know also that saying, "that a day with the Lord, is as a thousand years," is to our purpose -- Moreover, a certain man with us, whose name is John, being one of the twelve apostles of Christ, in that Revelation which was showed to him, prophesied that our faithful members of Christ should accomplish those thousand years at Jerusalem: and then the general, and in a word, the everlasting resurrection, and last Judgment of all, jointly together, even that whereof our Lord spake, wherein they shall neither marry nor be given in marriage, but shall be equal with the angels, even sons of the resurrection of God."

    After a discourse on the great day of judgment, which he calleth the great day of Christ, when the Jews shall lament for him whom they crucified, and Christ himself shall be inaugurated after the order of Melchezideck, when he says the judgment of the quick and the dead shall take place, Justin addeth "at whose second coming, think not that Isaiah, or other prophets, warned us to offer up sacrifices of blood or drink offerings, but true and spiritual sacrifices of praise and thanksgiving!" †

    * Vide Isaiah 65th ch. 17th v. to the end.

    † The doctrine of the reign of the saints on earth, after the


                    OF THE ANCIENTS, BOTH JEWS AND GENTILES.                 503

    As the original descendants of Noah, must have been instructed by him in all the revelations he had himself received from God, as well as in all the traditions of revelation he had received from his ancestors, the first settlers of all countries inhabited by such descendants, most likely were also instructed in those essential truths. The apostle Jude, speaking of "certain men who had crept into the Church unawares, who were before of old ordained to this condemnation, ungodly men, turning the grace of our Lord into lasciviousness, and denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ," informs us in his 14th and 15th verses, "that Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied (or taught) of these, saying, behold the Lord cometh with ten thousand of his Saints, to execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds, which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him." We may safely conclude from hence, that Enoch understood the nature of Christ's kingdom, which was to come in the end of the world, otherwise he could not have foreseen the conduct of wicked men, and the awful consequences of that conduct. This he could only have received by revelation.

    destruction of antichrist, so clearly and literally, without allegory, set forth in the 20th ch. of the Revelations, was the opinion of the whole orthodox Christian Church, in the age immediately following the death of John, when yet Polycarp and many of John's disciples were living, as Justin Martyr expressly affirmeth, is a testimony absolute without all comparison, to persuade such as rely on authority and antiquity; and it is admirable that an opinion once so generally received should ever have been cried down. *

    * Mede's Works, folio ed. p. 771.


    504               BUT IT IS TIME TO INQUIRE INTO THE IDEAS, &c.              

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    512               BUT IT IS TIME TO INQUIRE INTO THE IDEAS, &c.              

    share in the hopes, belief, words, and writings of so many of its members; and been patronized by apostles, apostolic men, confessors, and martyrs, should find a place in some of their confessions of faith -- rather very improbable it is, that a point by them esteemed of so much importance should be wholly neglected -- not impossible that such an one may be this very confession before us; or at least, that this remarkable and mysterious article (which I think, according to the usual interpretation of it, hardly carries weight enough to be made a distinct article of faith) may have been transferred from such into this creed, at a time when its genuine intention was not, perhaps, thoroughly understood. -- Thus far, however, I must think certain, that by the help of this hypothesis, we have a much less intricate and constrained solution of this article, than any of those which are usually given us. In which opinion I have the satisfaction to find myself supported by the ready concurrence of some persons of distinguished characters for learning and judgment, as well as zealous attachment to the genuine doctrines of sound and orthodox Christianity.


    [ 513 ]

    C O N C L U S I O N:



    Having thus, in some measure, executed my purpose, it is high time to finish this inquiry, by drawing the proper conclusion from the whole.

    If, throughout this investigation, it has appeared, that, from the beginning of the world, a divine revelation has been made to man, and that revelation has clearly opened up the inscrutable purposes of Almighty God, to reconcile this guilty world to himself, by the death and sufferings of his only begotten Son. That, to this end, he has ordained different dispensations, at different periods, and in different states of the world, wherein mankind, being exercised under different states of discipline and teachings, shall be instructed more and more in the divine will, and his own people be tried, purified, and made white by the blood of the Lamb. That certain fixed ages, periods, or eras, have also been established and foretold by the same divine revelation, in which this scene of mercy, to the children of men, should be progressively effected, promulgated, and made perfect in their glory. That at the end of the present age, or period, whenever it shall happen, a more glorious state of things, during another period or age, is to take place, commencing with the second advent of our Lord and Master, together with all his Saints and Holy Angels, to the glory of God the Father: the leading principles of which have been made known to us by the mercy of God, lest


    514                                            CONCLUSION;                                            

    being taken unawares, as by a thief in the night, we might be unprepared for so awful and glorious an event...

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    522                                            CONCLUSION;                                            

    And Jehovah alone shall be exalted in that day.
    For the day of Jehovah, God of hosts, is against every thing great and lofty;
    And against every thing that is exalted; and it shall be humbled,
    Even against all the cedars of Lebanon, the high and the exalted;
    And against all the oaks of Basan;
    And against all the mountains, the high ones
    And against all the hills, the exalted ones;
    And against every tower, high raised;
    And against every mound, strongly fortified.
    And against all the ships of Tarshish;
    And against every lovely work of art.
    And the pride of man shall bow down;
    And the heighth of mortals shall be humbled;
    And Jehovah alone shall be exalted in that day." *

    "For it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Lord of hosts, that I will break his yoke off thy neck, and will burst thy bonds, and strangers shall no more serve themselves of him -- But they shall serve the Lord their God, and David their king, whom I will raise up unto them. Though I make a full end of all nations, whither I have scattered thee, yet will I not make a full end of thee. -- In the latter days ye shall consider it." †

    "The Lord shall roar from on high and utter his voice from his holy habitation -- He will plead with all flesh; he will give them that are wicked to the sword, saith the Lord. And the slain of the Lord shall be at that day, from one end of the earth even unto the other: they shall

    * Lowth's Isaiah, ch. 2. v. 10-17

    † Jeremiah, ch. 30. v. 8-24.


                             OR, SHORT SUMMARY OF THE WHOLE.                        523

    not be lamented, neither gathered, nor buried; they shall be dung upon the ground." *

    "The great day of the Lord: the day of the Lord's wrath; the day of the Lord's sacrifice. A day of wrath -- a day of trouble and distress; a day of wasteness and desolation; a day of darkness and gloominess; a day of clouds and thick darkness; -- a day that God will rise up to the prey, to gather the nations and assemble the kingdoms, to pour upon them his indignation and fierce anger." †

    Mr. Mede says, "that some of the Hebrew commentators understand by beasts in the 7th ch. of Daniel, 12th v. other states and kingdoms then reigning in the world, at the time, the fourth beast (Rome) shall be destroyed; that these also as well as the fourth beast and his limbs, shall have their kingdoms taken away, though not at the same instant, yet some time after -- He insists that the word Vau, in the Hebrew, should be translated also, and not as concerning. This agrees with the words of John, "and the remnant were slain with the sword of him who sat upon the horse," &c. If you ask, but when will all this happen? I answer in the words of a parallel passage in Joel, 3d ch. 1st and 2d v. "For behold in those days, and in that time, when I shall bring again the captivity of Judah and Jerusalem, I will gather also all nations, and will bring them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat, and will plead with them there, for my people, my heritage, Israel, whom they have scattered among the nations and parted my land." -- Here the time is fixed to be about the time when the Jews shall be brought into the sheepfold of Christ's flock.

    * Jeremiah, ch. 25. v. 30-33.

    † Zephaniah.


    524                                            CONCLUSION;                                            

    This great commentator's construction of the fourth and fifth vials is so remarkable, that I must be indulged in transcribing the substance of it, as applicable to my subject. "What the sun, in the world of the beast is, we must discover by inquiring what the Heaven of the beast is. For the sun is not to be looked for, but in a Heaven fit for it. -- That of the antichristian world, is either the supreme and universal authority of the Pope, or any other excellent and regal authority whatsoever in the world of the beast, that is, in the whole universality of the provinces acknowledging the Pope of Rome for their head. Now in this antichristian Heaven (according to the type of the natural Heaven) there are very many stars, and of divers magnitude, princes, dukes, prelates, lords, and kings -- There are also great lights, like the sun and moon. Now of these, the most glorious and by far the greatest light of all, which shines in the papal firmament, is the German emperor, the proper inheritance of the house of Austria, now for these two hundred years. Is not this therefore the sun of that Heaven? * Now, upon this sun will the fourth vial be poured forth, that it being pulled away from the Heaven of the beast and shining to another purpose, may burn and torment the inhabitants of the antichristian world even to blasphemy, who, before, were refreshed by its heat and its beams."

    How far this prophesy is in part fulfilled in the present circumstances of the once flourishing republic of Venice,

    * Might not this question been better answered by referring to France, whose known emblem for many hundred years has been the Sun; especially when she is considered as connected with Rome; being the power by whom Rome Christian first received her temporal authority, with deliverance from the total destruction threatened her, in the fourth century, by the barbarous nations of the north.


                             OR, SHORT SUMMARY OF THE WHOLE.                        525

    many of the states of Italy, and the ecclesiastical princes of Germany, or even of France itself, I leave my readers to judge. Mr. Mede proceeds: "the fifth vial is to be poured out on the throne or seat of the beast, that is, on Rome itself Here then the Holy Spirit covereth not the matter any more with the veil of figures or allegories; haply, because of the great light which shall then arise to these prophesies, by this most evident sign, whereby it shall be clear which vials are past and which to come.

    Now by this destruction of the city of Rome, which I think to be the very same, which is to follow the resurrection and ascension of the witnesses, the name of the Pope shall not indeed utterly perish, but he shall, from thenceforth, be deprived of his glory and splendor, so that for grief they shall bite their tongues; in the mean time, notwithstanding persevering in their impenitency, their hearts being hardened, they will abuse their griefs unto further blasphemy."

    The particular account of the destruction of Rome, given by the beloved disciple in his revelations, is worthy of attention, as, when it happens, it will be too remarkable an event to be overlooked. This is recorded in the 18th ch. from the beginning. In this chapter there are more particulars mentioned, and greater certainty predicted, with greater confusion and disorders foretold, that will take place among the kings of the earth, who have heretofore had communion with her, than in any other part of that sacred book. There will, about the same time, be such misery and distress, by some means or other, among the followers of the beast and the false prophet, as to lead them to bewail their misfortunes, as those to which they will attribute their immediate ruin. Among the merchants and the trading


    526                                            CONCLUSION;                                            

    nations of the earth, and particularly with those depending upon them, as masters of ships, seamen, and all connected with them, there will be unusual perplexity and trouble, on account of some unexpected and unlooked for prevention of trade and commerce, either by absurd laws and regulations, prohibiting or oppressing trade in general, or some stoppage and hindrance, by wars, invasions, privateering, insurrections, blockades, burnings, and confusion, unheard of before, that will prevent ships sailing safely on the ocean, or some unusual prevention of inter-communion between the nations of the earth, heretofore very uncommon.

    The sixth vial shall be poured out upon the great river Euphrates, that being dried up, a passage may be prepared for new enemies of the beast to come from the east: that is, for the Israelites to be wonderfully (restored to their ancient city of Jerusalem if not to be) converted to the pure faith and worship of Christ, whom the worshippers of the beast haply shall esteem for the army of the feigned antichrist to arise out of the Jews; God so revenging the obstinacy of their errors. "Like as the Lord hath destroyed the tongue of the Egyptian sea, (rather so) shall he lift up his hand over the river, (the Targum adds, Euphrates *) in the strength of his spirit, and shall smite it in the seven streams, so that many may pass over dry shod, and there shall be an high way for the remnant of my people, which shall be left by the Assyrians, as it was in that day when they ascended from the land of Egypt. †

    Mystical Babylon shall have her Euphrates, even as ancient Babylon had, to wit, the Turkish empire, as I

    * The Jews frequently called all large rivers by the general name of Euphrates.

    † Isaiah, 11th ch. 15th and 16th v.


                             OR, SHORT SUMMARY OF THE WHOLE.                        527

    conceive, which is the only obstacle to those new enemies from the east. "Now, therefore, behold the Lord bringeth up upon them the waters of the river, strong and many, even the king of Assyria and all his glory; and he shall come up over all his channels, and go over all his banks; and he shall pass through Judah; he shall overflow and go over; he shall reach even to the neck and the stretching out of his wings, shall fill the breadth of thy land, O Immanuel. * Therefore; by the sixth vial this Euphratean deluge shall be dried up. Plainly according with the 11th ch. of the Revelation, after the overthrow of the city, which shall come to pass in a great earthquake, the second wo shall be past, that is, the plague of the sixth trumpet. But by what means this is to happen. and by what authors, whether by Jews themselves, which, haply, Ezekiel intimates in his 38th and 39th ch. who shall possess the holy land again, or by some intestine discord, fitly to go before the return of these; or haply both, but, in order, one after another; or by some other cause we shall labour in vain in guessing, as at a matter wholly yet to come. -- Whatsoever, it be, this lett being removed, it is said a way of going to some place, is prepared for these (Jews or) new Christians from the east, and that, as it seemeth, to make an expedition against the beast, to the ruin of whom all the vials serve." †

    Are not then these facts, with many more that might be mentioned, as applicable to the same purpose, sufficient to alarm the powers and citizens of the European governments, who, at present, seem to be bewildered at the unaccountable and uncommon events of a few years past?

    * Isaiah, 8th ch. 7th and 8th v.

    † Mede.


    528                                            CONCLUSION;                                            

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    554                                            CONCLUSION;                                            

    from the world and to stand with their loins girt, and their lamps trimmed and burning, waiting for the accomplishment of their hopes. The Jews are looking with as much anxiety for the first coming of the Messiah, as the Christian is for the second appearance of the same Messiah. -- The foundation of their hope is the same. Their great Rabbi Jonathan Ben Uzziel, who composed the Chaldee Targums, or paraphrase on the prophets, and who lived a little before our Saviour, in his paraphrase on Habbakuk 3d ch. 17th and 18th verses, speaks of the four great kingdoms of the earth thus, "For the kingdom of Babylon shall not continue, nor exercise dominion over Israel; the kings of Media shall be slain; and the strong men of Greece shall not prosper: The Romans will be blotted out, nor collect tribute from Jerusalem. Therefore because of the sign, and redemption, which thou shalt accomplish for thy Christ, and the remnant of thy people, they who remain shall praise thee." *

    In short, the present generation are so highly favoured with light and knowledge, that they have no excuse for the obstinate infidelity that prevails among them. Most of the old objections to Revelation are done away, by the exact fulfilrnent of events in these latter days, foretold in the prophetic declarations of the Scriptures. The testimony is still increasing, and the truth of prophesy is manitesting every day. -- As miracles, at the first commencement of Christianity, so the precise accomplishment of prophesy in these latter ages of it, confirms its truth and certainty, beyond rational objection and doubt.

    The word of unerring truth has declared, and true and faithful will all her declarations be found, "that Jesus Christ (in his mediatorial character, is Prince of the

    * Prideaux Con. part 2d. book 8. answ. 27.


                             OR, SHORT SUMMARY OF THE WHOLE.                        555

    kings (or governments) of the earth. He has had power given to him over all flesh -- All things are delivered to him by the Father -- All power is given to him in Heaven and in earth. He is exalted far above every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come: and all things are put under his feet, and he is given to be head over all things to the Church. The kingdoms of the world, shall become the kingdoms of our Lord and his Christ. All kings shall fall down before him; all nations shall serve him. He shall strike through kings in the day of his wrath, He shall judge among the heathen; he shall fill the places with the dead bodies, he shall wound the heads (or chiefs) over many countries. God hath said, and it shall come to pass, "I will overturn, overturn, overturn it, and it shall be no more, until he come whose right it is, and I will give it him," * for he is the only potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords. "Be wise therefore now, O ye kings; be instructed, ye judges of the earth. Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little."

    The Jews appear also peculiarly and distinguishingly interested in the present scene of things, and in the expected fates of the governments of Europe. -- Their dispersion is drawing to an end. The promises to them, on the eve of fulfilment, are most glorious -- "They have drank of the cup of trembling at the Lord's hand, doubly for all their iniquity." But they are now commanded to lift up their heads and rejoice. "Sing, O daughter of Zion; shout, O Israel; be glad and rejoice with all thy heart, O daughter of Jerusalem. -- At that time I will bring you again, even in the time that I gather you; for I will make

    * Ezek. 21st ch. 27th v.

    † 2d Psalm, 10-12 v.


    556                                            CONCLUSION;                                            

    you a name and a praise among all people of the earth, when I turn back your captivity before your eyes, saith the Lord." *

    But let them be careful not to be deceived, as they have so often, heretofore been, by impostors and false Messiahs. -- Let not every one, who vainly promises their deliverance, engage their confidence -- They should look at their Scriptures -- they are a light shining in a dark place -- What is the character, objects, and means of accomplishment attributed to the Messiah? -- Carefully investigate the conduct, pretensions, objects, and practices of any who may pretend to this character -- forget not that he was to come during the existence of the second temple -- and before the dispersion of their nation -- that he was to be led as a Jamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep is dumb before her shearers, so he opened not his mouth. Are not the Jews to look upon him whom they have pierced, and mourn as for a first born. I know they are in the habit of rejecting what Christians say on this subject, but I beseech them to attend to what their celebrated writers say, and compare it with the New Testament. †

    * Zephaniah, 3d ch. 14-20 v.

    † Philo, their justly celebrated writer and philosopher, speaking of the second person in the God Head, says --

    1. The Logos is the Son of God. -- De Agrie, 1st vol. p. 308 -- compare Mark, 1st ch. 1st v. Luke, 4th ch. 41st v. John, 1st ch. 34th v. Acts, 8th ch. 37th v.

    2. He is the second Divinity. -- Deuteros Thelos Logos -- Frigen, 2d vol. p. 625 -- compare John 1st ch. 1st v. Cor. 1st ch. 1-24 v.

    3. He is the first begotten of God -- De Somniis, 1st vol. p. 65. -- compare Hebrews, 1st ch. 6th v. Coloss. 1st ch. 15th v.

    4. He is the image of God. -- De mundi Opifie: 1st vol. p. 6, 414, 419, 656 -- compare Col. 1st ch. 15th v. Heb. 1st ch. 3d v. 2d Cor. 4th ch. 4th v.

    5. He it is, by whom the world was created. -- De Mund. Opif.


                             OR, SHORT SUMMARY OF THE WHOLE.                        557

    The signs of the present times appear to be a solemn warning to them particularly, of the approach of that awful day when "the Lord with the sound of shophar will publish salvation, to assemble the dispersed sheep of the house of Israel, at the coming of the vision of salvation!"

    1st vol. p. 4 -- compare John 1st ch. 3d v. 1st Cor. 8th ch. 6th v. Hebrews, 1st ch. 2-10 v.

    6. He is the light of the world and the intellectual Sun -- De Somn. 1st vol. p. 6, 414, 632, 633 -- compare John ist ch. 4-9 v. 8th ch. 12 v: 1st Peter, 2d. ch. 9th v.

    7. He is esteemed the same as God. -- De Somn. 1st. vol. p. 656. De Profug. 1st vol. p. 561 -- compare John 1st ch. 1-15 v. & 14th ch. 11th v. Rom. 9th ch. 5th v. Phil. 2d ch. 6th v.

    8. He is eternal -- De Plant. Noae. 1st vol. p. 332 -- 2d vol. p. 604 -- compare John 12th ch. 34th v. 2d Tim. 1st ch. 9th v. 4th ch. 18th v. Heb. 1st ch. 8th v. Rev. 10th ch. 6th v,

    9. He is nearest to God without separation. -- De Profug. 1st vol. p. 561 -- compare John 1st ch. 18-10 v. 14th ch. 11th v. & 17th ch. 11th v.

    l0. He is the Seal of God. -- De Profug. 1st. vol. p. 547 -- 8. De Plant. Noae, p. 332 -- compare Jolm 6th ch. 27th v. Eph. 1st ch. 13th v. Heb. 1st ch. 3d v.

    11. He frees his people from all corruption and entitles them to immortality -- De Cong. Ques. Erud. Grat. 1st vol. p. 535. -- compare Rom. 8th ch. 21st v. 1st Cor. 15th ch. 52-53 v. 1st Pet. 1st ch. 3-4v.

    12. He is mentioned by Philo, not only as the Son of God, but also as his beloved Son. -- De Leg. Allegor. 1st vol. p. 129 -- compare Matt. 3d ch. 17th v. Luke, 9th ch. 35th v. Col. 1st ch. 13th v. 2d Pet. 1st ch. 17th v.

    Thus Philo declares the character of their Messiah, whose coming they were so earnestly looking for -- And this is precisely the character of him whom Christians say is theirMessiah, who is already come. Can then a rational Jew say that this is not a subject worthy their most careful examination, as a people bound for eternity. *

    * Dr. Clark, on John's Gospel


    558                                            CONCLUSION;                                            

    Are they not a warning of the approach of that time, when "the Lord, with the sound of shophar, will cause a voice to be heard from Heaven upon the holy mountain, and upon Jerusalem?" The Lord seems to be "revealing the period, and the season, when he will sound the shophar, and go with the whirlwinds of the south." And the consequences will be, "that the kingdom of iniquity shall be destroyed, and God will then exalt himself with Jubilation. Then let all the inhabitants of the globe, and those who dwell upon the earth, when the standard is set up on the mountains, behold it; and when the shophar is sounded, then shall ye hear." *

    It becomes the Jews, among the rest, seriously to attend to the present state of things in the world. Let their own Scriptures be the test of their conduct. -- They are our elder brethren, bone of our bone and flesh of our flesh, as firm believers in divine revelation agreeably to the Old Testament. -- Here, they are loudly called upon, to hearken to the voice of God, speaking in the fulfilment of ancient prophesy. -- The prediction of Moses has been miraculously fulfilled. "And the Lord said unto Moses, behold, thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, and this people will rise up and go a whoring after the Gods of the strangers of the land, whether they go to be among them, and will forsake me and break my covenant which I have made with them. Then my anger shall be kindled against them in that day, and I will forsake them, and they shall be devoured and many evils shall befall them, so that they will say in that day, are not these evils come upon us, because our God is not among us?" And Moses said "Take this book of the law and put it in the side of the

    * Jewish Liturgy.


                             OR, SHORT SUMMARY OF THE WHOLE.                        559

    ark of the covenant of the Lord, your God, that it may be there, for a witness against thee; for I know thy rebellion and thy stiff neck: behold, while I am yet alive with you this day, ye have been rebellious against the Lord, and how much more after my death" -- "For I know that after my death, ye will utterly corrupt yourselves and turn aside from the way which I have commanded you, and evil will befall you in the latter days." * And again, "It shall come to pass if thou wilt not hearken unto the voice of the Lord thy God, to observe to do all his commandments, and his statutes, which I command thee this day, that all these curses shall come upon thee and overtake thee. -- The Lord shall scatter thee among all people, from one end of the earth even unto the other; and there, thou shalt serve other Gods, which neither thou, nor thy fathers have known, even wood and stone. And among these nations, shalt thou find no ease, neither shall the sole of thy foot have rest; but the Lord shall give thee a trembling heart and failing of eyes, and sorrow of mind. And thy life shall hang in doubt before thee; and thou shalt fear day and night, and shall have none assurance of thy life: And the Lord shall bring thee into Egypt again with ships, by the way whereof I spake unto thee, thou shalt see it no more again; and there ye shall be sold unto your enemies for bond men and bond women, and no man shall buy you." †

    But it shall come to pass when all these things are come upon thee, the blessing and the curse, which I have set before thee, and thou shalt call them to mind, among all the nations whither the Lord thy God hath driven thee, and shalt return to the Lord thy God, and shalt obey his

    * Deut. ch. 31. v. 16, to the end.

    † lbid, ch, 28. v. 15. 64. 68.


    560                                            CONCLUSION;                                            

    voice; -- that then the Lord thy God will turn thy captivity, and have compassion upon thee, and will return and gather thee from all the nations, whither the Lord thy God hath scattered thee; -- If any of thine be driven out unto the utmost part of heaven, from thence will the Lord thy God gather thee, and from thence will he fetch thee. And the Lord thy God will bring thee into the land which thy fathers possessed; and thou shalt possess it; and he will do thee good, and multiply thee above thy fathers." *

    Was not the promise to Abraham positive and without reserve that he should inherit the land of Canaan? Was not this promise repeated several times, and to Isaac and Jacob? -- Are not the Psalms full of the same promises to David and his seed, that his kingdom should be established forever? Has any part of this been yet fulfilled, so as to answer the enlarged view of the promise? Can your nation be said even to have possessed the land of Canaan in peace, for any considerable time together? Is not your history, a continued statement of wars, bloodshed and disorder; rebellion, assassinations and idolatry? Is not therefore the fulfilment of the glorious promises of the Bible, yet future, and do you not generally believe that the time is not far off? May you not, on your principles, even at this moment, join in the confession of the song of the three children, 14th and 15th verses, "For we, O Lord, are become less than any nation and be kept under this day in all the world, because of our sins. Neither is there, at this time, prince, or prophet, or leader, or burnt offering, or sacrifice, or oblation, or incense, or place to sacrifice before thee, and to find mercy." †

    * Deut. 30th ch. 1-5 v.

    † Since writing the above, I have met with the liturgy of the Jewish Synagogue, in which the morning prayer of Rebou Hoalomim


                             OR, SHORT SUMMARY OF THE WHOLE.                        561

    The Jews do firmly believe in the promised Messiah, that he is to come, while many of their prophesies show that he must be already come. "The sceptre was not to depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet till Shiloh come." The sceptre is departed already for more than 1000 years, Shiloh must be come. Their prophet Haggai expressly declares, in his encouragement to Zerubbabel to build the second temple, "that the desire of all nations (the Messiah) should come, and God would fill that very temple with glory, and that the glory of that house should be greater than the former temple," notwithstanding its unparalleled glory; or in other words, as it has always been explained by their ancient Rabbins, that the Messiah should come into that house. This temple has been destroyed upwards of 1700 years. -- Should ye not then, ye sons of Israel, "hear the words which the Lord hath cried by the former prophets, when Jerusalem was inhabited, and in prosperity, and the cities

    confirms this idea. It is in these words, "Lord of the universe! Thou didst order that we should offer a continual sacrifice in thy temple, and the priests should be at the service thereof, and the Levites at their platform, and the Israelites in their committees; but from the cause of our sins, our sacred temple is destroyed, and the continual sacrifices have ceased: and we have neither priest at the service, Levite at the platform, nor select committee of Israelites to perform the precepts of thy service."

    Miss Adams has already observed, "that the most learned of the Jewish Rabbis acknowledge that the royal and judicial power has been abolished." Rabbi B. Kimchi laments the sufferings of his nation, and says, he has seen in his time the fulfilment of the prophesy of Hosea, being those days of evil in which there was neither prince or king of the house of David. Abravanel, another famous Rabbi, also observes, that Isaiah speaks of a new calamity the Jews were to suffer, viz. that they should have neither kingdom, sovereignty, or judicial sceptre.


    562                                            CONCLUSION;                                            

    thereof round about her, when men inhabited the south and the plain." * Thus saith the Lord of Hosts, behold I will save my people from the east country, and from the west country, and I will bring them, and they shall dwell in the midst of Jerusalem; and they shall be my people, and I will be their God in truth and in righteousness." † Do ye not believe what God himself hath said in Numbers, 14th ch. 21st v. "As truly as I live, all the earth shall be filled with my glory" -- and also what his prophets have said, that "in the latter day, God will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and supplications; -- that then ye shall look upon him whom ye have pierced, and mourn for him as one mourneth for his only son; and shall be in bitterness for him as one that is in bitterness for his first born." Hath not your nation been "led away captive into all nations," and hath not Jerusalem been, and still is, "trodden down by the Gentiles," -- and, consequently, the times of the Gentiles are not yet fulfilled. When the time of the Gentiles shall be fulfilled, then (according to the Christian system) the expression implies that you shall be restored. The prophesies have been accomplished to the greatest exactness in the destruction of your city, -- and its still continuing subject to strangers, -- in the dispersion of your people, -- and your still living separate from all nations: why then should not the remaining parts of the same prophesies be as fully accomplished too, in your restoration at the proper season, when "the times of the Gentiles shall be fulfilled." The "times of the Gentiles" will be fulfilled when the times of "the four great kingdoms" of the Gentiles according to Daniel's prophesy, shall be expired,

    * Zech. 7th ch. 7th v.

    † Ibid. 8th ch. 7-8 v.


                             OR, SHORT SUMMARY OF THE WHOLE.                        563

    and the fifth kingdom of the Messiah shall be set up in their place, and the saints of the Most High shall take the kingdom, and possess it for ever, even for ever and ever. -- Jerusalem, as it has hitherto remained, so probably will remain in subjection to the Gentiles, until these times of the Gentiles be fulfilled; or, as St. Paul expresseth it, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in; and so all Israel shall be saved, and become again the people of God -- therefore, their restoration must be with the Gentiles. The fulness of the Jews will come in, as well as the fulness of the Gentiles. For if the fall of them be the riches of the world; and the diminishing of them, be the riches of the Gentiles, how much more their fulness. For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, that blindness, in' part, has happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in. And so all Israel shall be saved. * Can you have then any solid objection to making a solemn and serious business of seeking, in a special manner, for the spirit of grace and supplications? Who knows but God may hear and hasten your restoration, which we Christians are continually and ardently praying for, according as he has promised? and that he would, in great mercy, "open a fountain to the house of David, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for uncleanness;" † that he would "bring again the captivity of his people Israel, that they may build again the waste cities, and inhabit them -- that they may plant vineyards and drink the wine thereof; -- that they may make gardens and eat the fruit thereof; -- and that God may plant you in your land again; and ye shall no more

    * Romans, 11th ch. 12th v.

    † Zecb. 13th ch. 1st v.


    564                                            CONCLUSION;                                            

    Pages 564 to 578 have not yet been transcribed.


    Transcriber's Comments

    The Second Advent

    The Author, Elias Boudinot

    With even a cursory inspection of Elias Boudinot's Second Advent it becomes clear to any reader that the writer expected a speedy commencement of the long anticipated "second coming" and millennial rule of Jesus Christ. The fact that nearly 200 more years would pass, after Mr. Boudinot wrote his book, without the manifestation of the expected "second advent," would have no doubt come as a great shock and a disappointment to the author. He saw what he thought were clear signs of the "end times" in the European news of his own day -- in the outcomes of the French Revolution, in the career of Napoleon, and in the rise of freemasonry, rationalism, deism, and atheism in a Europe which had at least paid lip service to established religion through most of the 18th century. In his 1801 book, The Age of Revelation, Boudinot had attempted to combat "Tom Paine" style infidelity. Fourteen years later, in his Second Advent, the same writer was warning all that the end was near -- the coming of Christ was at hand.

    Mr. Boudinot (he might well be called "President Boudinot," in view of his early role as the President of the U. S. Continental Congress) was both a pre-millenarian and a Christian Zionist. As to the former term, Boudinot read the Bible and various commentaries on biblical prophecy, with a view that there would eventually be a "second advent" of the risen Christ, in which he would return to the earth "in glory" to rule over God's kingdom among man. It goes without saying that Boudinot expected that the centuries following that second advent would be the peaceable kingdom of universal righteousness some called the 1000 year reign of Christ, or the millennium. In regard to the second term, "Christian Zionist," Mr. Boudinot inherited a view then commonly held among American Calvinists (he was a Presbyterian), that the "fulness of the Gentiles" must first come to pass before the millennial rule of Christ would begin. Symbolic of the times of the Gentiles was the non-Jewish rule over Jerusalem. In short, Boudinot expected that the "House of Israel" would be "restored" to its former greatness and favor, take possession of Jerusalem as a nation of Christian converts, and thus fulfil the various biblical prophecies that appeared to indicate that such things must happen before Christ's rule on earth could fully happen.

    The Restoration of All Things

    In writing his volume explaining the "second advent," Mr. Boudinot paid special attention to several books in Hebrew Bible which for centuries had been valued by Christians for their seemingly clear predictions of the Christian Savior -- the standard "proof texts" that Jesus the Son of Mary was actually the promised Messiah of Israel. Boudinot's dependence upon books like Isaiah, Ezekiel and Zechariah for such apparent evidence is not unexpected; practically all Christian writers of his day did the same. What is unusual about Boudinot's use of those sorts of "messianic" biblical references is that he is careful to reproduce and make use of numerous passages in reference to the "restoration" of scattered Israel and dispersed Judah. To author Boudinot it was important that those obscure passage should be brought to the forefront of his literalistic explanations and that his readers should understand clearly what he saw to be important in those ancient promises and predictions.

    Since at least the time of St. Augustin, there was a clear pattern among orthodox Christian writers to downplay those very same passages. When such "restorationist" phraseology was quoted by the ancient Christian leaders and apologists, it was almost always within the context of how comforting these words were to the Church -- in its role as the symbolic or allegorical "Israel." With the coming of the Protestant Reformation, British Puritanism, and the development of Congregationalism and Presbyterianism in America, new motives and methods for interpreting the old scriptures began to appear on the religious scene. Long before the time of Elias Boudinot it was already common for American Calvinists to make mention of a "restoration" of "Israel" prior to the second coming of Christ. What writers like Elias Boudinot, the Rev. Ethan Smith, and others did, was to announce an imminent second advent and thus an imminent need for the "restoration" of the scattered Israelites. Boudinot was especially centered in his thoughts on this particular aspect of the end times chronology. He devotes several pages near the end of his 1815 book in pleading with the Jews to convert to Christianity. To his way of thinking this was the only possible way in which the Jewish portion of the "House of Israel" would ever become acceptable to God and thus divinely favored with a return to Jerusalem and the Holy Land.

    Boudinot does not say exactly how he envisioned getting these Jewish converts to Christianity back to their ancient homeland. Here is content to leave that matter in God's hands, expecting (with Isaiah) that they would come "on horses, in chariots and litters; and upon mules and dromedaries to his holy mountain Jerusalem..." A few years later the Rev. Ethan Smith would call for shipping a "remnant" of scattered Israel from the Americas back to the Holy Land, in a project something like the colonization of Liberia. Boudinot is never so specific in guessing how the great migration will come to pass. He only looks in keen anticipation for the "the judgment of the great day of the Jews, and the kingdom of Heaven, the kingdom of God, and the times of refreshing and the restitution of all things of the New Testament."

    The Problem of the Lost Tribes

    In choosing to read the Bible so literally, Elias Boudinot painted himself into a theological corner, in respect to the greater part of "scattered Israel." Boudinot admits that the ancient prophecies are given to both Judah and Israel. "Judah" he found tin the Jewish Diaspora; but where was "Israel?" The author drops a few hints of his opinion on the solution to this problem in those pages where he discusses the prophecies he has gleaned from the book of Isaiah. It is clear that Boudinot suspects that the "lost tribes" of Israel have largely migrated to the Americas and are to be found there under the guise of American Indians. This notion, like his basic views on Christian Zionism, was no innovation. Many writers before Boudinot guessed that the American Indians might be those same "lost tribes.

    What Boudinot does is to add the element of pregnant expectancy to the whole matter. If the American Indians are a branch of Israel, they too must shortly be "restored." along with their supposed brethren, the Jews. And, if the approach of the "second advent" is imminent, then something must be done in regard to the American Indians at once. The magnitude of this problem so intrigued Elias Boudinot that he wrote a sort of appendix to his 1815 book, publishing it under the title of A Star in the West the very next year. In this second book Mr. Boudinot carefully builds up what he feels is his evidence, until he has assured himself, at least, that the American Indians are the "lost tribes" of Israel, and that they too must be restored to their ancient position among the nations, as a branch of God's chosen people.

    In fact, Boudinot seems to have felt that the popular identification of the Indians as the lost Israelites would bring with it a widespread realization that the Bible and its prophecies were true. When both the American Indians and the Jews of the world realized the great truth of their destiny, and converted to Christianity, the impact of that wondrous event upon the rest of the "heathen" world would be a profound one. Obviously, having seen ancient prophecy come true before their very eyes, so to speak, the heathen multitudes would rush to become Christians and the current luke-warm followers of Christ would be incited to spectacular new levels of zeal and devotion. All of this would set the stage for the "second advent" very nicely.

    American Zionist, M. M. Noah

    The Mormon Adaptation of Boudinot's Ideas

    Following quickly in the path of Elias Boudinot came the Rev. Ethan Smith of Poultney, Vermont. In 1823 and 1825 Rev. Smith published editions his book. View of the Hebrews, in which he shows signs of accepting practically everything that Boudinot had to say in 1815-16. In chapter three of his 1823 edition, Rev. Smith gives some special commendation to the newly formed American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews, happy at reports he had heard of "the remarkable conversion of many of the Jews." The reports of such "remarkable" Jewish conversions to Christianity reaching Ethan Smith were no doubt greatly exaggerated. The American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews (of which Elias Boudinot was President at the time of his death in 1821) was an abject failure. Ethan Smith's dream of returning a "remnant" of the American Indians to the Holy Land was also an utter failure. Rev. Smith says, "Such promises of the restoration of Israel from far countries, from the west... their being brought in ships from far... certainly well accord with the ten tribes being brought from America. And such passages imply an agency by which such a restoration shall be effected.... Surely then this business would be assigned, either tacitly or expressly to our nation [the USA]."

    Although both Elias Boudinot and Ethan Smith looked for the speedy "restoration of Israel," very few Jews joined Boudinot's Meliorating Society and even fewer Indians ever embarked "in ships" for Jerusalem, in expectation of fulfilling prophecy. Contemporary Jewish observers like Major Mordecai M. Noah were unimpressed with the Christians' hopes for mass conversions prior to the impending millennium. Major Noah, however, was somewhat more encouraged by Boudinot's identification of the American Indians as a branch of the House of Israel. Noah incorporated the conversion of the Indians (to Judaism, not to Christianity) into his own, equally unsuccessful, attempt at establishing a latter day Zion. At least Noah did not have to worry about finding the "ships" whereby to transport his Indian converts overseas -- he instead anticipated building a "New Jerusalem" for all "Israelites" on Grand Island in the Niagara River.

    There is reason to suppose that certain early Mormons (including Elders Oliver Cowdery, Sidney Rigdon, etc.) paid particular attention (during the pre-Mormon 1820s) to several of the religious ideas expressed by Christian Zionists such as Elias Boudinot and Ethan Smith and to Jewish Zionists such as Major Noah. IT is no coincidence that some of the first Mormons writing books about their religion (such as Appstle Parley P. Pratt) reproduce significant quotations from Boudinot and make use of practically the same biblical references as he did in Second Advent and A Star in the West. In his 1815 book Mr. Boudinot quotes Isaiah's poetic parallelism in such a way as to hold open (for the ignorant reader, at least) the possibility that Jerusalem and Mount Zion were two widely separated place. In much the same way, the early Mormons refrained from identifying "Jerusalem" with the biblical "Zion," except to acknowledge both places as being special, divinely appointed cities. Ethan Smith, in his View of the Hebrews, clearly pointed out that "restored Israel" would have to migrate back to Jerusalem in order to reach the biblical "Zion." Major Noah, who probably knew his Holy Land geography even better than Boudinot, muddied the theological waters by suggesting that an Israelite "New Jerusalem" could be built in the wilds of western New York, far from its Palestinian namesake. His was an American Zion, if only a temporary one for those who could not go to Jerusalem. It did not take much imagination on the part of early Mormons like Sidney Rigdon to come up with a "New Jerusalem" l ocated in America, which was to be the city of refuge wherein a goodly portion of "Israel" was to be "restored." In justifying this almost unique interpretation of the scriptural texts, Rigdon argued that Jerusalem and the biblical Zion were two entirely different places: Jerusalem was in the Middle East, while Mount Zion was in Western Missouri. No critic could have argued against Rigdon's absurd fabrication by quoting from Boudinot's 1815 book.

    The early Mormons were wise enough to spare themselves the task of moving their "Israelite" American Indians to the Holy Land "in ships." Unable to transport the Indians to Mount Zion, they simply brought Mount Zion to the Indians. Like Boudinot, the Latter Day Saints voiced the hope that the mass conversion of "scattered Israel" to the Gospel (albeit the Mormon Gospel) would catch the attention of the rest of the world, separate the sheep from the goats, and prepare the way for Christ's second advent. They were less worried than either Elias Boudinot or Ethan Smith were about the quick conversion of the Jews, however. It was obvious to the Saints, that once the American Indians had acknowledged their Israelite heritage and become Mormons, that the Jews destined to gather in the Holy Land would do the same. All of this converting and restoring would prepare both the American Zion and the Palestinian Jerusalem for the coming second advent.

    As of the year of grace 2002, neither the Jews of Jerusalem nor the Indians of America have made mass conversions to Mormonism: Boudinot would have been pleased with that much, at least.


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    last revised June 4, 2008