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Josiah Priest
View of the Expected Millennium...

(1st ed.: Albany, 1827; 6th ed 1828)

  • Title Page   Index   Part One
  • Div. 7    Div 8    Div. 9
  • Div 10   Div. 11   Div 12
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    Wonders of Nature (1826)  |  American Antiquities (1833)


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    Shows when the Millennium may be expected. The method pursued in this division, to ascertain the arrival of that period, will be, 1st, by a compared and concise view of the several kinds of ancient Jewish Sabbaths; and, 3d, as analogous to the same point, will be presented a view of natural and supernatural periodical recurrences. 3d. An illustration of the three visions in the book of the prophet Daniel, will be given, so far as it is thought they refer to the Millennium, or to the time when the sanctuary shall be cleansed.

    The sevenfold Sabbaths, kept by Israel's kings,
    Had couch'd beneath those numbers, mystic things!
    And nature, from her deeps, her latent periods pour.
    Her ceaseless powers move on, her oceans roar;
    And heaven its wonders, too, sometimes to men disclose,
    As once was shown a Daniel, where Ulai's water flows.

    Many have been the uninspired prophecyings of the period in which the Millennium is to come. A certain anxiety for its speedy commencement probably has driven many, who delight in the joyous anticipation, beyond the proper boundaries assigned for its commencement by the great chart-book, the Holy Scriptures; for the accomplishment of all those things foretold in the Scriptures, must be realized before its glory can bless the world. The measurement of every thousand


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    cubits, which characterized the length of that river which Ezekiel saw measured by an angel, must be realized in its dispensations before that day shall come. The account of that symbolical river, which is so minutely described by Ezekiel, and its final envelopment in the sea, is precisely what is meant in other places in the word of God, where the sanctuary is spoken of prospectively, anticipating a time when it must be cleansed. I suppose there will be no disagreement with the following opinion: That the sanctuary, as spoken of in the Scriptures, is spoken of as being the visible church, whether under the patronage of Jews or Christians. This appears to be the meaning in Daniel, chap. 7, verse 11, By him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place, of his sanctuary was cast down. This is spoken of the temple at Jerusalem, at which place the church was organized; therefore, the term sanctuary is the church. But this church, this visible sanctuary, is contemplated as being composed of good and bad, otherwise a cleansing would not be contemplated, and agrees with the similitude of our Lord, who represents the gospel by a fishing net, bringing to the shore both the good and the bad; but the good are preserved, while the bad are cast away. From which it is clear, that the sanctuary may be thus contaminated, and so continue, till the great era of cleansing it shall come.

    The period for cleansing it is the grand point at which all books, written upon this subject, have aimed. Different periods have been fixed upon for its accomplishment, and some of these periods have already


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    passed by, and yet the sanctuary is not cleansed -- the watchmen do not yet see eye to eye, foul members yet stain its lovely whiteness.

    I have now before me the opinion of Edward Irving, that the prophetic time, times and a half time, making 1260 years, as foretold by Daniel, should be considered as having ended at the era of the French revolution in 1793. But such cannot be the fact, because the sanctuary is not cleansed. There are three notable Scriptural modes of calculation, which must have their fulfilling at the same period, namely, when the river, which Ezekiel saw, commenced with Abraham, flows into the great sea, which is the Millennium -- when the 1260 years of Daniel shall witness the cleansing of the sanctuary -- when the 2300 days or years of the same prophet, though commencing at an earlier era, shall also have their ending at the cleansing of the sanctuary. See Ezekiel, 47th chap, from the 1st verse to the eighth inclusive; Daniel, 7th chap. 25; do. 8, 14. When, therefore, these three are accomplished, the Millennium will commence.

    It appears to me to be the height of folly to fix upon any partial revolution, which has been effected in favour of religion since the resurrection of Christ, as of sufficient universality to justify the opinion, that the sanctuary has been cleansed. Perhaps we cannot fix upon any era when the church has not been infested, more or less, with wicked members, and will unquestionably continue to be thus afflicted, till the time of its universal cleansing shall come. This, then, we look for, with unvarying confidence, to be accomplished


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    when this river of celestial light, and those two periods spoken of by the prophet Daniel, shall be completed at one and the same time. Till that time, it cannot be said the sanctuary is cleansed -- till that time, the church cannot be called the HOLY CATHOLIC CHURCH.

    The following extract from Mr. Carrington's remarks, under the head of Holy Catholic Church in the apostolic creed at evening prayer, corroborates the above opinion. I am indebted for the extract to a work entitled "Second Advent," by an American layman, who states that he extracted it from a Mr. Warner, who, it appears, wrote upon the subject of the common prayers of the Church of England, who introduced the following remarks from Mr. Carrington, upon the idea of what constitutes a Holy Catholic Church.

    "Considering the general state of the Christian church, from the first hour of its foundation almost to the present, there doth not appear to have been an interval, when the two affections of Holy and Catholic, have been fairly compatible; and all attempts to reconcile those jarring qualities of sanctity and universality, have only occasioned a constrained and unwarrantable interpretation of the terms. It is too evident that the church in general (much less the holy church) hath, as yet, been far from being universal. From hence, expositors have been obliged to recur to partial and figurative constructions; to distant and even sometimes to forced interpretations; in order to support their unnatural solutions with arguments the most


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    specious, many of which tend, at best, to prove how the church may, with some show of probability, rather than how it necessarily must be termed at once both holy and catholic. But as in Scripture we ought not to recede from the letter, without apparent necessity, so why may not the same rule obtain here? Why should we quit the full and genuine sense of a word for one partial and emblematical, when it may with safety and consistency be adhered to? Suppose, then, we can find 9. state or time, when the whole of this article, in the plain and literal meaning of the words shall be found to be strictly true; when this complicated affection shall belong to the church of Christ by a just and unquestionable right; when both the holy church shall become catholic, and the catholic church shall become holy? Ought we not rather to direct our attention to that than to any other period wherein we meet with the least difficulty or obstruction. In a word, the great mistake seems to lie in referring that to either past or present which belongs solely and entirely to futurity. For if there be any force in words; if there is any dependence to be had on the sacred writers, either under the old or new dispensation; we are certainly to expect, even on this side zzzHeaven, astute, an age, a period in which the church of Christ shall appear in a form, in all respects greatly transcending any it has hitherto enjoyed, when the holy few shall no longer be hid and obscured amidst a sea of iniquity; no longer seem an undistinguished handful in the midst of a nicked and idolatrous world; no longer be contracted arrow a compass, as that even their existence


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    shall seem precarious and uncertain, when, in short, the church of Christ shall become at once so absolutely catholic, that all shall know Him, from the least even to the greatest; and so universally holy, that every one who is left in Zion, and who remaineth in Jerusalem, shall be called HOLY, even every one who is written among the living. Here then we must seek that church, which is at once the object of our wishes and of our faith; and that communion of saints, we • long so ardently to be joined to. But it will be well worth our while to take a more comprehensive view of this glorious and remarkable period.

    To trace the declaration of it, indeed, through all its stages, were to go very far back in the Holy Scriptures, since it is certain that it was not absolutely unknown in the first ages. There are evident footsteps of this opinion here and there dispersed in the Chaldee paraphrase, and in the Talmud; and with some few particularities, it is held by the Jews at this day -- And indeed, as the learned Mede observes, the second and, universal resurrection, with the state of the saints after it, now so clearly revealed in Christianity, seems to have been less known to the ancient church of the Jews than the first resurrection. There are many passages in the royal Psalmist, which have an evident tendency this way; and some obscure allusions, some distant hints may be met with, even in the books of Moses; but zzzflic prophets were principally employed in this great discovery, and it engrosses so large a share in their writings, as it were almost endless to transcribe, In short, we can scarcely turn our eye upon any part of


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    them, but it is struck with something which leads us to the expectation of a state of glory and peace, of righteousness and salvation. In a word, a state truly and entirely corresponding to the venerable and expressive title of an Holy Catholic Church.

    In what light these several passages of the prophets are to be considered -- not to mention the almost unanimous interpretation of the primitive fathers -- The Holy Ghost seems himself to have instructed us; for we, saith the Apostle, according to His promise, look for new heavens and a new earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness. From whence it is evident, that those prophecies received not their full completion, in the first promulgation of the Gospel, and calling in of the Gentiles; for both these circumstances were actually past, and the Gospel dispensation had taken place when the Apostle wrote. Where then are we to trace this promise, but in the above recited remarkable passages? And what are we to conceive by an earth inhabited by righteousness, but a church purged from its present gross and numerous abominations, universally clear, pious, holy. And in a word, composed of a pure and entire communion of faith?

    That such a period as this is yet due to the church of Christ, seems too plain to be denied -- But when or where to take place, is a matter of some dispute even among those, who are nevertheless agreed, with regard to the thing in general. But that it certainly will, at some time or other, is quite sufficient for our purpose; and when it does, the church of Christ will be strictly and truly, in the full and genuine sense of the words,


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    what it hath never been yet, both holy and catholic. But let us proceed to consider what may give a further light, both into this, and the remaining part of the article.

    St. John, as he was to close the succession of prophets, seems appointed to repeat such of the ancient predictions as were yet to receive their completion; with such further illustration as the shorter distance of their approaching periods rendered necessary.-* And this remarkable dispensation so far from being forgotten, is discussed by him with the greatest particularity and exactness. In a word, what glimmered in the writings of Moses and David; what we saw as through a glass darkly, in the prophets, this Apostle seems to have shown us openly, without a parable, and face to face.

    After a short but clear description of such remarkable particulars as were successively to take place in order to usher in that glorious economy, "I saw," says he, "an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit, and a great chain in his hand -- And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil and Satan, and bound him a thousand years, and cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled. And I saw the souls of those who were beheaded for the testimony of Jesus and for the word of God, and who had not worshipped the beast -- and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years. But the rest of the dead lived not till the thousand


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    years were finished." At the end of this Millennium succeeds the second and general resurrection; and the happy interim is evidently the new heavens and the new earth of Isaiah; the latter days of the prophets; the times of restitution; the times of the refreshing of the Gospel; and the golden age of the heathens. The attendant circumstances are too plainly parallel) the likeness and conformity too strong, for us not to see that they are one and the same thing -- Behold here then the long promised kingdom of the son of David; behold his universal dominion in a truly catholic church. Nor can we turn our eyes on the companions of that happy reign, the noble army of those that had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus, and for the word of God; and who had not worshipped the beast, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands, whom the Lamb shall therefore make Kings and priests, and they shall reign on earth, without exclaiming, here is indeed a communion of saints -- a blessed unmixed society of the just, enjoying universal harmony, and a free and uninterrupted intercourse with God, their King and Saviour, the holy angels, and each other. I think it, by no means, either impossible or improbable, that an opinion which had so long and so universally prevailed in the church; which had borne so large a share in the hopes, belief, words, and writings of so many of its members; and been patronized by apostles, apostolic men, confessors, and martyrs, should find a place in some of their confessions of faith -- rather very improbable it is, that a point by them esteemed of so much


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    importance should be wholly neglected -- not impossible that such an one may be this very confession before us; or at least, that this remarkable and mysterious article (which I think, according to the usual interpretation of it, hardly carries weight enough to be made a distinct article of faith) may have been transferred from such into this creed, at a time when its genuine intention was not, perhaps, thoroughly under* stood. Thus far, however, I must think certain, that by the help of this hypothesis, we have a much less intricate and constrained solution of this article, than any of those which are usually given us. In which opinion I have the satisfaction of finding myself supported by the ready concurrence of some persons of distinguished characters for learning and judgment, as well as zealous attachment to the genuine doctrine of sound and orthodox Christianity."

    Thus far we have the opinion of Mr. Carrington, that till the sanctuary is cleansed, or till the Millennium foretold by the Revelator commences, the church cannot be considered strictly a Holy Catholic Church. Though I disagree with his opinion, that the Millennium is the new heaven and the new earth, promised in the Scriptures, because this idea embraces an era which lies beyond the time in which the sanctuary is to be cleansed. We are not told by the Revelator to expect the creation of a new church at that time, but that the Lamb shall have the victory over his enemies, which is the cleansing of the sanctuary, promised by Daniel the prophet. This glorious time will be the period when that which St. John saw shall be fulfilled. See Rev. 21,


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    2, 3, 1. And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. And I heard a great voice out of heaven, saying, Behold the tabernacle of God is with men. This, then, is the Millennium; but the period for the new creation is yet future, because it is stated in the verse following, And he that sat upon the throne said, Behold I make all things new. And the reason why, I conclude, this new heaven and new earth is to be a real creation, and does not mean the glory of the church, is because, in verse 1st of the 21st chap. And I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away, and there was no more sea. The last clause of this verse qualifies the whole, as not belonging to the church in the Millennium, because the Revelator says, there was no more sea; therefore it is spoken only of the new creation, which is to be created after the Millennium is passed, and also after the general judgment day.

    I introduced the remarks of Mr. Carrington to show that I am not alone in the opinion, that all individuals who then compose the visible church, will absolutely be holy, else the sanctuary will not be cleansed at all; and also to show that others have held the opinion, that there will be two distinct resurrections, one of the righteous at the beginning of the Millennium, and the other of the wicked at its end, or soon after. But I trust 1 shall not be charged with egotism when I state, that this opinion was already penned in the manuscript of my book, before I saw this opinion of Mr. Carrington,


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    who, I apprehend, speaks the sentiment of the English church upon that subject, and states that he had the satisfaction to find himself supported by the ready concurrence of persons of distinguished characters for learning and judgment, as well as zealous attachment to the genuine doctrines of sound and orthodox Christianity. And further, lest any might suppose that I have, in the composition of this work, followed only the beaten track of ages, will state, that when I had finished the leading positions of it, I had never seen a work upon the subject, nor conversed with any but such as generally contradicted my views.

    But I proceed, and by the aid of Scripture and analogy, hope to demonstrate the true time when the Millennium, so long the subject of the highest hopes of the church militant, shall arrive.

    That time has been rightly measured, or reckoned, from the beginning of the world, there are none who can successfully dispute; because the Scriptures are not only the most ancient record of chronology, but they are the most true. It is said by Adam Clark, (see his advertisement before Matthew) that Archbishop Usher has calculated, that Christ was born exactly in the year of the world 4000, to which his own account nearly agrees. See his comment on St. Matthew, 3d chapter, where he states that John the Baptist was horn A. M. 3999, and that Christ was born about six months afterwards, which very probably might bring his birth in the year 4000, especially so, if the Baptist was born at any period of that year subsequent to the sixth month. Therefore, I do not hesitate to publish


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    my faith, founded on such evidence as is perfectly satisfactory to me, that the Millennium will commence the moment six thousand years are accomplished from the creation of the earth; and that the period spoken of is not far hence, is certain, if we trust the chronology of Scripture, which none should doubt: From which it appears, following the Usherian plan of calculation, which is allowed to be the most correct, if not perfectly such, that Christ was born A. M. 4000. Since that era, 1827 years have gone by, or if we add the four years, which, it is said, the common reckoning falls short, then it is 1831 from the era of the present year since Christ. Add, therefore, 4000 years B. C. to 1831, A. D. and it gives the product of 5831 years since the creation; then add 169 years to 5831, and it gives the product of 6000 years.

    One hundred and sixty-nine years from the end of this year, accordingly, the expected Christian Millennium will commence. There are many things, connected with this view, which corroborate the opinion; which things I shall make to pass before the reader for his inspection and belief.

    First, I shall give a concise and compared view of the various kinds of ancient Jewish Sabbaths, which I think typical of the Millennium.

    The appointment of the first Sabbath by the order of heaven, which occurred the seventh day from the beginning of creation, was intended as a day of rest for man, and also for a day of peculiar expressions of love and worship to the Creator, as well as to aid the creature in his recollection, that God created the heavens


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    and the earth in six days, but rested on the seventh; and He ordained the first seventh day, with all its succeeding ones, to be observed by all the inhabitants of the earth as the grand data of their existence, being commenced the day before the ordination of that day in the natural, moral and political image of God.

    The Creator greatly demonstrated his benevolent purposes towards our race, when he commanded the solemn observance of every seventh day. The nations, who, out of regard, to God's authority, have reverenced that day, have been more or less blessed of heaven on that account, above other nations who observe it not. But in the process of ages, God raised up from among the nations a people, viz. the Jews, to whom he chose to reveal many things, to whom was committed the oracles of God, the first Testament. Among the records of God's good pleasure committed to this people, are found their obligation to observe three distinct kinds of Sabbaths, beside the original one. The first was a Sabbath of weeks, wherein the} were to number seven Sabbaths, making forty-nine days; and the fiftieth they were to observe, by offering a new meat offering to the Lord in the most solemn manner. Levit. 23, 15, 16.

    The second was a Sabbath of years, wherein they were commanded to number six years from their first possession of the country, and to keep the seventh for a Sabbath, in which they were forbidden to labour. Levit. 25, 4.

    The third was a Sabbath of years also, though of much longer continuation, consisting of seven times


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    seven years, making forty-nine, and the fiftieth to be a Sabbath hallowed in a solemn manner -- a Sabbath in which a general obliteration of all grievances took place. It was a jubilee, a year of restoration to all those that were in bonds, or involved in their estates. Levit. 25, 8.

    Here, then, we find the appointment of three kinds of Sabbaths, for the use of the Jews, which are embodied in the law of Moses, and all that appertained to that law, its sacrifices and Sabbaths were, besides their intrinsic worth to the Jews, shadows also of some good things to come in future ages. For the law, having a shadow of good things to come, are not the very image of the things. Heb. 10, 1. Therefore the things they symbolize, are the very image or reality pointed at. From which it is extremely easy to perceive, that the law of sacrifices, with all its accompanying ceremonies, were but the shadows of the great sacrifice of Christ for the sins of the whole world; and that He, and the gospel which He preached, and its healing effects, were the good things which it shadowed forth. But what good things, distinctly considered, do those three kinds of Sabbaths shadow forth? for they must be considered as shadowing forth some good thing, as well as the law of sacrifices. We consider, that though there are three kinds of Sabbaths, yet they are one in their nature, and had their uses among the Jews, and were ordained wholly for times of offerings to God, and for feasts to his honour, and for rest to the land, and for times of release to the oppressed, and restoration of involved estates, and to keep in


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    remembrance the wonderful things God had done for them as a nation, lest they should forget his name, and say who is the Lord, and mingle with the surrounding heathen nations. We, therefore, conclude them as typically blended together, and pointing to one event only, which event is no where to be found in the Christian economy, except it be the expected Millennium. That great Sabbath of rest, the jubilee of heaven, wherein the earth shall rest from a weight of wickedness, which has oppressed it six thousand years, when that time shall have arrived, but then shall rest a thousand years, which is one seventh part of the time, and in this respect most strikingly resembles all the former kinds of Sabbaths, which were its forerunners.

    The resemblance that all these kinds of Sabbaths bear to each other in one respect, we will now endeavour to present to the reader, with the desire of impressing upon his mind, that they, on that one account, point to the Millennium, which particular is, that they are all governed by the number seven. The first Sabbath consisted of one perfect and whole day, which is the seventh part of seven days, or a week of days, but the seventh a Sabbath.

    The second kind of Sabbath was observed at the end of seven weeks, or when they had numbered seven Sabbaths from the day when the sheaf for a wave offering had been presented to the priest. From that day, therefore, they were to number seven weeks, making forty-nine days, but the fiftieth must be a holy day -- this was a week of weeks.

    The third kind consisted of seven years, and the seventh


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    year was a Sabbath -- this is a week of years. The fourth kind consisted of seven times seven years. and the fiftieth a Sabbath -- this was the great week of years, which embraced in it seven weeks of years, or seven Sabbaths of years.

    The first Sabbath, or every seventh day, which was given to Adam, was a sanctification of one seventh part of the time, in reference to rest, and the worship of God. The three other kinds of Sabbaths which were given to the Jews, was a sanctification of certain periods of time, which, after a septennial manner, referred to rest for the land, to offerings to God, to release of the oppressed, and restoration of involved estates, every fiftieth year after seven Sabbaths of years were accomplished.

    So also shall the Millennium, consisting of a thousand years, be the sanctification of one seventh part of the age of the earth, in reference to the absence of all moral and natural evil, as those other kinds were for the purposes for which they were ordained. This view of the subject exceedingly exalts the propriety of the expectation of a thousand years' Sabbath, and will effect its design with equal certainty.

    Now if these resemble each other in the manner of their constitutions, observing the order of sevens, will it not be in exact coincidence with these, if we say that seven thousand years is a week, but the seventh a Sabbath, which will be the great week of time.

    I believe that each day in the first week of time stood each the representative of a thousand years; for it is


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    said of God, that with him a day is as a thousand years, or a thousand years a day. With this view, in reference to his saying a thousand years is as a day, I have concluded, that seven thousand years are but seven days, and that the seventh is the Sabbath, which is the Millennium.

    From the beginning, and through all the sacred book, the number seven appears to be a perfect number, and is used to denote a perfection belonging to whatever it illustrates, or which it symbolizes.

    In the beginning, seven days was a perfect week. God added seven days to his promised patience toward the old world. Clean beasts were taken into the ark by sevens. The years of plenty and famine in Egypt, and their emblems, were marked by sevens. The days of feasting, or feast of tabernacles, of unleavened bread, was observed by sevens. The number of beasts, in sundry of their oblations, were offered by sevens. The golden candlesticks had seven branches. Seven priests, with seven trumpets, went round the wall of Jericho seven days, and seven times, on the seventh day. Wisdom had her seven pillars.

    In Revelations, there were seven churches, seven candlesticks, seven spirits, seven stars, seven seals, seven trumpets, seven thunders, seven vials, seven plagues. and seven angels to pour them out on the seven headed monster.

    Seven often signifies many, as sevenfold, and is complete in whatever it refers to. And as the first week of time was not complete nor perfect, without its seventh day" of rest, which was, and is now, emphatically the glory


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    of the week, so neither shall the great week of seven thousand years be perfect without its seventh day of Millennial rest, which will be the glory of the great week of time.

    Seven days for a week, and the seventh a Sabbath; seven weeks for a week, and the seventh a Sabbath; seven years for a week, and the seventh for a Sabbath; seven times seven years for a week, containing seven Sabbatic years, and the fiftieth for a Sabbath; seven thousand years for a week, and the seventh a Sabbath, appear to be analogous to each other, and bear the marks of design, in reference to the Millennium, or the great Sabbath of rest to a weary world.

    Having presented the evidence of sacred chronology to prove that time has been rightly measured, and having made a comparison of Sabbaths, I now, in the third place, proceed to notice the recurrences of remarkable events, as promised in the Seventh Division of this book, and will, in a certain sense, corroborate the two former statements, viz. of chronology, and a comparison of Sabbaths -- as follows:

    When the recurrence of the same thing is observed to transpire, from age to age, in a periodical way, it is natural to expect a return of the same thing, unless nature be changed in her laws.

    The recurrences which I shall notice, and are obvious to all, are, first, The ebb and flow of the tide waters every twelve hours -- the revolution of the earth on her axis every twenty-four hours -- the change of the moon from full to full every lunar month -- -the blowing of the trade winds six months from north to south, and


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    six months from south to north -- the annual revolution of the earth round the sun, producing all the varieties of the seasons within the compass of twelve months -- - and the migration of fowls and fishes from one clime to another at certain periods of the year. From a knowledge, therefore, that these things recur periodically, it is safely calculated that they will continue to transpire in their order, till the order of nature which produces them is changed.

    If we view the planets, we shall find them exact hi their periods of return: Mercury travels round the sun in some time less than three months -- Mars in some time less than two years -- Saturn in nearly thirty years, and Herschel in eighty-three years. And on the account of their faithful return to the same point in the heavens in exact periods, have, therefore, become way- marks to the astronomer.

    Now as these things in the natural world are certain to return at definite periods, and never disappoint expectation, so neither will the periods that have produced some supernatural event, disappoint the expectation of a return; or the return of such a period will be expected to produce some great and supernatural event, but not of the same kind, though originated by the same cause, which is God.

    The events to which I allude, are, first; that series of events, which took place from the era of the great deluge, till the remarkable appearance of the everlasting God to Abraham, to whom the important promise was made, that of his seed the Messiah should come, and on that account all the families of the earth were in him


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    to be blessed. The flood, the destruction of all mankind except eight, the repeopling of the earth from Noah's family, the confusion of language at the building of Babel, the calling of Abraham from his father's house to go to an unknown land, and the revelation God made to him there concerning his seed and posterity are the grand events which transpired about the year of the world 2000, and are considered altogether supernatural.

    A second series of events, which were also supernatural, was the advent of Christ, the incarnation of the Word -- He who was and is the Mighty Counselor, the Everlasting Father, the Ancient of days, Creator and Upholder of universal nature, who then revealed Himself in a stable at Jerusalem, to become a sacrifice for the redemption of men. Thirty-three years of sorrows, which marked the humble life of God incarnate, and his final crucifixion on Mount Calvary, his resurrection from the dead on the third day after his death, and glorious ascension from earth to heaven forty days after, in full view of above five hundred witnesses, all of which were accomplished about the year of the world 4000.

    A third series of supernatural events may be expected to be unfolded, when the third great period of time shall be accomplished, which is now within one hundred and seventy-three years of that time. The events which will then take place are, a destruction ot all sinners from among the living righteous -- a resurrection of all the righteous dead at the sound of the archangel's voice, "for the trump shall sound, and


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    the dead in Christ shall rise first" -- the real appearance of the Son of Man in his own glory, and that of his Father and the holy angels, will then take place. A restoration of all living saints, who have not tasted death, to the paradistical state, may then be expected -- all natural and moral evil banished from the earth, and Satan shut up in the bottomless pit for a thousand years.

    There have been two thousand years from the creation, without any written law from God -- this is called the patriarchal dispensation till Abraham. 2. There have been two thousand years under the law, where there has been a written revelation, a succession of prophets, and a divine ecclesiastical establishment. This was the dispensation of the law, given to Moses and the Jews at Horeb, which includes from Abraham till Christ.

    3. Nearly two thousand years have now elapsed since the era of the nativity of our Lord, when the Christian dispensation commenced, and will, at the close of the next century, arrive at the zenith of its splendour and victories on the earth.

    Thus far having presented the recurrences of nature as analagous to the main point, which, as it relates to the unfolding of supernatural events at almost given periods since the world began, amount to a moral certainty, in connexion with the typical Sabbaths, that at the end of the next century the Christian Millennium will commence.

    We shall next, and fourthly, attempt, from a view of the prophet Daniel's prophecy, to show when the Millennium


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    will come. The prophecies respecting that time, are contained in the second, seventh and eighth chapters of this book. I shall examine them in their order, in reference to this subject; but shall omit, for the sake of brevity, the very interesting history of the incapacity of the wise men of Babylon to interpret the extraordinary dream of their monarch, Nebuchadnezzar; but shall commence with the dream as unfolded to the king by Daniel. See book of Daniel, chap. 2, verse 31 to 35 inclusive. Thou, O king, sawest and behold a great image. This great image, whose brightness was excellent, stood before thee; and the form thereof was terrible. This image's head was of fine gold, his breast and arms of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass, his legs of iron, his feet part of iron and part of clay. Thou sawest till a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them in pieces. Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshing floors; and the wind carried them away that no place was found for them: and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth.

    But before we treat upon the subject of the stone becoming a great mountain and filling the whole earth, we shall attend to the interpretation of Nebuchadnezzar's dream as given by Daniel.

    It appears this great image, seen by Nebuchadnezzar in his dream, signified four great monarchies, of which the Babylonish empire was the first and greatest. This


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    was the first monarchy imposed on man after the flood, and was commenced by Nimrod, he who once became a mighty hunter before the Lord -- (See Gen. 10, 8,) -- of whom we have the following account from the ancient Jewish writings, given by Dr. Clark. We learn from verse 10 of chap. 10, that this Nimrod founded several cities in his time, which were called Babel, Erech, Achad, and Calen, in the land of Shinar. He was thought a bad man, which his very name seems to signify. Nimrod comes from the word marad, which signifies, he rebelled; and the Targum on I Chron. 1, 10, say Nimrod began to be a mighty man in sin, a, murderer of innocent men, and a rebel before the Lord. He was mighty in hunting, or in prey, and in sin before God, for he was a hunter of the children of men, and said to them, depart from the religion of Shem, and cleave to the institutes of Nimrod. The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel says, "From the foundation of the world, none was ever found like Nimrod, powerful in hunting, (wild beasts of the age, which then unquestionably abounded) and in rebellions against the Lord." The Septuagint calls him a surly giant before the Lord; upon which Dr. Clark remarks, "that Nimrod having acquired power, used it in tyranny and oppression; and by rapine and violence, founded that domination, which was the first distinguished by the name of kingdom on the face of the earth." This kingdom, commenced by Nimrod in the year of the world 1771, was ended with the death of Belshazzar, in the year of the world 3466; and in the "time of Nebttcliadnemr it extended over Chaldea, Assyria,


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    Arabia, Syria, and Palestine. He was the head of gold."

    The second great monarchy, represented by a breast and arms of silver, "was the Medo Persian empire, which properly began under Darius the Mede, allowing him to be the same with Cyaxares, son of Astyages, and uncle to Cyrus the great, son of Cambyses. He first fought under his uncle Cyaxares, defeated Neriglissar king of the Assyrians, and Croesus king of the Lydians; and by the capture of Babylon, B. C. 538, he terminated the Chaldean empire." "On the death of his father Cambyses, and his uncle Cyaxares, B. C. 536, he became sole governor of the Medes and Persians, and thus established a potent empire on the ruins of that of the Chaldeans."

    The third great empire, represented by a belly and thighs of brass, was "the Macedonian or Greek empire, founded by Alexander the Great. He subdued Greece, penetrated into Asia, took Tyre, reduced Egypt, overthrew Darius Codomanus at Arabela, Oct. 2, in the year of the world 3673, and thus terminated the Persian monarchy. He crossed the Caucasus, subdued Hyrcania, and penetrated India as far as the Ganges; and having conquered all the countries that lay between the Adriatic sea and this river, the Ganges, he died A M. 3681, and after his death, his empire became divided among his generals, Cassander, Lysimachus, Ptolemy, and Seleucus. Cassander had Macedon and Greece; Lysimachus had Thrace, and those parts of Asia which lay on the Hellespont and Bosphorus; Ptolemy had Egypt, Lybia, Arabia, Palestine,


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    Persia, Assyria, Bactria, Hyrcania, and all other provinces, even to the Ganges. Thus this empire, founded on the ruin of that of the Persian, had rule over all the earth."

    "The fourth great empire, represented by legs of iron, and feet part iron and part clay, was the Roman government, the same mixed with the barbaric nations, and divided into ten kingdoms." "I think (says Dr. Clark) this means, in the first place, the kingdom of Lagidae, in Egypt, and the kingdom of the Seleucidae, in Syria. And secondly, the Roman empire, which was properly composed of them.

    "First -- Ptolemy Lagus, one of Alexander's generals, began the new kingdom of Egypt A. M. 3692, which was continued through a long race of sovereigns till A. M. 3974, when Octavius Caesar took Alexandria, having in the preceding year defeated Anthony and Cleopatra at the battle of Actium, and so Egypt became a Roman province. Thus ended the kingdom of the Lagidae, after it had lasted two hundred and eighty years.

    "Second -- Seleucus Nicator, another of Alexander's generals, began the new kingdom of Syria A. M. 3692, which continued through a long race of sovereigns till A. M. 3939, when Pompey dethroned Antiochus Asiaticus; and Syria become a Roman province after it had lasted two hundred and forty-seven years.

    "That the two legs of iron meant the kingdom of Lagidae and that of the Seleucidae, seems strongly intimated by the character given in the text. And the


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    fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron. Forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all things; and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise. Verse 40. "First, the iron here not only marks the strength of these kingdoms, but also their violence and cruelty towards the people of God. History is full of the miseries which the kings of Egypt and Syria inflicted on the Jews. Second -- it is said that these legs should break in pieces and bruise. How many generals and princes were destroyed by Seleucus Nicator, and by Ptolemy, son of Lagus? Seleucus particularly, could not consider himself secure on his throne till he had destroyed Antigonus, Nicanor, and Demedrius; and Ptolemy endeavoured to secure himself by the ruin of Perdiccos. and the rest of his enemies. Thirdly -- the dividing of the kingdom, the iron and clayey mixture, of the feet, point out the continual divisions which prevailed in those empires, and the mixture of the good and evil qualities which appeared in the successors of Seleucus and Ptolemy: none of them possessing the good qualities of the founders of those monarchies; neither their valour, wisdom, nor prudence. Fourth -- the efforts which these princes made to strengthen their respective governments by alliances, which all proved not only useless but injurious, are here pointed out by their mingling themselves with the seed of men. But they shall not cleave one to another. Verse 43. Antiochus Theos, king of Syria, married both Laodice and Bernice, daughters of Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt. Antiochus Magnus, king of Syria, gave his daughter Cleopatra to


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    Ptolemy Epiphanes, king of Egypt; but these marriages, instead of being the means of consolidating!]]*1 union between those kingdoms, contributed more than any thing else to divide them, and excite the most bloody and destructive wars. In chap. 7, 7, the prophet, having the same subject in view, says, I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and broke in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it. And in chap. 8, 22, Now that being broken (the horn of the rough goat, the Grecian monarchy) whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power. These, and other declarations, point out those peculiar circumstances that distinctly mark the kingdom of the Seleucidae, and that of the Lagidae, both of which rose out of the Macedonian or Grecian empire, and both terminated in that of the Romans.

    "Second. Those two legs of iron became absorbed in the Roman government, which also partook of the iron nature; strong, military, and extensive in its victories; and, by its conquests, united to and amalgamated with itself various nations, some strong and some weak -- so as to be fitly represented in the symbolical image by feet and toes, partly of iron and partly of clay. Thus, as the Lagidae and Seleucidae arose out of the wreck of the Grecian empire, so the Roman empire arose out of their ruin. But the empire became weakened by its conquests; and although by mingling themselves with the seed of men, that is, by


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    Strong leagues and matrimonial alliances, as mentioned above, they endeavoured to secure a perpetual sovereignty, yet they did not cleave to each.other; and tbey also were finally swallowed up by the barbarous northern nations; and thus terminated those four most powerful monarchies."

    Thus far we have attended the interpretation Daniel gave of the dream of Nebuchadnezzar, and comprehends a lapse of time from Nimrod's founding his kingdom A. M. 1771, till the Romans, the last of the four great empires, were swallowed up by the barbarous nations about the year after Christ 478 -- amounting in all, from Nimrod till then, to 2707 years. But the stone which Nebuchadnezzar saw smite the feet of the great image, commenced its operations 478 years before the end of the fourth empire was accomplished. If this interpretation, given by Daniel, is correct, in relation to the four great empires, as above stated, we look therefore for a fifth kingdom, which he as clearly foretold should arise in the days of the Icings of the fourth empire, which was the Roman, and at the time when it was in its greatest strength and glory, did the predicted kingdom begin to make its appearance. This stone which Nebuchadnezzar saw smite the feet of the great image, was Jesus Christ, who was the king of the fifth kingdom which he came to establish on the earth, and is the very one intended by Daniel, when be says in chap. 2, verse 44, And in the days of thest king*, shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed.

    Dr. Clark remarks, first, "That Jesus Christ has


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    been represented by a stone" and "refers chiefly to His church, which is represented as a spiritual building, which He supports as a foundation stone, connects-and strengthens as a corner stone, and finishes and adorns as a top stone. He is called a stone also, in reference to the prejudice conceived against him by his country men. Because He did not come in worldly pomp, they therefore refused to receive him; and to them he is represented as a stone of stumbling and a rock of offence.

    "Secondly. He is represented under another notion, viz. that of a stone projected from a catapult, or some military engine, which smote the image on its feet; that is, it smote the then existing government at its foundation, or principles of support; and, by destroying these, brought the whole into ruin.

    "Thirdly -- By this stroke, the clay, the iron, the brass, the silver, and the gold, were broken to pieces and became like chaff which the wind carried away. Now we have already seen that the Roman empire which had absorbed the kingdoms of the Lagidae and Seleucidae, was represented by the legs of iron, and feet and toes of iron and clay; but as we find that not only the iron and clay, but also the brass, silver and gold were confounded and destroyed by that stroke, it follows that there was then remaining in, and compacted with the Roman government, something of the distinguishing marks and principles of all the preceding empires, not only as to their territorial possessions, but also as to their distinctive characteristics. There were at the time here referred to, in the Roman empire, the


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    splendour of the Chaldeans, the riches of the Persians, the discipline of the Greeks, and the strength of the Egyptian and Syrian governments, mingled with the incoherence and imbecility of those empires, kingdoms and states, which the Romans had subdued. In short, with its political excellencies, it contained the principles of its own destruction, and its persecution of the church of Christ accelerated its ruin.

    "Fourthly. The stone represents Christ and his governing influence. It is here said to be a kingdom, that is, a state of prevailing rule and government, and was to arise in the days of those kings or kingdoms. See verse 44, chap. 2. And this is literally true; for its rise was when the Roman government partook of all the characteristics of the preceding empires, was at its zenith of imperial splendour, military glory, legislative authority, and literary eminence.

    "Fifthly. This stone, or government, was cut out of the mountain; arose in and under the Roman government -- Judea being, at the time of the birth of Christ, a Roman province. It was cut out without hands; probably alluding to the miraculous birth of our Lord; but particularly to the spiritual nature of his kingdom and government, in which no worldly policy, human maxims, or military force, were employed; for it was not by might nor power, but by the spirit of the Lord of hosts."

    Thus we have ascertained the commencement, continuance and present existence of the fifth kingdom which was to arise, according to the view of Daniel when he interpreted the dream of Nebuchadnezzar.


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    But there is one qualification foretold of this fifth king dom, which no kingdom preceding it was ever endowed with, which was, that it should stand forever, and never be destroyed, and was destined to become a greal mountain, and to fill the whole earth. But this having not yet been accomplished, we naturally look for that period in futurity, which shall now claim our further attention.

    Perhaps it is not possible, in order to arrive at zzztlit desired period, to follow a better guide than Dr. Clark's explanation of the prophet Daniel's visions, which is thought he had about forty years after the time of Nebuchadnezzar's extraordinary dream. The same paramount empires of the habitable globe that should succeed each other, are set forth in the vision of Daniel, which were shown to Nebuchadnezzar, though by a different kind of symbol, viz. an image composed of a variety of metallic substances. But the prophet Daniel had a prospective view of those four great empires, under the likeness of several monstrous wild beasts, such as a lion with the wings of an eagle, a bear having three ribs of an animal in its teeth, a leopard with four wings like a fowl, and a fourth beast dreadful and terrible, and exceeding strong, having great iron teeth, devouring and breaking in pieces, and stamping the residue with his feet, being diverse from all other beasts before it, having ten horns upon its head. The first was a lion, with eagle's: This was "the kingdom of the Babylonians, the king of Babylon is compared to a lion by Jeremiah


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    5, 6, and by Isa. 5, 29, and is said to fly as an eagle. Jeremiah 48, 40, and by Ezekiel 17, 3, 7. "The lion is considered the king of the beasts, and the eagle the king of the birds; and therefore the kingdom of Babylon, which was signified by the golden head of the great image, was the first and noblest of all the kingdoms, and was the greatest then in being. The wings of the eagle denote the rapidity with which the lion, Nebuchadnezzar, made his conquests; for in a few years, by his own arms, he brought his empire to such an extent, and raised it to such a degree of eminence, as was truly surprising; and all tended to show with what propriety this eagle-winged lion is here made his emblem."

    This Babylonish kingdom is the same with that spoken of in Daniel, chap. 2, 38, and was commenced by Nimrod A. M. 1771, and ended with the death of Belshazzar A. M. 3466, and was succeeded by the Medes and Persians.

    The second "beast like unto a bear. This was the Medo Persian empire, represented here under the symbol of the bear, as the largest species of these animals was found in Media, a mountainous, cold and rough country, covered with woods. The Medes and Persians are compared to a bear on account of their cruelty and thirst after blood; a bear being a most voracious and cruel animal. The bear is termed by Aristotle an all-devouring animal; and the Medo Persians are known to have been great robbers and spoilers." This Medo Persian empire, represented in Daniel, chap. 7, under the emblem of a bear, is the same represented


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    in chap. 2, by a breast and arms of silver, but is succeeded by the Macedonian or Greek empire. The third beast like a leopard, having four wings of a fowl, and four heads. "This was the Macedonian or Greek empire, and Alexander the Great its king. Alexander and his subjects are fitly compared to a leopard. First, the leopard is remarkable for its swiftness. Alexander and the Macedonians were very rapid in their conquests. Second -- the leopard is a spotted animal; a proper emblem of the various nations, with their various customs and languages, which constituted the Macedonian empire. It may refer to the character of Alexander himself, sometimes mild, at others cruel; sober, and drunken; continent, and lecherous; having a great power of self-government, and at other times a slave to his passions. Third -- the leopard, though small, is not afraid to attack the lion.

    "Four wings of a fowl. The Babylonish empire was represented with two wings, and they sufficiently marked the rapidity of Nebuchadnezzar's conquests; but the Macedonians have here four wings; for nothing, iti the history of the world, was equal to the conquests of Alexander, who ran through all the countries from Illyricum and the Adriatic sea to the Indian Ocean and the river Ganges, and in twelve years subdued part of Europe, and all Asia.

    "The beast had also four heads: Signifying the empire after the death of Alexander, divided between his four generals. Cassander reigning over Macedon and Greece: Lysimachus over Thrace and Bethynia


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    Ptolemy over Egypt; and Seleucus over Syria." These were the four notable horns which sprung up out of the empire of Alexander after his death, and out of one of these there arose a little horn by itself, which became exceeding great. This was Antiochus Epiphanes, who persecuted the Jews, and polluted their temple and sanctuary, of whom we shall speak hereafter. He reigned about the year B. C: 300.

    But after this, Daniel saw, in vision, a fourth beast arise, diverse from any that had preceded it. See chap. 7, 7. After this, I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and broke in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it; and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it, and it had ten horns. This beast, seen by Daniel in his vision, is the same seen by Nebuchadnezzar in his dream, under the symbol of legs of iron, and feet part iron, and part clay, and is the same fourth kingdom, according to Daniel's interpretation of that dream. See chap. 2, 40. And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron, &c.

    This fourth beast, says Dr. Clark, "is allowed, on all hands, to be the Roman empire. It was dreadful, terrible, and exceeding strong; it devoured and broke in pieces, and stamped the residue, that is, the remains of the former kingdoms, with its feet. It reduced Macedon into a Roman province about one hundred and, sixty-eight years before Christ; the kingdom of Pergamos about one hundred and thirty-three years; Syria about sixty-five; and Egypt about thirty years before


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    fore Christ. And besides the remains of the Macedonian empire, it subdued many other provinces and kingdoms, so that it might, by a very usual figure, be said to devour the whole earth, to tread it down and break it to pieces; and became, in effect, what the Roman writers delight to call it, the empire of the whole world. This beast "was diverse from all the beasts that were before it, not only in its republican form of government, but also in power and greatness, extent of dominion, and length of duration. The ten horns were ten kingdoms, into which the Roman empire was afterwards divided," and "are reckoned thus: 1. The Roman senate. 2. The Greeks in Ravenna. 3. The Lombards, in Lombardy. 4. The Huns, in Hungary. 5. The Alemans, in Germany. 6. The Franks, in France. 7. The Burgundians, in Burgundy. 8. The Saracens, in Africa, and a part of Spain. 9. The Goths, in other parts of Spain. 10. And the Saxons, in Britain." These are the ten kingdoms represented by the ten toes of the great metallic image, and by the ten horns of the fourth beast. The symbols are dissimilar, but the kingdoms signified are the same. But while Daniel was considering the horns of the fourth beast, his attention was arrested by another, which he calls a little horn, which arose among the other ten horns.

    But here let us pause, while we ascend with Daniel to the top of the Mount of Vision, from whence the distant empires, kingdoms, and revolutions of future ages were clearly seen. This vision was shown to Daniel about A. M. 3444, while he was a captive with


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    the whole of his nation at Babylon, about 566 years B. C.

    From the glorious height of mental elevation to which Daniel was exalted in that vision of God. there were shown to him, as above recounted, fourteen distinct kingdoms which were to come into being, (except the one by which he was then a captive.) The first, therefore, which he notices as being important, with respect to the welfare of his nation, the Jews, and of the church and cause of his God in the earth, was the appearance of a little horn, which arose about the year B. C. 300; but of this horn we shall speak hereafter, as before remarked. From thence descending down the course of time, till after the advent of the Messiah, about the year A. D. 740, he saw arising from among the ten horns of the fourth great empire, which was the Roman, * another little horn, of which the first horn he saw B. C. 300 years, may be considered only as a precursor of this last horn, though the first arose 1040 years sooner. It is evident that those two horns occupy two distinct periods of time, because they were engaged in effecting two distinct objects, though actuated by the same spirit of wickedness. The first horn gloried in the destruction which he poured upon the Jews and their temple, as it is stated of him, that he waxed great even to the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and relates wholly to what he did to the Jews before the time of

    * Though now divided and absorbed by the overflowing of the northern nations, yet retaining the name of Roman.


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    Christ. But the second horn, instead of rising out of one of the four horns, arose from the midst often, and aimed at the empire of the whole world, affecting to be the vicegerent of Christ on earth. This did not tlie first horn. By the first horn, the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of the sanctuary cast down. This was Antiochus Epiphanes. But of the last born it is said by Daniel, that he plucked up three of the ten horns which were round about him; neither was this done by the first horn: From which it is clear they are distinct powers, and occupy distinct periods, though moved by the same spirit of wickedness to monopolize the empire of the whole globe, by which they are known as brethren of the same father, who is the devil.

    This last horn, who had eyes like the eyes of a man, and a month speaking great things, is "among Protestant writers considered the popedom." The eyes in this horn are the symbols of oversight, "intimating cunning and superintendence; for the Pope calls himself Episcopus episcoporum, or the Overseer of Overseers."

    The mouth speaking great things, consists in his "pretending to unlimited jurisdiction, binding and loosing at pleasure. Promising to absolve from ail sins, present, past and future; and threatening to send to everlasting destruction all kings, kingdoms and individuals, who dare to dispute his authority. To none can this apply so well, and so fully, as to the Popes of Rome. They have assumed infallibility, which belongs only to God. They profess to forgive sins,


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    which belongs only to God. They profess to open and shut heaven, which belongs only to God. They profess to be higher than all the kings of the earth, which belongs only to God. And they go beyond God, in pretending to loose whole nations from their oath of allegiance to their kings, when such kings do not please them; and they go against God, when they give indulgences for sin." This they have done, and is the worst of all blasphemies. The dreaded councils at Rome, under the sole direction of the numerous Popes since they became antichristian, have endeavoured to wear out the saints, "by wars, crusades, massacres, inquisitions and persecutions of all kinds. What, in this way, have they not done against all those who have protested against their innovations, and refused to submit to their idolatrous worship. Witness the exterminating crusades published against the Waldenses and Abbigenses. Witness John Huys, and Jerom of Prague. Witness the Smithfield fires in England. Witness God and man against this bloody, persecuting, ruthless and impure church." They have also thought" to change times and laws, by appointing fasts and feasts; canonizing persons whom they choose to call saints; granting pardons and indulgences for sins; instituting new modes of worship utterly unknown to the Christian church; new articles of faith; new rules of practice; and reversing, at pleasure, the laws both of God and man." -- Dodd.

    This, then, is the beast foreseen by Daniel the prophet, into whose hands the saints were to be given a "time, times and a half time, which term is, by all commentators,


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    allowed to signify 1260 years, reckoning 360 days to the year. A time is computed at one year, or 360 days -- times at two years, or 720 days -- a half time at a half a year, or 180 days. These day? added, give 1260, which are each a symbol of one year. 1260 years is, consequently, the time the saints were to be given into the hand of this beast, or little horn, which arose from among the ten other horns; but at what period of time is it judicious to fix upon as the time when the saints were given to this horn? This appears to be the grand difficulty, and as many periods as waiters upon this subject have been hit upon, and claim to be the true time. But to me it appears perfectly in vain to expect the saints shall be released from the grasp of this papal monster, a day sooner than the time when the sanctuary, which is the visible church on the earth, is to be cleansed, perfectly cleansed, from all things that can offend. This sentiment is drawn from Dan. 7, 26. But the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the end. Unto what end? I answer, to the end of the 1260 years from the time they were given into his hand. But it is also clear, from the same verse, that the consumption of this saint-holding power shall be somewhat gradual, and from time to time shall be shaken. This, in one instance, has already been done. "In 1798, the French republican army, under General Berthier, took possession of the city of Rome, and entirely superseded the whole papal power. This was a deadly wound, though at present


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    it appears to be healed: but it is but merely skimmed over, and a dreadful cicatrice remains."

    But there will surely come a time, probably several years this side the Millennium, when this beast must be not only shaken, but utterly destroyed at the place where he now has his seat and throne in Italy. See Daniel 7, 11. I beheld because of the voice of the great words' which the horn spake: I beheld even till the beast was slain, and his body given to the burning • flame. This statement of Daniel is wonderfully corroborated by St. John. See Rev. 18, 8. Therefore shall her plagues come in one day, death, and mourning, and famine; and she shall be utterly burned with fire: for strong is the Lord God who judgeth her, i. e. the little horn, seen by Daniel among the ten, or the woman sitting on many waters, seen by St. John; for it is both one -- the papal power. But when Italy, the seat of this beast, shall come to be thus destroyed, and suddenly sunk into the sea, other Catholic countries will not so much lay it to heart, as immediately to repent, but will consider it only one of those convulsions in nature, to which the earth is always subject, and consequently will remain in their ignorance and bigotry, mourning over the sad fate of the seat of the Least; for who but its friends will mourn over the destruction of the great engine of the devil to persecute the saints. St. John, by the spirit of prophecy, has minutely pointed out this circumstance, where be represents those who survive the destruction of Italy, as saying, Alas, alas, that great city, that was clothed in • fine linen, and purple, and scarlet, and decked with


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    gold, and precious stones, and pearls: for in one hour so great riches is come to nought. Chap. 18, 16,17.

    From these circumstances, it appears that the church of God will continue under the power of this same papal horn, in some sense more or less, till the final destruction of all kinds of sinners takes place, as before argued, just before the resurrection of the righteous dead, which circumstance shall be the great door of entrance into the Millennial state. To this view agrees the fact of history, concerning the time when the saints were first given into the hands of that mighty horn, the papal power. It is well known, that all along from the martyrdom of Stephen, whom Saul of Tarsus, afterwards St. Paul, aided in putting to death, there was, till the time of Constantine, a continued persecution of the Christians, except a little space after the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, the Roman emperor. This persecution was carried on by Jews, mostly, till they were disabled to do so by the Romans; but thereafter by the Roman pagan powers, which at that time involved the world nearly in their sway. The blood of Christians flowed freely, beginning with Stephen the first martyr, which, like a small spring commencing a river, but in its progress enlarges as it passes through various regions of country, receiving tributary streams and springs till it becomes immense: so the blood of Christian martyrs accumulated in depth and in width, as the course of time carried them along succeeding ages, till great and horrible was the river of blood shed in support of the sacred cause. But when, by the immediate and supernatural


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    interposition of a wise providence, Constantine became changed from a supporter of the old heathen dragon worship to a supporter of the Christian, a stop to the effusion of Christian blood was immediately effected. It is well known that the emperor Constantine was changed in his views of the Christian cause, by the appearance of a bright and luminous cross in the sky, a little after noon day, with an inscription on it in the Greek language, BY THIS CONQUER. See Clark on Dan. who has quoted this fact from Euseb. De Vit. Const, lib. 1, chap. 28, and states that it was done while that emperor was in Gaul, A. D. 312, and that the prediction of the cross in the skies was fulfilled A. D. 331, when he terminated the reign of idolatry by an edict ordering the destruction of all heathen temples, when Christianity became the religion of his whole empire.

    But very soon thereafter, the grand though fatal design of fixing Christianity on a more permanent basis was conceived, which was to have its support recognized in the constitution of the laws of the empire, instead of its being supported by the simple yet best of means, the conversion of sinners to God from the error of their ways. But this seed of ecclesiastical power having thus been planted, it soon vegetated beneath the hot beams of the rising sun of riches, power, and earthly glory in prospect, which soon began to appear quite above the horizon, and to glitter gloriously in the view of the church in those days. Hence the holy zeal which formerly, like a robe, covered the ecclesiastics of the Christian church, became paralyzed by the


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    strong desire of clerical empire and jurisdiction; the genius of which easily invented the imposing title of Universal Bishop. Hence the age of strife, to climb up to this seat, commenced, and it was not long ere it grew to a throne; from whence the appalling thunders of those pigmy gods rolled to distant nations their supreme commands, as from the throne of the Highest. As early as the year A. D. 606, we find an account of a third universal bishop, viz. Boniface, This, then, is the apostacy spoken of by St. Paul, the man of sin which he foretold. This is the beast which St. John saw rise up out of the sea having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his head the name of blasphemy. Is not this the beast to whom the dragon gave his power, and his seat, and great authority? Is not this the horn which Daniel saw arise, who had a look more stout that his fellows? This look of his, which was more stout than his-fellows, signified that he would not only lay hold on the secular concerns of empires, but also extend his pretended power even to the invisible world, and controul the destinies of departed spirits. This no mortal power before him pretended to do. Into the hands of this monster, was the saints delivered for a time, times and a half time, or 1260 natural years. The prediction of Daniel states, that he was to arise from among ten other horns. These horns were formed out of the old Roman empire, by the incursions of the northern nations. "The first of those kingdoms (says Mr. Faber) which was the Huns, arose A. D. 356, and the last of them, that of the Lombards, in the north of Germany


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    A. D. 483, and about the year 526 in Hungary." This little horn, therefore, came up as it were by stealth among these ten kingdoms, but it consisted entirely of a spiritual nature, or at least professedly such, though secretly aiming at what he finally accomplished, viz. the supreme control of all those ten kingdoms, in both secular and spiritual affairs. Here, then, was accomplished in this fact, the prophecy of the Revelator, that the dragon should give to this beast his seat, and great authority. The dragon signifies the old pagan worship of idols, his seat, and great authority, his universal sway, and claim of adoration: So this last beast came at length to be adored as a god among the nations, and is the same who is to continue forty and two months -- (See Rev. 13, 5) -- which forty and two months amount, in the prophetic calculation, to 1260 years; from which it is clear, that the saints are not to be wholly freed from his power till he is destroyed, for he is to continue but the forty and two months, therefore his power over them shall cease when he ceases to exist, and not before. The time, therefore, when the saints were given into his hands, was also the time when he began to exist in that peculiar character, in which Daniel and the Revelator contemplated him. Those times in which he was foreseen as a little horn, was while he exercised only in the spiritual concerns of the church, after he began his antichristian practices, by substituting, for the truths of the Scriptures, the wild fancies of mercenary men.

    But such as he was foreseen to be, when he began to open his mouth in horrible blasphemies against God,


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    and His tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven, was such as he was when he finally seized the secular power, and controlled the councils of empires, and stood upon them as a vulture on the highest points of the mountains of the globe, tearing the prey and none to deliver. The true token of his becoming such, was when he should be engaged in tearing up by the roots three of the ten horns, which were round about him. These three stood in his way, or opposed his designs of aggrandizement and extravagant demands. He, therefore, plucked them up by the roots. See Dan. 7, 8. This work he commenced before the year A. D. 740, and finished it some little time after that date. I have, therefore, chosen to fix upon the year of our Lord 740, as the true time when this beast had come to the full stature of what he was apprehended to be by Daniel and the Revelator, when the saints were given to his power. This power he exercised, by giving such direction to the secular arm as pleased him. Having then secured this engine, he thenceforward practised according to his will, deposing kings and dissolving subjects from their allegiance, and persecuting the saints even beyond his own papal dominions. I am compelled to this conclusion, because I perceive the length of time which this beast occupies in his peculiar secular character, (distinguished from the spiritual) is exactly coeval with the length of time he was to have dominion over the saints, both consisting of 1260 years. If, therefore, it is proper to fix upon the year 740, when he, by means of the sword in the hand of kings and emperors, destroyed from age to age millions of the


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    saints of the Most High. The time, then, when he shall come to his end, and the saints in all the earth be delivered from his power, both of the sword and his false doctrine, will be the year of our Lord 2000. The three horns which he plucked up by the roots, were, according to Dr. Clark, "first, the exarchate of Ravenna; second, the kingdom of the Lombards; third, the state of Rome."

    Having now ascertained the time when the 1260 years began, and consequently when they shall end, we proceed to enquire the meaning of another vision Daniel the prophet had, concerning when the sanctuary shall be cleansed, which will be found exactly to corroborate, in point of completion, with the 1260 years and forty-two months, which I have contended will be in the year A. D. 2000. And at the same period of time will be finished the one thousand two hundred and threescore days. See Rev. 12,6, which is also 1260 years, and is that space of time in which the woman, who are the saints, is to be fed in the wilderness, and commenced at the time when the saints began to bleed and to suffer by the papal secular power, A. D. 740.

    Although I admit, as is contended by Mr. Faber, that "upon the death of Sabinianus, Boniface the third ascended the papal throne, in the beginning of the year A. D. 606," and that one of his first acts that same year was to procure from the emperor Phocus a grant of the title of Universal Bishop, and supreme head of the church; yet, says Mr. Faber, "I mean not indeed to say, that he immediately began to exercise this un-christian


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    authority." This idea of that admired author, is one upon which I seize as agreeing with ray view, who contends that the famous 1260 years had their commencement A. D. 606, and are to end A. D. 1866. But the reason why I lay hold of his acknowledgment, that Boniface, who, by the emperor Phocus, was titled universal bishop, did not immediately commence a persecution against the saints, is to show that an immediate persecution of the saints was not then an object with him, nor yet of his predecessors; but a more definite object was to be finally and firmly seated on the very pinnacle of earthly power, which was truly effected in the year of our Lord 606. But I apprehend this period was not so much noticed by Daniel, as the time when the blood of saints began to be poured out, because of their open opposition to the wickedness of the pope. There is not a doubt but this horn, the papal power, came up by slow degrees, and gradually initiated the multitude of those ten kingdoms round about him into his doctrines and ceremonies; for as early as the fourth century, "the forbidding to marry, the abstaining from meats, the excessive veneration of supposed mediators, saints and angels, began to creep into the church: "By which practices the church was amused, and more and more brought on to consent to the imposing titles and usages assumed by the then corrupted ecclesiastics of the church of Rome, its members feeling themselves proportionably exalted with their leaders; but while they were lifted up in view of their church, they were sinking in ignorance, superstition and bigotry, till the title,


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    with the power, was conferred, which created and perfected this idol of papal Rome.

    But when thus exalted, when thus endowed, with the supreme government of that sacerdotal empire, "the ancient Pantheon, formerly the general sink of all the abominations of paganism was restored, though under a different name, to its original destination" of idolatry. The mediatory images of imagined saints, the product of corrupted Christianity, occupied the vacant places of the mediatory demons of the old dragon Gentiles, which were destroyed by Constantine; and beside these, instead of Jupiter and the kindred deities, the virgin mother of Christ, and all his martyred saints, received the blind adoration of the ten horned beast. Now when all this was finished in 606, it became apparent to all considerate men, that riches, honour, glory, power and dominion, was the only object of this now totally corrupted papal church; therefore opposition to his schemes and plans of coercion, began not many years thereafter to be manifested, which led to a series of wars and bloodshed. Consequently, we find him about the year 740, plucking up by the roots three of the kingdoms, which were numbered among the ten, into which the old Roman empire was divided by the incursions of the northern barbaric nations. To this period, therefore, I am inclined to think the prophecy of Daniel referred, when he saw the blood of saints began its pouring out, in testimony of their faith, and in opposition to that idolatrous church. But if we receive the arguments of Mr. Faber, who states that the 1260 years had their commencement A. D. 606;


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    then their end will come, as he has stated, in A. D. 1866, leaving but 39 years from 1827 to accomplish the destruction of the Mahometan religion, to accomplish ihe subversion of the papal errors, and to bring to a final close the time, times and a half time of Daniel, and the 2300 prophetic days of the same prophet when the sanctuary is to be cleansed, to finish the forty- two months, wherein the Gentiles and the corrupted Roman church, shall tread the holy city, i. e. the Saints, under foot, to release the woman, i. e. the saints, from her wilderness state of a thousand two hundred and threescore days.

    Now if all this is to be accomplished in A. D. 1866, we shall have the Millennium one hundred and fourteen years too soon. I cannot conceive, therefore, if all those antichristian powers are to come to their end 114 years sooner than the year of our Lord 2000, when or how those bloody wars are yet to take place, which, by many writers and most people, is contended will be the fact, in the land of Palestine, after the Jews are all returned to that country, where the last great war is to take place, called armageddon; because if those anti-Christian powers are to come to their end in 39 years from the present, who then will be left on the earth to wage this war with the Jews, unless we suppose a return of die Jews to that country, and those horrid wars are all to transpire within the short spare of 39 years, which is not at all probable. But that the Jews are ever to return from the countries, where they are now dwelling, to Palestine, is altogether an unaccountable fancy, and unfounded in the Scriptures, as I conceive;


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    but that they shall be brought, in all countries, to believe that Jesus of Nazareth is the true Christ, is not to be doubted. (See introduction upon this subject.) But if we fix on the year A. D. 740, and from thence count downward the vision of 1260 years, when all these wonders shall be finished, it will bring the time to A, D. 2000, at which time it is proper to look for the commencement of the Millennial years: For the destruction of all opposition belongs to God, and he can as easily effect it in the last year of the next century as in a thousand; for it will be finally the effect of supernatural power.

    But let us not forget, that we have ascended with Daniel the Mount of Vision, and have, in the preceding pages, recounted his view of the little horn, that came up among ten others in the year of our Lord 740, which I have endeavoured to show was when the spiritual and secular power had formed a junction in the person of Pope Boniface the Third, i. e. when he was found putting that power into execution against the three horns, or governments, which he plucked up by the roots, which work he commenced before, and finished soon after the year A. D. 740. Our object, therefore, is next to attend to his description of a horn which he saw rise out of one of the four horns or kingdoms that came up and occupied part of the dominions of Alexander the Great. This horn arose one thousand and forty years sooner than the one we have seen which came up among the ten, as early B. C. as 300 years. And in order to prove that it signifies Antiochas Epiphanes, I shall give an account of his predecessors as


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    foreseen by Daniel, following the opinion of Dr. Clark, and others quoted by him, in order to come at the identity of both time and person. While Daniel was a captive at Babylon, B. C. 550 years, (and it is thought he died there) he in a vision was informed by an angel of God, what should befall his countrymen soon after their restoration to Jerusalem, and the rebuilding of the temple by the order of Cyrus, which was accomplished by the Jews under the conduct of the prophets Nehemiah and Ezra; and also what should befall the sanctuary of the Jewish temple through the wickedness of Antiochus Epiphanes, who would pollute it. And from a view of the pollution of that sanctuary, which was a type and figure of the great sanctuary, the Christian cause, he descends, therefore, in his view down the course of ages, to the times of the pollution of the Christian sanctuary by the papal powers, {as we have already described) till it should finally be cleansed at the end of 2300 years, from the times of the pollution of the temple. In the vision which passed before him, there was presented to his view a rain, whose head was adorned with two lofty horns, but one of them was much higher than the other, and the highest came up last. These two horns were the kings of Media and Persia. See Dan. 8, 20, where it is said, The ran which thou sawest having two horns, are the kings of Media and Persia. But the ram itself was Cyrus, who was the founder of that empire. "Cyrus was the son of Cambyses, king of Persia, and grandson of Astyages, king of Media, by his daughter Mandane, who had been given in marriage to Cambyses. Cyrus


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    marrying Roxana, the daughter and only child of his uncle Cyaxares, called in the Scripture Ahaseurus, succeeded to both crowns, and thus united Media and Persia." Respecting this ram with his two horns, Daniel says, chap. 8, verse 4, I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward, so that n9 beast might stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; he did according to his will, and became great. "The principal theatre of their wars was against the Scythians, northward; against the Greeks, westward; and against the Egyptians, southward." There was no nation at that time that could stay the progress of the Persian arms.

    The prophet Daniel says, verses 5 and 6, And as I was considering, behold a he-goat came from the west on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground; and the he-goat had a notable horn between his eyes. And he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing before the river, and ran unto him in the fury of his power." This he-goat was the emperor Alexander the Great, who invaded Asia B. C. 334 years. It may be pleasing to the reader to learn why in the Scriptures he is called a he-goat. Bishop Newton states that two hundred years before the time of Daniel, they were called the Aegeadae, the goat's people; the origin of which name is said to be as follows: Caranus, their first king, going with a multitude of Greeks to seek a new habitation in Macedonia, was advised by an oracle to take the goats for jus guides; and afterwards, seeing a herd of goats flying from a violent storm, he followed them to Edessa,


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    and there fixed the seat of his empire, and made the goats his ensign or standard, and called the place zzzJEge, the goat's town, and the people JEgeadae, the goat's people. The city zzz/Ege, or jEgea, was the usual burying place of the Macedonian kings; and in reference to this origin, Alexander called his son by Roxana, Alexander zzz5Łgus, (or, as it is in English, Alexander the Goat.) All of which goes to establish the propriety of Alexander's being in Scripture called, in reference to this origin, a he-goat. This he-goat came with his forces from the west of Asia. Europe lies west of that quarter of the globe, and by the time Alexander was thirty years of age, he had conquered all Asia; and because of the rapidity of his conquests, lie is represented as a leopard with four wings, in the preceding vision. This he-goat, it is said by Daniel, come to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing before the river, and ran unto him in the fury of his power. Chap. 8, 6. The conflicts between the Greeks and the Persians were excessively severe. Alexander first vanquished the generals of Darius at the river Granicus, in Phrygia; he next attacked and totally routed Darius at the straits of Issus, in Silicia; and afterwards at the plains of Arbela, in Assyria. "One can hardly read these words," says Bishop Newton, "the ram -- which I had seen standing by the river -- ran unto him in the fury of his power, without having the image of Darius's army standing and guarding the river Granicus; and of Alexander on the other side, with his forces plunging in, swimming across the stream and rushing on the enemy, with all the fire and


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    fury that can be conceived." He broke the two horns of the ram when he had subdued Persia and Media, and had burnt the royal city of Persepolis, the capital of the Persian empire; and, even in its ruins, one of the wonders of the world to the present day. Alexander's victories over the Persians were as easy as they were rapid and decisive. He cast down (the ram) to the ground, and stamped on him, totally destroyed the family, and overturned the whole monarchy. But this he-goat, when he had conquered nearly the then known world, died B. C. 323, in the height of his conquests, at the age of about thirty-three years. After his death, his natural brother, Philip Aridaeus, and his two sons, Alexander zzz5Łgus and Hercules, kept up the show and name of the Macedonian kingdom for a time, but they were all murdered within fifteen years after the death of Alexander; and thus the great horn, the Macedonian kingdom, was broken, the whole family being now cut off. But as soon as this was accomplished, the regions subdued by Alexander were divided among four of his generals, as before stated in this division. These four generals, who had become governors of provinces, during the fifteen years in which Alexander's brothers and two sons held the rule, were the four-notable horns which came up after Alexander, the great Macedonian horn was broken. But "out of one of them came a little horn which waxed exceeding great toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land. And it waxed great even to. the host of heaven., and it cast clown some of the host, and of the stars, U>zzz the ground, and stamped upon them, which was the


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    Jewish priesthood. And by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down. And a host was given him against the daily sacrifice, by reason of transgressions, and it cast down the truth to the ground, and it practiced and prospered." See Dan. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.

    Now when Daniel saw in the vision the havoc and desolation this little horn would make at Jerusalem, by destroying the Jews and profaning the temple, by putting the abominations of the heathen in the most holy place, then I heard, said Daniel, one saint speaking to another saint, (or, as Dr. Clark says, one angel speaking to another angel) how long shall be the, vision concerning the daily sacrifice, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot? To which an answer was immediately given, saying, Unto two thousand three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.

    Now arises the question to be answered: Who is this little horn, and when are we to commence the numbering of those 2300 days or years, as they are by all allowed to mean; so that we may know when the sanctuary, i. e. the church of God, to which Daniel must have referred, as well as to the sacred altar at Jerusalem, evidently connecting them in his view of desolations, shall be cleansed. For he very well knew, as a prophet, that the sanctuary at Jerusalem was te give place to the greater one to be set up by the Messiah; therefore, in his propecying respecting when the sanctuary is to be cleansed, hp lias adverted from the former to the latter, and foretold when, or, in other


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    words, when the Millennium is to commence. Some have strenuously contended, that this little horn signifies the Romans as a nation; but this cannot be, because Daniel saw this horn arise at a period future to the time when he saw the vision, which was while he was at Babylon, a captive, B. C. 550 years. But the Romans had their commencement long before Daniel was born, as early as the year B. C. 753; consequently, it is morally impossible to allow this horn to be the Roman government. The vision put the whole tragedy in the ages to come from the time of the vision. Those who have supposed that this little horn signifies the Roman government, have accordingly supposed that Daniel's view of what was done to the sanctuary and temple by way of polluting it, by setting up the abomination which maketh desolate, was accomplished by the Romans under Titus, when it was totally destroyed by that emperor, A. D. 70. But it should be recollected, that nothing is more unlikely than that God would put it into the heart of Daniel to mourn for the desolation of the temple, after it was of no further use to his cause and church in the earth, when Christ had once suffered, and the temple thereby rendered useless as a place to exhibit types of a coming Messiah, which was the only design had in view in building it at first.

    But Daniel certainly foretold the destruction of Jerusalem in the ninth and eleventh chapters of his book, and speaks of the Romans as being the abomination of desolation standing in the holy place. See Mattii. 24, 15; but by no means conveying the idea, that the


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    Romans, at that time and place, was the little horn: because we find, after Daniel had finished his account of the exploits of the little horn, he states concerning him in chap. 11,31, that arms should stand on his part, i. e. the Romans, of whom the little horn had been always in awe, and had paid taxes to them, and became finally supplanted by them; but as the Romans pursued the same policy and severity towards the Jews that the little horn had, it is said, in reference to this point, by Daniel, that arms stood on his pnrt. The standing of the Roman arms on the part of the little horn, did not aid any of his views of glory and ambition relative to himself, but only accomplished his hatred, though after his death, against the Jews, by finally destroying them and their whole nation by Titus, A. D. 70. But he, (the little horn) came finally to his end, there being none to help him. This was accomplished upon him when he planted the power of his arms in the land of Judea, to destroy it; but his armies were then defeated by the Jews, under the conduct of Maccabeus. * See Daniel 11, 45. And he shall plant the tabernacle of his palaces between the seas (of the Mediterranean and Asphaltides, north lat. 31 1-2 east, long. 35 from Lond.) in the glorious holy mountain, (Jerusalem) yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.

    I feel, therefore, assured, that the period of the ruin of the temple after Christ is not the period to which Daniel alludes, when he in vision described what the little horn would do before he should come to his end. Nor yet that it was the Romans who represented this

    * And his successors after the death of Antiochus.


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    little horn, because they arose 453 years sooner than the acts prophecied of the little horn took place. But if we say ANTIOCHUS EPIPHANES is the terrible king, or horn, he saw arise, then we find in him a character which at once realizes all the acts foreseen of him in the eighth chapter of Daniel. The time also that he arose to power, (which was 250 years after the prophecy) will agree with the time set to cleanse the sanctuary, which was from his rising up, till it should be cleansed, 2300 years. For it appears from the account the writer of the book of Maccabees has given of him, that he existed, and did all the things foretold of him by Daniel, about the year B. C. 300. A more particular account of what he did than is stated by Daniel, I now proceed to extract from the first book of Maccabees, which is allowed, for its historical correctness, to be of great worth, and is found to agree with Daniel, respecting out of whom this horn should arise. Daniel states that he arose out of one of the four horns who succeeded Alexander. These were his generals; and the countries they ruled over have been already mentioned.

    It appears from Maccabees, chap. 1, 7, that Alexander reigned twelve years, and then died; consequently he succeeded his father Philip at the age of twenty- one, for he was thirty-three years old when he died, 13. C. 323. After his death, his brother and two sons, as before stated, kept up the appearance of the Macedonian empire for 15 years, which brings the date of their, murder, and the assumption of government by Alexander's generals, over the nations conquered by


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    him, to the year B. C. 308. Now out of one of these four horns which sprung up after the death of Alexander, arose Antiochus Epiphanes, who, it is supposed, supplanted Cassander, one of the four generals of Alexander, who had for his part of the conquests of his royal master, Macedon and Greece. Antiochus Epiphanes is the one, therefore, who, according to Daniel, arose at that time. See chap. 8, verse 9. And out oj one of them, (the four generals of Alexander) came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great. This is the one also described in the first chapter of Maccabees. See Apocrypha. "And there came out of them a wicked root, Antiochus surnamed Epiphanes. Now when the kingdom was established before Antiochus, he thought to reign over Egypt, that he might have dominion of two realms. Wherefore he entered into Egypt with a great multitude, with chariots, and elephants, and horsemen, and a great navy. Ptolemy was afraid of him, and fled. Thus they got the strong cities in the land of Egypt, and he took the spoils thereof." That this same Antiochus Epiphanes, spoken of in the Apocrypha, in the first book of Maccabees and first chapter, was the little horn prophecied of by Daniel, we have the comment of Adam Clark upon chap. 11, verse 25, of that prophecy, as corroborative proof. See the verse. And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army. "Antiochus marched against Ptolemy, the king of the south (Egypt) with a great army; and the Egyptian generals had raised mighty forces. The two armies met between Pelusium and Mount Casius; but he (the


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    king of the south) could not stand; the Egyptian army was defeated."

    And further, as corroborative proof that this Antiochus who then invaded Egypt, was Antiochus Epiphanes, the horn alluded to by Daniel, I shall give Dr. Clark's remarks on verse 21, of the llth'chap. And in his estate (i. e. a former king -- Cassander probably) shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honour of the kingdom; but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries. This was Antiochus, surnamed Epiphanes, or the Illustrious, by the Syrian court. "They did not give him the honour of the kingdom. He was at Athens, on his way to Rome, when his predecessor died, and Heliodorus had declared himself king; so had several others But Antiochus came in peaceably, for he obtained the kingdom by flatteries. He flattered Eumenes, king of Pergamus, and Attains his brother, and got their assistance. He flattered the Romans, and sent ambassadors to court their favour, and pay them the arrears of tribute. He flattered the Syrians, and gained their concurrence; and as he flattered the Syrians, so they flattered him, giving him the epithet of Epiphanes, the Illustrious. But that he was what the prophet calls him, a vile person, is fully evident, from what Polybius says of him, from Athenaeas, lib. v. "He was every man's companion: he resorted to the common shops, and prattled with the workmen: he frequented die common taverns, and ate and drank with the meanest fellows, singing debauched songs," &c. From which It is evident^zzz this person is the same to whom both Daniel


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    and the Apocrypha alludes. By the one he is called Antiochus Epiphanes, plainly; and by the other, a vile person, who, by Clark, is said to be the same; and, I add, is the little horn foreseen of Daniel.

    But I resume the account given of him in Maceabees. See Apocrypha. "And after that Antiochus had smitten Egypt, he returned and went up against Israel and Jerusalem with a great multitude; and entered proudly into the sanctuary, and took away the golden altar, and all the vessels thereof. He took also the silver and the gold, and the precious vessels: also he took the hidden treasures which he found. And when he had taken all away, he went unto his own land, having made a great massacre, and spoke very proudly." But two years after, it appears that Antiochus returned again to Jerusalem, and burnt down a part of the city, carried many captives away, and possessed their cattle. And at the same time he built a strong wall round the city of David, with immense lowers on it, and thereby made it a strong hold for himself. "And put therein a sinful nation, and fortified themselves therein." It appears that from this fort which they built, that they harassed and afflicted the people, who daily came to the temple to sacrifice. "Thus they shed innocent blood on every side of the sanctuary, and defiled it." At that time Antiochus wrote letters to his whole kingdom, that in their worship they should be one people, and also to the Jews, many of whom consented to the worship of idols. "He set up groves, and chapels of idols, and sacrificed fine's flesh and unclean beasts." He also set up an


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    idol upon the very altar of God in the temple, and sacrificed to the idol there, and sprinkled the whole temple and altar with the broth of swine's flesh. See Clark on Daniel, chap. 11, 28.

    From what I have advanced, it appears evident (at least to me) that the horn which arose nearest to Daniel's time, B. C. 550, was Antiochus Epiphanes, who commenced his reign about the year B. C. 300; but soon after his end, the kingdom was lost in that of the Romans, who commenced their national existence B. C. 758, but at that time had become exceeding powerful. If, therefore, the prophet alluded to the rime of Antiochus, who horribly polluted the Jewish sanctuary, we see clearly that the time to cleanse it, i. e. the Christian sanctuary, of which that at Jerusalem was the type, will be at the end of 2300 natural years, and will be completed at the end of the next century, in the year A. D. 2000. At that time also will be finished the 1260 years of the captive state of the Christian polluted sanctuary, who went into captivity about the year A. D. 740. At that period will the woman, who is the Christian church, now under the power of the beast, come forth from her hiding place, where she has been, is now, and will continue to be fed and preserved, till the end of 1260 years, from the face of the serpent, which is the old heathen worship of idols, from which she was rescued by the conversion of Constantine, and preserved in the wilderness state of the Roman Catholic church from heathen idolatry, though nothing more, since that time, than nominally Christian,


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    which, however, preserves her from the more horrid face of the serpent, paganism.

    At that time shall end the prophecyiug of the two witnesses. See Rev. 11, 3. And I will give power to my two witnesses, and they shall prophecy a thousand two hundred and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth. During which time the Gentiles are to tread under foot the holy city, i. e. the whole community of saints in those Catholic countries, who would gladly embrace the opportunity of listening to the voice of those witnesses, if they were not now shrouded in the smoke of the bottomless pit. But at the end of the forty-two months, at the end of the three days and a half, at the end of the twelve hundred and sixty years, at the end of a thousand two hundred and threescore days, at the end of a time, times and a half time, at the end of Daniel's two thousand three hundred days -- shall the smoke of the bottomless pit be blown quite from the mental region of man's mind in all the globe, in the last year of the next century. But long before that period, the gospel will have been received among all heathen nations.

    Having now presented my reasons for believing the Millennium will commence at the end of six thousand years from the beginning of creation, I will sum them up in brief, and then pass to some remarks on the kingdom of the mountain, then close this division with a few reflections. My reasons for expecting it at that period, have consisted, I st, in showing the sanctity and propriety of a Millennium. 2d. By exhibiting proofs that the ancient Jews, Rabbins, and prophets, as we'll


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    as the Christian churches in all ages have expected it. 3d. By a compared view of the various kinds of Sabbaths, which I have shown as typifying a Millennium at a certain period. 4. By ascertaining the rise and fall of the papal horn. 5. By showing when and who it was that polluted the Jewish sanctuary, and when the time to cleanse it shall come, i. e. the Christian sanctuary, as I suppose the prophet meant, else he would not have set the time so distant as 2300 years. 6. That the four grand dispensations from Abraham, consisting of a thousand years each, shall also end with the next century; exactly corroborating their sublime symbol, which was a river, shown to Ezekiel by an angel, consisting of four equal measurements of a thousand cubits each, which is descriptive of the increase of a knowledge of God in his church in the earth, since the birth of Abraham till the Millennium. 7. By showing that at the end of the next century, the noted 1260 years, in which the saints were given into the power of the secular Roman church, shall end; and 8. That then the two witnesses shall finish their prophecying in sackcloth, and be caught up to heaven in the midst of a cloud. These are my reasons for believing the Millennium will commence at that period. There J see a termination of all those grand symbols upon which the expectation has been built, by both the ancient and modern church. But I will here remark, that the exaltation of the two witnesses, the Old and the New Testament, to heaven, may be understood to signify, that- as the Holy Scriptures, the grand medium through which God has conversed with man, have been


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    despised, ridiculed and rejected by a majority of the nations, so they shall finally come to be had in universal honour, and their precepts to be the Alpha and Omega of all the nations of the earth during a thou sand years, even on the earth where they have been despised. This glory which shall be bestowed upon them, their enemies shall see; but in that same hour, when thus exalted, there shall be a great earthquake, terrible commotions among men; the wicked falling by the supernatural power which shall then destroy them. And the seventh angel sounded; (for six had preceded him) and there were great voices in heaven, saying, The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever.

    And as if to confirm the faith of the saints, that the vision shall end, and the saints take the kingdom at the termination of 1260 years, from the precise time the Christian sanctuary was absolutely and totally polluted by the papists, and the abomination set up, (i. e. the Popes, as idols) which maketh desolate, of whom Antiochus Epiphanes, and his pollutions of the Jewish sanctuary, was a lively type. It is asked, How long shall it be to the end of these wonders? See Dan. chap. 12, 6. The reply was, that it shall be for a lime, times, and a half time; and when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy peoflc,nil these things shall be finished.

    Thus I understand it: the time allowed to this desolating monster, this abominable idol, which has made desolate the saints, is 1260 tears, in which time he


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    shall have fully accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, the children of God in his dominions, who receive hot the mark of this beast in their foreheads, or their hands. The end, or last years of the next century, shall finish the visions of Daniel and St. John, in reference to the kingdom of the stone, and close the grand drama of sufferings with the saints, and shall usher in, like the breaking forth of the waters of Paradise in the first Eden, the undescribed glories of the Millennial state, and kingdom of the mountain, which is Christ in his second coming, filling the whole earth.



    And are we, indeed, so near the time which has been the subject of hope and prophecy in all ages, of both the Jewish and Christian churches; so near that period when the depravity of the heart shall be no more, when the effects of sin shall cease, and zzzhs injuries be repaired by the spirit of the Lord of Host in all the earth, both of natural and moral evil? Are we indeed, so near that time, when the holy dead shall rise at the sound of the voice of the archangel in all the earth? So near that time, when the sweet fellowship that existed in Eden between man and the angels of God, shall be renewed; the lost image of perfect holiness be restored? Yes, O my soul! the time is near. Blessed be God, who so loved the world as to give his only Son for a ransom, upon whom, as a foundation, is built, zzznptly the expectation of the joys of the Millennial state,


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    but when that shall end, the more triumphant bliss of an eternal weight of glory in the heavens. With these views let us be comforted, and possess our souls in patience, for behold it hasteneth. Soon the rush of years will unfold to the astonished sight the joys that have been bought with a Saviour's blood. The lives ol three persons in succession, from the present year, 1827, of sixty years of age, are more than sufficient to reach the promised land; the third, if holy, will plunge in that sea of joy, will be one of those who shall feel the mighty change from mortal to immortality, such as the sinless pair possessed before their fall, and shall become a recipient of the immunities of the Millennial state.

    Having passed through the various periods which relate to the cleansing of the sanctuary on the earth, though commencing at different eras, but all manifestly ending at one and the same time, viz. at the end of the next century, or in the year of our Lord 2000, I will just observe that Daniel the prophet has spoken of an additional number of years, which seem to reach beyond the completion of the time, times and a half time, or the 1260 years allotted for the cleansing of the sanctuary. See Dan. 12, 11, 12. This addition consists of seventy-five years, and evidently extends into the Millennial state, and relates to some events involved in the blessedness of that time, which it seems was not God's good pleasure so clearly to reveal to Daniel. But it is added, verse 12, Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days. But here conjecture is lost, for


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    I Consider the signification covered in obscurity, because those seventy-five days reach beyond the period of cleansing the sanctuary, which will be effected by the binding of Satan, by the destruction of all sinners, by the removal of all natural and moral evil, by the exaltation of the two witnesses, the Old and New Testament, up to the heaven of universal acceptance in all the earth; by the junction of Ezekiel's river of life with the ocean, the Millennium; by the resurrection of all die righteous dead, and by the restoration of every privilege which can possibly be consistent with that new order of things, and will doubtless be fully equal with the glories that would have crowned the race of Adam, if he had not sinned. However, it is not probable that the same mode of happiness in every respect, will then succeed, because the constituent qualification of their happiness, will differ from what it would have been in an unfallen state. For in the first order of things, men were to live by obedience to the law of God, without faith in a Redeemer: but in the Millennium, they will live by keeping the law of God through faith in Christ; for that state will be his reign -- his government -- his kingdom, and glorious triumph over all his foes. But as it respects happiness, arising from a local or natural situation while subsisting on the earth, it may be expected that the globe will again be adorned with all its ancient beauty, and paradisical luxuriance.


    [ 250 ]


    An account of the first resurrection, and the subsequent happiness of all people; with which is connected arguments to prove, that all natural and moral evil shall cease a thousand years; and that it was the intention of the Creator to have clothed Adam and Eve, and their posterity, whether they should stand or fall.

    Then shall all sacred dust, whose souls had faith,
    Be rescu'd from the power of conquering death,
    And instant upward fly, with speed of light,
    Far from the changing climes of day and night.
    Then they, the saints on earth who yet remain,
    A thousand years will wait the trump again;
    This lapse of years shall know no tempting devil,
    Nor natural ills, nor power of moral evil.

    This great and glorious event is intimately connected with the Millennium, inasmuch as it is the very beginning of that day; for it is written by St. John, that the rest of the dead live not again until the thousand years are finished. This is the first resurrection. Rev. 20, 5. From this it is evident, that there shall absolutely be one thousand years between the first resurrection


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    and the second. This is the reason why I conclude that the resurrection of the righteous must take place the very moment of the commencement of the Millennium, in order that a thousand years may have exactly time enough to transpire before the resurrection of the wicked shall take place. And to ascertain this as a fact, we have only to recollect the above quoted remarkable words of St. John upon the subject. But the rest of the dead live not again until the thousand years are, finished. *

    The Evangelist, in order that the churches should clearly understand him to say, that literally there should be a lapse of a thousand years between the two resurrections, and that it shall be the righteous who are thus to be favoured with the first, he has said, Blessed and holy is he that hath, part in the first resurrection, on such the second death hath no power. Rev. 20, 6; which strongly intimates a second resurrection, and that they who shall compose it, shall be hurt of the second death; and it is added, And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. Rev. 20, 14. And to prove that the wicked dead shall be cast into this lake of fire, which is the second death, we adduce these words: And whosoever was not found written in the book of life, was cast into the lake of fire. Rev. 20, 15. And to show that their stay in this lake is eternal, we have only to let the Revelator decide, who says, And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are and shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever. Rev. 20, 18.

    * See Appendix (A.)


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    But that the righteous dead shall arise before the wicked dead, is confirmed by St. Paul, who says, "For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God, and the dead in Christ shall rise first." Thes. 4, 16. But the distance of time between the two resurrections is not mentioned by St. Paul; yet in Thes. 4, 17, he very plainly intimates, that there will be a lapse of time between the two resurrections, when he says, Then we which are alive and remain. Thus I understand him to mean: that when the righteous dead awake at the sound of the archangel's voice, that they will immediately ascend out of sight to heaven? but they who are alive and on the earth at that time, shall remain till after the Millennium, or the thousand years are accomplished, and then shall be caught up at the sound of the last trump, to be together with them who ascend before and shall meet the Lord in the air, and so shall we be ever with the Lord. But if we blend the resurrection of saint and sinner together, then we make, between St. Paul and St. John, an unaccountable disagreement on the subject; for while one plainly puts a thousand years between, the other seems to blend them together.

    It will no doubt be allowed, that these two apostles wrote by the same spirit of inspiration, and that they equally understood the process of the resurrection. And although St. Paul never read the book of Revelation, because it was not written till after the death of that apostle, who was slain with a sword at the command of Nero, the tyrant, in the year 65; but St. John lived to the


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    great age of ninety-eight years, and wrote the book of Revelation while an exile on the isle of Patmos, in the Archipelago, -- (this island is situate between 35 and 40 deg. north lat. and 25 east long.) -- under the horrid reign of Domitian, but was called from his exile by Nerva, successor of Domitian, and again fixed his seat at Ephesus. His book of Revelation, we are informed, he wrote near the close of Domitian's reign, which was long after the death of Nero and St. Paul, and published in the year ninety-six, at which time it was also dated. See Clark. Yet St. Paul must have had the same view of the resurrection with St. John.

    The following, I think, is a consistent view of the subject concerning the two resurrections: That although there shall be many saints alive on the earth, at the time when the period for the resurrection of the just shall arrive, yet that circumstance shall not prevent their rising. This appears to be the sense of the 15th verse of the 1st Thes. chap. 4. For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord, shall not prevent them which are asleep; i. e. those who are asleep in Jesus; for this is determined in the next verse: For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God, and the dead in Christ shall rise first -- but no intimation that the sinner shall rise with them, nor immediately after.

    If this very idea were not a question among the saints at Thessalonica, whether the wicked and the righteous should rise together at the same time, it


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    would seem the apostle might not have been so explicit to tell them that the dead in Christ should rise first. But if the difference between the resurrection of the saint and sinner shall be but as a moment, as it were, or even the space of a day, or a month, it would seem such a circumstance could not be a matter of much solicitude to be known. But if we believe there shall transpire a thousand years between, then the thought swells to a vast consequence to be known of the churches, as one of those great events connected with the glory of the Messiah's kingdom on the earth.

    In the last line of the 26th verse of the 4th of Thes. the fact is stated that the dead in Christ shall rise first; then immediately it is added in the first line of the following verse, Then we which are alive and REMAIN. Why should this idea of remaining be introduced at all, if those who then are alive shall ascend instantly with those who rise then from the dead?

    But here arises another argument. What meaneth St. Paul, I Cor. 15, 52, by his mention of the last trump. 51. Behold I show you a mystery: we shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump. In his conversation upon this subject with the Thessalonians, chap. 4, 16, there is no mention of the sounding of a last trump; but the statement is simply, that at the sound of the archangel's voice, and the trump of God, the dead in Christ shall rise first. But to the Corinthians he taught, 15, 52, there should be a last trump which must sound; at which time, they who were not dead or asleep should be changed in the twinkling of


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    an eye. But here it is not mentioned, that this change shall be effected when the dead in Christ shall rise, but when the last trump shall sound. It is plain, therefore, that the last trump will not sound at the first resurrection, but will delay its sounding till the last resurrection, or resurrection of the wicked dead; at which time the saints who are then on the earth, shall be changed at the sound of the last trump. But if we blend the first sound of the trump with the second, and blend the first resurrection with the second, there will remain a palpable darkness upon the face of this most interesting subject, the resurrection of the saint and sinner.

    We are informed by St. Paul to the Corinthians, chap. 15, 26, that The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. This is corroborated by St. John, Rev. 20, 14. And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death.

    In reference to the above verses, I ask the serious reader, if there ever has yet been a time when Satan, who has the power of death, has at all been bereft of his power to tempt the nations to sin? The answer must be, No. Then there must come a time when this will be fulfilled. To this, testifies St. John, Rev. 20, 2. And he (the angel) laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil and Satan, and bound him a thousand years. When shall this be done? At the time of the first resurrection, most certainly. Is this the time when the last enemy is to be destroyed? As- it relates to the saints, it is; but as it relates to the earth, and to certain apostates after the Millennium, it


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    is not; because after the above mentioned bondage, he must be loosed again a little season. It follows, then, that the end of all things cannot come at the time of the first resurrection, as many have supposed. The time to destroy the last enemy is not till the final judgment; when death, that is, Satan, who has the power of death, shall be cast into the lake of fire. This is his death, and is called the second death.

    If we say his destruction must come at the same time with the first resurrection, then, indeed, we prevent forever that happy period of his being bound a thousand years, in reference to the earth, and also contradict the Holy Scriptures, which say it shall be so. But 1 feel constrained to pursue the argument a little farther, and to trace the process of the resurrection, as described by St. Paul to the Corinthians, in another particular.

    The order of the resurrection is, first, Christ himself came up from the dead. Second, those that are his at his coming. See I Cor. 15, 23. But every man in his own order. Christ the first fruits; afterwards they that are Christ's at his coming. Now if it be supposed, that when they that are Christ's shall come forth from the dead, that then all the wicked dead shall also rise, it would evidently attach more to be accomplished by the fulfillment of that verse, than is promised by it, or implied in it; for the promise is, they that are Christ's at his coming, and no other are implied. If, then, at his coming, the righteous only are to be raised from the dead, which will be the fact; and if this first resurrection is also the end of time, or the judgment


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    day, then it must follow, that they who are not the dead in Christ, will not have any resurrection at all; for we have no account of any resurrection after the judgment day. But the unholy dead must rise also. This is declared by Christ the Lord. See John, 5, 28, 29. Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming, in the which nil that are in the graves shall hear his voice. And shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life, and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation. Here, then, is the resurrection of both kinds.

    But the apostle's account proceeds to inform us, that when Christ has put down all rule, all authority and power, that then he shall deliver the kingdom to God, even the Father. See I Cor. 15, 24. Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom, to God, even the Father, when he shall have put down all rule, and all authority and power. This rule, zzz\hi» authority, and this power alluded to, is the dominion of Satan in the earth, with all his strong holds, which shall be put down; which fact is also witnessed to by the Revelator when he said, first, Satan shall be bound a thousand years; and second, when he said, he shall be cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, which is the second death: At which times, those infernal powers shall unloose their grasp of time and things. Then cometh the end when this is done, and not till then; which things may not be expected at the time of the first resurrection; but at the time of the sound of the last trump, when death, which is the last enemy, shall be destroyed.


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    And further: As decisive proof that the unholy dead are not to rise when the righteous do, I notice St. John's particular account, which distinguishes their resurrection from that of the righteous, in point of period when it shall be accomplished. His first description is contained in Rev. 20, 4, 5. "And I saw thrones, and they that sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years. But the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were finished -- this is the first resurrection." But his second description is contained, Rev. 20, 13. "And the sea gave up the dead which were in it: Death and hell, zzz[that is, the grave, and hades, the place where are confined the souls of the wicked dead] delivered up the dead which were in them, and they were judged every man according to their works."

    The first description states those who shall rise first, shall reign with Christ, and consequently their names were written in the Lamb's book of life; but the second description states, Whosoever was not found written in the book of life, was cast into the lake of fire. And concerning those last, it is said in verse 5, that they should not live again till a thousand years Were finished. This is the proof, beyond all contradiction, that there will lie, between the two resurrections, one thousand years. -- See Appendix (B.)


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    At the time of the first resurrection, therefore, will Le the moment when the morning of the seventh Millenniary shall begin to shine from the chambers of its glory, and shall be ushered, in by the archangel's voice, and the trump of God. Instantly all eyes, all ears, shall be sweetly arrested; for such will be the manner of heaven's approach, that every nation and every individual on the globe will see his glory at once: as if two suns should approach our earth at two opposite points, the whole would be irradiated with an ocean of circumambient light -- so the Son of Man, with- his hosts of mighty angels, in great glory shall come in the clouds of heaven. The trump shall sound with the archangel's voice; they shall sound, and roll their charming notes all round the globe, like deep and jarring thunder; but in it the blest sound, a still small voice shall cry, and pierce the deep, Ye dead, arise! my sons, arise! come forth, not to judgment, but to life eternal.

    Then shall the prayer of the militant church, which she hath prayed several thousand years, crying, How long, O Lord, ere thou shall take the kingdom and possess it for ever? be answered; for lo! he cometh with clouds, with hosts, with millions of spirits made perfect, and flaming ministers in his train, to begin the long predicted reign of righteousness on earth, and in spirit, and in power, be present with his spouse a thousand years, and to restore the place of her rest to its ancient splendour and security. Joys unknown before, then will roll a tide of bliss over the ravished souls of all his saints all round the globe. At once from every


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    clime, from every human tongue, a shout is heard to rise and float upon the viewless winds, saying, Alleluia to God in the highest: lo, yonder He comes! it is Jesus himself! I know it is He -- the once buffeted God in the streets of the Jews!

    But the archangel's voice still pours the redundant sound; the shrill and piercing cry descends the deep and hidden tomb, and deeper seas; at once the upheaving earth and stormy floods unfold their hidden guests; immortal vigour sparkles in their eyes, and beauty's blush crimsons their radiant faces; robes of glittering white are brought by attendant angels, and, like the fleecy drapery of the skies, enfold their persons fair; round the waist a starry belt is girt, dipt in the colours of the rainbow; their heads, which once were gushing fountains of many tears, are now adorned with unfading crowns, that flash sweet beams of ruddy light from every pearl; from underneath this glowing diadem and tiara bright, flow out the tresses fair of redundant locks, and come mantling down the graceful neck, as white as mountain lilies; wings, such as angels have, fall graceful from the shoulder down, the place of strength, and shroud all the liniaments divine in sparkling light.

    They hear, they see, they feel, that now they live again; and, as Elijah, with his mantle in the entrance of the mountain's cave, hid his face, when the still small voice he heard: so these, with glittering wings, veil each their face at sight of their Redeemer, while deep within burns the musing fire, but labours to pour forth fire angelic song; when lo!, another


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    shout, like roaring seas, is heard, saying, Alleluia, the Lord God omnipotent reigneth.

    Now from the silent places where they sleep, the noble army of the martyrs rise to everlasting joys. The ocean, with every gulf and stream, all battle grounds, where wars once raged, and every hidden place, yields up the righteous dead.

    Not far from the ancient site of Eden's blissful groves, sweet orchards of the sun, arises from the long sleep of five thousand years, Adam, the great progenitor of man, and his consort Eve, with Abel, their pious son, the first who fell by the javelin of the monster Death. These, rising from the dead, shout Victory, through the promised seed!

    And from the mountains of Ararat, or from the plains of China, as tradition tells the patriarch lived, Noah shakes off the incumbent dust; and stands arrayed in white, in full view of the great ark of heaven, and mounts to enter there.

    But who is this that seems a prince, whose radiant face and crown of light, vies with the morning star, sweet harbinger of day? Let Mamre's plain and Macpelah's sacred cave, declare it Abraham, from his late abode; and with him stands the offered victim on Moriah's hill, the lovely Isaac -- a lively type of Zion's king. And from the same sacred cave, Jacob, who, as a prince, prevailed with God, and who strove with the angel from evening's twilight until the dawn of morning -- these three, a triple flame, burst from the tomb to meet the great Messiah in the air.

    There from the land of Uz, a patient Job awakes,


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    and cries, I know that my Redeemer lives; and that although my skin the worms devoured, yet in my flesh, though divinely changed, I see my God. Lo, all the hills and vales of Palestine now flash with light; whole armies in white robes ascend, while all the nether heavens resound with songs and shouts of joy.

    There is a vale not far from Pisgah's top, where Gabriel hid the princely form of Moses. So secret was the place, that Satan's hateful eye could never find it. But now 'tis known; for lo! a seraph bursts from its bosom, and like a pyramid of light ascends the heavens, from whence he views, not only the once desired land of Abraham, from sea to sea, but heaven's own coast, by far a better Canaan.

    Now all the prophets rise to life again, with all the priests of God's well ordered house. Samuel, the three times called of God, ere the evening lamp went out, bursts his clayey barrier. David, sweet Psalmist of Israel, from the royal tombs, leaps forth to life eternal. Daniel, the beloved of God, so Gabriel spoke, from where he sleeps on Babylon's heathen plains, with his three companions, steps glorious into life.

    But lo! what cherub host is this, the glory of whose radiant throng lights up a brighter ray upon the face of morning? The smile of cradled infancy plays sweet upon their lips, and tempts the kiss of angels. The lustre of their eyes are innocently gay, as if they had but lately wept -- the tear but half way fallen, or scarcely yet escaped, still lingering there upon the lovely cheek. What time the Saviour saw them from his holy place, a band of angels bright commissioned


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    flew, who on their plumy vans received them soft, and bore them to the skies.

    These were the first martyrs; for Christ, the holy child, whom Herod slew in the weeping towns of Rama, with base intent to kill the Prince of Life; and millions of infants more throng the air from every clime, where human foot has trod, or infants died. Yes, the Nile, that river of blood, when once it was smitten with the rod of heaven, shall, from its murky flood and dragon shores, give up its infant dead whom Pharaoh slew.

    Now heaven shouts from all its chrystal walls, from all its gates of pearl, and from its sea of glass and mingled fire. Now all the earth, from every coast, and from the ocean deep, where holy men are found, a cry of Glory be to God, is heard again. Now all the clouds of heaven are seized and changed to thrones, where unnumbered millions stand, and shout the everlasting song. But now the roar of Gabriel's voice is heard no more. It is hushed, like the distant thunder softening its far off solemn sound in the unmeasured horizon beyond the seas, till the thousand years are passed by; when Zion's king, with all the partners of his cross, the ransomed with his blood, who yet remain on earth, shall then ascend in robes of white, with crowns of life and palms of victory in their hands with joy, with immortality and life.

    We will now return to those saints, who will be alive and on the earth at the sound of the first trump, who will not then ascend to heaven with those who are just arisen from the dead, but shall remain, as it is intimated


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    by St. Paul to the Thessalonians, 4, 5, saying, Then we which are alive and remain, shall be caught up together -- that is, when the thousand years are expired, as soon thereafter as God shall please, they shall be changed in the twinkling of an eye, and caught up to heaven at the sound of the last trump, to be together with those who are gone before. But, asks the reader, does not St. John plainly state, that they who have part in the first resurrection, shall not be hurt of the second death? They, therefore, who remain on the earth, having had no part in the first resurrection, must consequently be hurt of the second death. This does not follow; for they shall never have part in any resurrection, because they are never to die a temporal death, but at the last trump are to be changed, and caught up to God. Neither could they have part in the first resurrection, because they were not dead, but living, when that event transpired. These are the antetypes of Enoch and Elijah's translation. But if those who had part in the first resurrection, are gone away into the invisible world, how then are they to reign with Christ on the earth a thousand years, and be priests of God, &c. as is stated by St. John, Rev. 20, 6, saying, Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection; On such the second death hath no power: but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with him a thousand years.

    Let it be observed, that in this promise it is not said that they who rise first shall reign on the earth a thousand years, nor that they shall be priests of God and of Christ on the earth a thousand years.


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    Where, then, shall this reigning and priesthood take place, which is promised f In heaven unquestionably; for it is no where stated in the Scriptures that Christ is to reign personally on the earth with his saints. But the location of his throne and person must be in. the invisible world, while his reigning or government extends to all worlds and conditions of being, whether visible or invisible, natural or supernatural.

    The reigning, then, of those who first arise from the dead, as it relates to the thousand years in particular, is to be understood of their being present where Christ is in glory; for he said himself to his disciples when on the earth, I will come again and receive you to myself, that, where I am there ye may be also. John 14, 3. This, therefore, he will then accomplish by raising all his disciples who are dead, and taking them up to the mansions above, which he went to prepare when he ascended up on high. Here, then, they shall reign a thousand years with Christ in heaven, before they shall be joined by the church, who yet remain on the earth, and must remain a thousand years. Their reigning then with Christ a thousand years, is spoken only in reference to the other part of the same company, who must in due time also ascend. Then shall his bride be said to be ready, for the whole church shall be present and shall enter into the marriage supper with the bridegroom, who is the Lamb of God, and the chum is his wife, who will make herself ready.

    But as it relates to their being priests of God and of Christ, this also shall be accomplished in the invisible world, as well as in the visible; and the manner of


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    that priesthood will undoubtedly consist both of praise to God, and of service, in obedience to his commands. It is argued by Dr. Clark, that the saints on earth are reckoned a spiritual building, or temple, in which God Is worshipped, and in which lie manifests himself as lie did in the temple of old. And that every stone, son or daughter being a spiritual sacrificer, or priest, is therefore the priesthood spoken of by the apostle Peter. 1 Peter 2, 5, and by the Revelator, 5, 10. And hast made up unto our God kings and priests; and we shall reign on the earth. To which I add, that if the saints on earth are reckoned the lively stones of that spiritual building, in which each saint is a spiritual worshipper, or sacrificing priest, then indeed-those who shall arise from the dead at the first resurrection, and ascend to glory, must be reckoned also as kings and priests, for they shall sit on thrones. See Rev. 20, 4. And I saw thrones, and they that sat upon them, and they shall be crowned. See the second epistle of Paul to Timothy, chap. 2, 8. Henceforth there is laid up far me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, shall give me at that day; and not to me only, but unto ALL them that love his appearing.

    For God, who is able to make his angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire, (Heb. 17,) can give to them, who have come out of great tribulation, a priesthood of service and praise, even in glory. We see that Moses and Elias had the blest employment of appearing on the Mount when Christ was transfigured, who were seen of Peter, James and John. Of Daniel it is also said by the angel who talked with him, who


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    said, But go thou thy way till the end be, for thou shalt rest and stand in thy lot at the end of the days. Dan. 12, 13; which seems to signify, that he should have an employment, for he should stand in his lot a the end of the days, which intimates a ministration of a priesthood, even for those who have passed in to the heavens.

    Some have supposed that it was the prophet Daniel who was called an angel, and was sent of Jesus Christ to signify to his servant John the things which must shortly come to pass; but if it was not Daniel, it was assuredly one of the prophets, for this he declares in the most unequivocal manner to St. John; when he would have fallen at his feet to worship the angel, he said, See thou do it not, for I am thy fellow servant, and of thy brethren the prophets, and of them which keep the sayings of this book. Rev. 22, 9. If he was then a fellow servant with John, and claimed a kindred with the prophets, he was most undoubtedly the spirit of one of the prophets, who had fallen asleep, and escaped to glory to possess a better and more exalted' priesthood in the heavens.

    But if those who are alive at the time of the first resurrection, cannot be said to have part in that event, what way shall they be benefited by it? Their benefit will consist, first, in their being of that number who are accounted righteous, and who were worthy to be kept alive when all the wicked were destroyed from the earth. But secondly, there are other benefits which they shall become possessed of, which I now proceed to enumerate; but as introductory to those benefits, I


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    shall return to the period, when, as we have supposed, all the wicked were cut off by the destroying angels. This was the last preparatory act for the introduction of the Millennium, at which time a mighty angel of God descended from heaven, having a great chain in bis hand, who laid hold on that old serpent, the Devil and Satan, and bound him and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should go out no more till the thousand years are finished.

    If Satan, therefore, is so disposed of as to be totally restrained in his malignant influences upon the earth, and the matter of which the earth is composed, as well as upon the hearts and persons of men, it will follow of necessity that man shall be restored to Adamic innocence and happiness. This great dragon, by most commentators, is maintained to be the Devil; but there are others who think that St. John had no allusion to that fallen spirit. But that in vision was represented to him, the heathen powers called Rome pagan. Those powers, they say, was the many headed monster, called the dragon, who was cast out from heaven. And the heaven from which he was cast, say they, was their government and power to rule the nations, held in subjection. Bat from that heaven this great dragon was cast down to the earth, and deprived of his power to rule. This great revolution of casting down the dragon, it is said, was commenced by "Constantine, and carried on by his sons Constans and Constantius, and by others, Jovian, Valentinian and Valens, and was finally suppressed by the edicts of Gratian, Theodosius the First, and his successors; when about the year A. D.


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    400, this dragon was totally cast out, and became subject to the ruling dynasty of Christian emperors." -- Clark.

    This argument is founded upon the fact, that the above described powers of heathen Rome used t& paint on their standards a monstrous red dragon; hence are called the great red dragon by St. John: And corroborates the prophecy of the Revelator in his 19th chap, verses 3, 9, as follows: And there appeared another wonder in heaven, mid, behold a great red dragon, Laving seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his head. And the great dragon was cast out, that old * serpent, called the Devil and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world; he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him. These angels, they say, were the ministers and officers of state, and were also deprived with their master, the dragon. All this is unquestionably true, and should be considered a just explication of the discomfiture of the great Roman heathen dragon.

    But as Satan, the Devil, must be considered at the head of all this, spiritually operating in their councils, and after being cast out into the earth, i. e. down from the heaven of political power, he went to make war with and persecute the seed of the woman, whose influences, through the blood of the Lamb, had thus destroyed him. And on this very account, we ascertain that this dragon is not bound nor shut up, as we find he is in chap. 20 Rev. But this is the mystery of it: the same devil, who operated in the councils of the red dragon, St. John sees at a more remote period of time,


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    seized by a mighty angel from heaven, who shall shut him up, and totally curtail his influences upon the earth, which was not done when he was cast out from his heaven of political heathen empire; for we see he soon corrupted the Christian worship, and reduced it in the hands of papal power to a situation but little preferable to the idolatry of the Roman heathen. The reason of these observations are, because at the present day some have made the dragon of the 12 chap, of Rev. zzzf verses 3 and 9, synonymous with the dragon of chap. 20, which is bound by the angel in the latter case, but not in the former. At the time when the latter dragon is bound, it is said the first resurrection is to take place, but not so when the former. At the time of the casting out of the heathen dragon, Satan does not cease to deceive the nations, but in the latter he is compelled to do so for a thousand years. Now if it be thought that the casting down of the great red heathen dragon in chap. 12, is the same thing with the binding of the dragon in chap. 20, it would be natural to look for a cessation of his influences among the nations, which has not been the fact, and also for the resurrection of the martyrs at that time. But instead of this, many of the martyrs have fell instead of rising, and have sealed their testimony with their blood, from the time of Constantine and his successors till the papal fires were extinguished in England, and even till the present time in some places.

    The binding, therefore, of the dragon, which is the Devil, is-yet to take place, at the time of the first resurrection.


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    It is well known, that in the beginning an evil spirit who once had been an holy angel at God's right hand, did, through the means of a serpent, address himself to our first-parents, so as to induce an act of disobedience in them, which produced death temporal, death spiritual, and exposed him to death eternal. And it is contained in the Scriptures, that by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin. Now if Satan was the originator and cause of the temptation, and man's own voluntary act the cause and origination of his own sin, and sin the cause of temporal and spirital death, it will follow, that if Satan betaken away in his identity and influence, and sin abolished from the heart and nature of man; that death, and all natural and moral evil, the legitimate offspring of the Devil and Sin, must totally cease from the earth during the Millennium, or the thousand years in which Satan is to be bound. We cannot admit, that our first-parents were in the least exposed to any natural or moral evil while in their sinless and innocent state, but that these were introduced, as above stated. Their removal, therefore, must be effected ere innocence and pure happiness can be restored again to man. This should be expected, because it is said of the lion of the tribe of Judah, that he has come to destroy the works of the devil. The Universalians fancy, therefore, that when the works of the devil are destroyed, all men shall consequently be happy; but -- let them recollect that a sinner is properly a work of the devil, which Christ came to destroy, either by converting and sanctifying the sinner, or damning him in hell at the judgment day.


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    soul and body, which is the destruction of the second death. These two destinies God has made dependent on certain conditions, to be performed by man, in reference to Christ and his atonement.

    Let it be confidently relied on, then, that Christ will destroy both the devil and his works. The mighty conqueror will surely effect what he has undertaken to do; and at that time, when he shall send an angel to bind Satan, and set a seal upon him, that he shall not deceive the nations any more during the thousand years. He will also restore all that sin has spoiled, as it relates to the dwellers on the earth, whose happiness shall be perfected and made as complete as it can be this side of the great change, which they are at length to arrive at, which shall be effected in the twinkling of an eye, at the sound of the last trump.

    This being the fact, how changed and blessed will be the race of man, who shall live in the days of the Millennium! when the tree of life, which was nothing else but a natural tree, endowed with extraordinary qualities, for the express purpose of perpetuating man's natural life, shall again be restored to the earth for the same life-sustaining purpose. That the tree of life in the garden of Eden possessed this amazing quality, is the opinion of that most learned man, Adam Clark, who says the use of this tree was intended as the means of "preserving the body of man in a state of continual vital energy, and an antidote against death." For most undoubtedly the man Adam, and his consort Eve, naturally tended to dissolution, as well as all the lower works of the animal and vegetable creation


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    But to counteract this natural tendency in the creature man, God gave him, in his providence, access to this tree of life, that he by its use might live forever Or till the time should arrive, when he, with numbers infinite, along the flow of ages, ad infinitum; should be translated to a higher state of being, which would have been the fact, if he had not sinned; neither would the earth have fallen under the verdict of heaven, to be finally destroyed by fire.

    But when the man sinned, his Judge took him from the delectable field, wherein grew life's fair tree, and fenced up the only way of approach to the blissful garden with the dreadful sword of the cherubim, and was thus made inaccessible to the approach of man, till the deluge camp and destroyed the blissful eminence; so that the precise situation cannot now be ascertained, yet the region where it probably was, is on the river Shot a? Arab, that is the river of the Arabs, or the united streams of the Tigris and Euphrates.

    But if our first parents were liable to death, by a natural tendency to dissolution, how then can it be said that death was procured by sin? I answer, death was procured by sin, inasmuch as God judicially withdrew his providence in this particular, by removing them from this tree of life, which removal effectually exposed them to that dissolution, which was perfectly natural to them at first, and is natural to all life that depends on the use of food for its continuance.

    I But if this position is correct, what then prevented the happy pair from a voluntary death, in whatever manner they choose to effect it, even before they had


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    sinned? Nothing at all, indeed, if they would; for their persons cannot be considered invulnerable to the approach of violence, nor yet of starvation, even in the midst of Eden's plenty, if they refuse to eat. But as a sufficient barrier against such » catastrophe, was their own free will, and natural love of life.

    Tire gift of food, their natural appetite to taste things pleasant, with every other pleasurable circumstance, are all resolved in this one idea. It was God's providence over his creature man to prevent their dissolution. But when man sinned, that particular providence of access to the tree of life, was taken away, when he became exposed therefore to death in every shape. But God, ever merciful in all his movements towards man while a probationer, in mercy and wisdom removed him from the happy garden for no other purpose than lest he should put forth his hand, and continue to eat of the tree of life, and live for ever in his horrid fallen state. Begetting children in his own abominable likeness, which would soon have filled the earth with a race o non-descript monsters whose appearance probably would have been in the form of man, but whose mind must have been perfect devil, the consequences of which among themselves, would have been that sort of confusion and perpetual misery, which none but a devil would rejoice to have effected, and none but a genius more than mortal could conceive the extent and degree of misery such a state would have produced. But. it may be inquired, why the fallen pair were not allowed to remain in their native Eden, seeing there was found a ransom for them, and this ransom made known at the


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    instant of the first promise. The reason is plain -- if they had remained, they would have put forth the hand and eat of the tree of life, and consequently lived for ever. If this had been permitted, it would, to all intents and purposes, have defeated the threatened penalty, which was, In the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die -- which was accomplished by the fact of his becoming mortal at the very moment of his disobedience, from which moment lie commenced a dying state, for then was withdrawn that peculiar providence, which heretofore had set at defiance the approach of all evil. This death, which was then commenced, was a temporal death; but if a further use of the tree of life had been permitted, the death of the body could never have gone into effect, and the spirit, which was then morally dead, must have ever existed in this horrid state, even in the still living body. But to prevent this, God in mercy, and in the greatness of his wisdom, removed the man from the tree of life, so that by faith he might have access to a better Tree of Life, which is Christ.

    If this had not been done, an atonement could never have been effected -- a mediator could never have appeared -- no light, which now lighteth every man which is born into the world, could ever have shined upon the wretched heart of man, for we might as well suppost, that the Word, the second person in the Godhead, could as easily become joined to the nature of devils in bell for their salvation, as that he could become incarnate with mortal flesh under such circumstances as are above described; but prevenient grace prepared the way,


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    which in the other case it could not have done. But when removed from the tree of life, we see that God's word could go into the fullest effect, which, if he were not removed, the threatened death could not have taken place but in part, and that as it relates to the soul only, which, as it regards God's veracity, is the same as if no part of his word had proved true.

    But in anticipation of the man's being removed by the will of God, it pleased God so to love him as to give a ransom, that he might himself deliver his creature man from the blow which his own attribute, justice, necessitated him to strike.

    On account, therefore, of this ransom, prevenient grace was sent abroad in the nature of man, which some have called initial salvation, which reinstated man in such a condition, that he can again make use of free volition to good, and become a proper subject of offered mercy as it relates to a further salvation; and a final one in the heavens above, if he lays hold on the hope set before him. On this account, therefore, it became possible for God to take upon him the seed of Abraham, and to become incarnate with man for his salvation.

    But if man had not sinned, and in consequence had kept possession of that holy mount, and had continued to nave uninterrupted access to this wonderful tree, would not the happy fields of Eden, in process of time, have become too strait for the increase of its inhabitants? for it must be recollected, that when God first made the man and the woman, that he blessed them, and comzzz them to multiply and replenish the earth, and


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    subdue it. This command was given before they fell. Therefore, as soon as they had increased to numbers more than Eden could sustain, they would have descended from this princely seat down by the way of the east of Eden to the broad earth below. Eden, the garden of God, is with great reason believed to have been vastly elevated from a common level with the country, surrounding it, and inaccessible by perpendicular rocks to a great height on all sides, except the east, where, to guard the way from the approach of man after he fell, was placed mysterious beings, called cherubims, armed with a dreadful sword, which probably had the appearance of a perpetual stream of lightning. Now if this were not the fact, could not those, who, after the fall of man, might wish to visit this Eden, have easily gone to it on the west side, or at any other point? I am, therefore, convinced that it was a mount, with table lands, rich and fertile, and consisted of quite an extent of country -- thus elevated, overlooking to a vast distance a surrounding world, so that Adam when he sinned, fell not only from his moral rectitude, but from the most glorious location that ever graced this lower, world. It man had not fallen, his posterity would soon have descended to the surrounding country, which was equallj productive with the soil of Eden, for such would have been the direction of Providence, to prevent any inconvenience which otherwise must arise from an increase of numbers.

    But if in Eden men would soon have so increased in numbers, as to require more room, consequently the


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    whole earth, in process of years, would have been found too narrow in its boundaries to sustain their vast multitudes. And in this very way death must have been the certain consequence among men. The total extinction of the whole race would have ensued, even if they never had sinned at all. Here, then, we see man in his corporeal state, surrounded by an unavoidable necessity of yielding to death whether he sinned or not, Unless some expedient can be found out by which they could in that case have been delivered. The reason why I think the whole race would have become extinct, is because an increase of numbers would soon have occupied all the space the earth affords; consequently starvation, and the vast crush of human bodies would have ensued, and destroyed the whole. But God, who is wise as powerful, would, as surely as he exists, have defended them from this inevitable fate, and would have delivered them from so tragical an end.

    The method of relief unquestionably would have been a translation from their corporeal state of existence to some other and higher state of being, which Would have been effected from time to time, and from age to age, as should have become necessary, for ever and ever; for it is not to be supposed, that the earth would ever have been doomed to dissolution if man had not sinned. That translations would have been the fact, we have the strongest assurance, both from the reasons above stated, and from the literal instances which we find in the Scriptures. For what other reason was a publicity of Enoch arid Elijah's translation permitted,


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    than to show such would have been the mode of removing the human race from this location, if they had kept their fealty to God: And also to signify to the righteous, that as these were translated and changed in a moment of time, so shall all the saints be changed at the sound of the last trump, which heavenly expedient could never have been known to men in its proper light, had not these instances been permitted.

    But if there is to be no death during the Millennium, (as previously argued) and if there is to be a multiplication of men without any diminution, during a thousand years, will not the earth, in consequence, become overcharged with an immensity of multitudes, as well in the latter case as in the former, and thus produce death even during the Millennium? This will not be the consequence; and the following reasons arc thought sufficient to obviate such a supposition: First, it will require many years to retrieve the immense loss occasioned by the sudden overthrow of all the wicked just previous to the Millennium, which perhaps will amount to two thirds of the whole population of the globe.

    A second reason is, at the commencement of the Millennium there will be, as it is now, vast tracts of waste land in various parts of the globe, which must thereafter be subdued and cultivated. Those countries where the soil is cultivated, in many of them it is but partially done, and therefore will admit of a much higher state of husbandry, consequently the more capable of maintaining an increase of population. But, if need be, God can easily restore and fertilize all barren


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    lands, even the sandy deserts of Arabia, and all similar desolations, and clothe them with the verdure of the first Eden, as once he healed a tract of barren country by the means of the prophet Elisha, not far from the place where Elijah was translated; and thus an abundance of space shall be prepared for the increasing millions of the Millennial state. Does not Isaiah allude to changes in the earth like this, as well as to the effects the gracious gospel should have upon the morally barren, desolate and unfruitful state of heathen nations, when he says, In the wilderness shall waters break out, and streams in the desert. And the parched ground shall become a pool, and the thirsty land springs of water: In the habitation of dragons, where each lay shall be grass, with reeds and rushes. Chap. 35, 6, 7. See 12th division on this subject.

    It is presumed entirely inconsistent with the glory, perfection and happiness of the Millennium, to admit, that during that great Sabbath of rest, there shall be any liability to sickness, pain, accidents, or death. I think it safe and expedient to assert, that when the original cause of all moral and natural evil is removed, which is sin, that its effects must of consequence, be no more felt or known on the earth, till the same cause be again permitted to operate. It is impossible for the stream to flow if the fountain be dried up.

    But, asks an objector, if men during this thousand years, are to till and subdue the soil of the earth for the purposes of food, and the innocent pleasures of life, will they not therefore be liable to accidents of various


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    kinds, as at the present time, and consequently to sickness and death? To which I reply, can any suppose that Adam, to whom the command was given to till the earth and subdue it before he had sinned, was therefore liable to any harm or natural evil? By no means; for God, the mighty One, was round about him, lest he at any time should dash his foot against a stone, for it is written, that upon all God's glory there shall be a defence, and therefore could never have been injured if he had not sinned.

    If God in the beginning, while man was yet innocent, commanded him to subdue the earth, we may not suppose, therefore, that he was necessarily subject to casualties, and consequently to death on that account; because, to do the commands of God before the fall, could never become the source of moral nor natural evil.

    We have no knowledge that God has ever made any kind of being exempt from pleasurable labour or activity, whether of material or immaterial natures; but we are led, from a consideration of all created objects, to conclude the contrary: because on all nature, whether animate or inanimate, the qualification of motion is stamped; for all that possesses life in any degree beneath man, manifest it according to their various powers. The whole tribes of the vegetable world show their motion, either by their constant though silent speed toward perfection, or descent again to the original soil; and even the steadfast earth has her annual but tremendous journey to perform. All this motion


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    is evidently given to the various grades of creation to facilitate the bliss of being.

    That man shall therefore labour, is not at all derogatory to his happiness, unless they are doomed to labour under the consequences of some fatal error, as was the instance of Adam and his erring progeny. But most unquestionably, an industrious habit of body or mind, whether it relates to men, who are material, or to angels, who are immaterial, it is a grand ingredient in the composition of blessedness.

    From this view of the idea of activity, we may safely conclude, that although the inhabitants of the earth during the Millennium shall labour, yet on that account will not be subject to any inconvenience whatever more than Adam was in the first Eden.

    Therefore men shall labour, as was designed of God in the beginning, not with unnatural sweat and pain, tilling the cursed ground, but with pleasure and sweet employ shall till the restored soil, supplying therefrom nature's simple wants, till the sign of the great God shall again appear in the skies.

    Wants, asks the objector, is it not a natural evil to want? To this I answer, by no means, where the power to obtain the thing-desired is possessed, and the will, perfectly free, harmonizing with the desire to possess the object. Want, in this sense, cannot be an evil, but gives a relish to existence, where there is BO prevention of the thing desired. Such shall be the blessed estate of those who shall dwell on the earth in the days of the Millennium.

    But if man, in the Millennium, shall regain his paradistical


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    happiness and innocence, will he therefore become indifferent to clothing his person? Such a consequence cannot be admitted. I believe, for weighty reasons, thru God never intended Adam and his posterity should go naked, even if they had not sinned. The reasons which I oppose to such a position are, first, the shocking and more than beastly appearance a population of naked human beings would present. It would be excessively unnatural to suppose, that the Creator intended his most glorious creature man, male and female, parents and children, strangers and friends, old and young, should associate together naked under every possible circumstance; which would have been the fact, if the position is true, that man was not to be clothed if he had not sinned.

    Such a view is absolutely abhorrent to every delicate and chaste feeling of the soul, even now in its present low and depraved state. How much more so, then, if man had not fallen! Let none imagine that this opinion is irrelevant; because, being now fallen, and therefore not capacitated to argue upon any position belonging to a sinless state: but rather let it be recollected, that the views of propriety, honour, virtue, chastity, with all refined sentiments which may now be possessed by the mind, are the effects of a restoration, and, in a degree, are aft approximation toward that height from whence we are fallen; and therefore by this light I argue, that nakedness could not have been the condition of our race, if we were now in an unfallen state. It is my opinion, that if man had been permitted to live on the earth after his fall in an unredeemed state,


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    that his condition would have been a horrible delirium, utterly incapable of reasoning at all. Therefore this good and perfect gift of reasoning powers came down from the Father of Lights, through the promised Messiah Or Redeemer, so that man was enabled to reason, and to choose between good and evil. By this gift, therefore, I judge that a world of naked human beings was not intended by the Creator. If it is alleged, that in many countries of the torrid climates of the earth, that even now there are human beings who live naked, and in societies; and yet the fact is not abhorrent to their views of delicacy. But, it should be remembered, that such human beings are extremely wretched in other respects, not having sufficient knowledge to use the facilities which nature has put in their power for their comfort and well being But the moment the light of revelation, art and science shines upon them, they shrink from the gaze of human eyes, and seek an instant refuge in the habiliments of refined society.

    But ignorance was not the condition of our first parents, neither ought we to imagine it would have been the condition of their progeny, if they had never fallen into sin and consequent wretchedness; because such a supposition would imply a most flagrant imbecility in the very constitution of the creature man, and would as certainly have led to innumerable miseries as ignorance now leads its victims, and would reflect upon the wisdom of the Creator.

    Nakedness, therefore, (excepting the two first, and even then a short time only) is compatible with a


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    state of holiness, innocence, and knowledge) whether before the fall or after, in a restored state; and is repugnant to every primitive virtue and delicacy possible to be conceived of.

    A second reason is, that we find an abundant provision, prepared for no other purpose but to clothe the creature man. Has God stored the great wardrobe of nature for nought which must be the fact, if nakedness and holiness are inseparably connected; if neither the two first, nor their children, were to be clothed, as many suppose.

    Neither will it do, in order to show a propriety in providing the rudiments of clothing, to say, that man was to fall, in order to be capable of enjoying this provision, because the object gained is not equivalent to the loss.

    If we believe that God in six days made the earth, and also clothed it with all green herbs, trees, and every plant bearing seed, which now exists -- then we subscribe to the opinion, that he at first made provision to clothe the human race; because among these are found the rudiments of various kinds of clothing, suited to the convenience of men. The animal race, with some insects, minister to the same effect: witness all furred animals, with sheep, goats, camels, and the skins of beasts.

    A third reason that man was to be clothed, arises from the fact that he was created naked. But if he were not to be clothed, then it will follow, that in this respect he was privileged far beneath the brute creation; for these have their several vestures some of fur,


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    smoother than the downy velvet -- others of feathers, with colours as it were dipped in a sunbeam -- others, again, shine in the scaly lustre of gold and silver mail beneath the waters; but man alone, sole lord of earth, not clad in any of these, stalks forth in nakedness. From which it is evident, that a covering was designed his noble frame, of a different mode and manner than that of beasts. But the fact of his nakedness had not, till he sinned, amounted to an evil; and before such a consequence could have matured, a gracious God would have informed them of their situation, and also have clothed them, as we see he did when it became necessary. *

    But did they not get a knowledge of their unclad state by means of their sin? It cannot be denied, but he thereby gained a premature knowledge of it. But this circumstance does not militate against the idea, that God would, in, his own good time, have informed him that he and his Eve were naked. For who will deny that the way of obedience to God is the true way of knowledge; for it is ordained of heaven, that men shall get knowledge in the ways of righteousness, and not of disobedience, and by thus doing, shall know more and more from time to time; which would have been the case with Adam, besides that which be already knew by intuition, if he had not fallen; and would have received a knowledge, not only of his nakedness, but of all things else which could consist with his happiness, as the circumstances of his continuance might hath required, till he would have been translated.

    * See Appendix (C.)


    [ 287 ]


    Embraces a position, that when man fell from original holiness, he lost his power of governing all wild animals, and became thenceforward exposed to their natural fury and dispositions; but in the Millennium shall recover his government again.

    At first the morning stars, when shouting from the skies,
    They saw the dripping globe from out of chaos rise:
    Twas then when all that swims, or flies, or walks the earth,
    Had from the wondrous God receiv'd their joyous birth --
    That by the Sovereign King dominion then was given,
    To Adam's gen'ral rule beneath the bending heaven.

    An absolute government over all the beasts of the field, the fowls of heaven, and the fish of the sea, was given to man as soon as he was created. This dominion, if Adam had not sinned, would have continued to the present time, maintained by the superior majesty which shone out in every word and gesture of the then uncontaminated man. He, it is said, was created but a little lower than the angels; consequently, a glorious majesty sat upon his countenance, which, together with the subduing power of his voice, ruled at his pleasure


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    the whole animal kingdom. If it is said of the angel who appeared to the wife of Manoah, the father of Samson, that his countenance was very terrible, so I conclude was the countenance of Adam, and in no small degree, because he was but little inferior to the very angels of heaven. But though terrible, yet glorious and beautiful to look upon, consequently the most powerful and most ferocious, as well as the weaker animals of ocean, air, or earth, were, at pleasure, awed into submission by this first and holiest of men. That all manner of wild beasts were perfectly mild and docile in themselves before man fell, cannot be true, for the very idea of government and dominion, which at first was given to man over them, supposes the contrary. God blessed him, and said, Have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowls of the air, and over every Jiving thing that moveth upon the earth. Gen. 1, 28. Here, then, is a dominion, a government, to be exercised over the brute creation; and if, after the fall, in the days of Noah, a dread of man was to be on every beast of the mountains, how much more so, then, before he fell!

    But if perfect docility was the primitive character of every kind of beast, what a stupid position does this present them in, as subjects of natural dominion, The very idea of government, therefore, seems strongly to allude to the wildness and natural freedom of their natures. But notwithstanding any subjugation to which they may be compelled, there is in them a natural disposition to their original state of wildness and ferocity, which is zzzpraven if we leave them


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    again to themselves, after having been domesticated. This principle of wildness and natural timidity is nothing else but a principle of self-preservation, which the Creator at first stamped on all animal nature, which is evident in a less or greater degree among all beasts, fowls, fishes and insects.

    It is this principle of self-preservation or instinctive (though unconscious *) love of life, which God has breathed into all animals, which gives to them instinctive motives for action, and is that genial fire which impels them to obtain their food, and to flee from real or imaginary danger. Without this, no beast would have force enough to get out of the way when threatened. This principle is marked with deeper or fainter shades,

    * Once for all in this place, I will remark, that the word conscious, or CONSCIOUSNESS, properly belongs to no species of being on the earth but the rational. It is defined by all lexicographers to signify a knowledge of what passes in one's own mind, an internal sense of guilt or innocence. This qualification is the only distinguishing mark between the brute and the man. The latter is thereby empowered to revolve subjects in his own mind in such a manner as to deduce rational conclusions from any premises conceived of, and is the only reason why he is a subject of law imposed by the Creator, and is, consequently, rendered accountable.

    But the former, not possessing this qualification, are not, therefore, rational, and consequently are not conscious of either guilt or innocence, and therefore are not accountable to the Creator, as man is. Whatever sagacious qualifications any animal may possess, they should be ranked under the idea of instinctive powers, which falls infinitely short of a rational consciousness, and produces all those actions of which animals are capable, and a the power which determines the will of brutes, without the aid of reason or consciousness.


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    as seemed good to the Creator, from the fierce tiger of the Bengal woods, downward to the humming bird of a summer's morning, from thence to where animal life is lost in the sensitive plant, or the polypus of the sea. If, at first, the principle of self-defence, manifested either by the sanguine conflict, or by speed of flight, were not implanted by the Creator, it would follow that all animals not carnivorous, would soon have become extinct, by being devoured by such as were of the former sort; and they also would, in their turn, have died for lack of proper food. But the defensive as well as offensive spirit, which prevails through all the ranks of animation, is nothing else but the play of nature, the wisdom of God, so that the weaker may save time to propagate their kinds before they fall a prey to sustain the other branches of animation. That such was the original design, I shall attempt to prove, by referring to the peculiar construction and facilities afforded animals to procure their food.

    There we see the fierce panther, couched in a thicket, or hid in the thick boughs of the trees, from whence to leap upon his victim -- there the eagle pursues, on rapid wings, the pheasant, or pounces, like a bolt from the clouds, upon the timid hare -- the shark rives the briny waves, and flies, with the speed of an arrow, in pursuit of his destined food. To the lion is given a mouth armed with canine teeth, and feet with horrible claws, to seize and retain his prey; so every creature is fitted for their several modes of life, from the mammoth, hugest of God's works, to the ephemera of a summer's day.


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    Perhaps, in this place, if I give an account of the mammoth, it will not displease the curious. The animal is by naturalists named mammoth, or mega-lonyx, the whole race of which appears to be now wholly extinct, except a few skeletons which are yet remaining. The mammoth is undoubtedly a carnivorous animal, as the structure of the teeth proves, and is of an immense size. It is stated by Dr. Clark, that from a considerable part of a skeleton which he had seen and examined, it is computed that the animal to which it belonged must have been nearly twenty-five feet high, and sixty in length. The bones of one toe were entire, and upwards of three feet in length. It is argued by Dr. Clark, that the behemoth, or mammoth, was a cruel and fierce animal, and formed for tyranny and rapacity -- equally lord of the floods and the mountains; its habits of motion being with fury and speed. Although naturalists have contended, some, that Job, in the Scriptures, is distinguished, in his description of the Behemoth, the Elephant, and others the Hippopotamus; but the sacred description does not agree with either, because the tail of the elephant is small and slender, and that of the hippopotamus but a foot long. But the tail of the mammoth is said to be like a cedar tree. Behemoth his tail like a cedar. Job 40, 17. Its teeth plainly denotes it to have been carnivorous, from the unevenness of their surface, the processes being an inch deep, which marks the creature as living on flesh. And yet it is described as feeding on grass with equal facility, and probably lived both on animal and vegetable food.


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    It was a many toed animal, and perhaps of the tiger family, its strength and agility surpassing all of that race as far as its immense size seems to denote. Nothing, by swiftness, could have escaped its pursuit, the largest, strongest and swiftest quadruped that God had formed. No power of man, (in his fallen state) or beast, could stand before him, for he was the chief of the ways of God. Job 40, 19. Creatures of this kind must have been living in the days of Job; for the mammoth, or behemoth, is referred to as if perfectly and commonly known.

    This monster, as well as the leviathan, the water dragon, or crocodile -- the hippopotamus -- the unicorn, or rhinoceros -- the elephant -- the anaconda -- the tremendous and horrible lyboya, with all lesser animals, were at the command of Adam in his innocence, and under his government, as his pleasure might suggest.

    And that all these were thus formed in the beginning, we have only to bring as proof, that God saw that all he had made was very good. Gen. 1,25. That every beast, with its peculiar temper and peculiar conformation, adapted to their peculiar modes of subsistence, was very good. But if we admit the notion, that when man fell from holiness by sin, that the whole animal creation underwent a change of disposition, formation and habits, it is the same as to believe that God, on the account of man's sin, uncreated what he had but a short time before pronounced very good. But if we reject this idea, and say, God did not thus change his perfect work as it respects animals, then we are driven to believe, that sin acted as a powerful creator,


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    not only in changing the dispositions of the whole animal kingdom, but that it really altered, and gave an entire new modification to the forms of all that class of animals which are carnivorous -- but that it gave them different appetites from what they had at first, and different teeth to masticate their food with, is altogether a fancy. If we attach such vast power to sin, as acting on the very muscles of the brute creation, and totally subverting their primeval modifications, why not argue the same subverting effects generally, through all the works of God on the globe? Why not say that ocean became land, and land became ocean, and that all trees ut first were succulent; but now, by the power of sin, are hardened to that of timber, as we find them in the great forests of nature? But that such was the effect of the fall of man upon animals, or that such a new modification took place with respect to them, is no where to be found in profane or sacred history, nor yet within the circle of human reasoning.

    Truly it is written, see Gen. 1, 30. And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there, is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so. Here it would seem, at first sight, that an impassable barrier is opposed to my views respecting the primitive food of animals; but a little attention will give a different view. If all kinds of animals, without any exception, at first fed on grass, and the herbs of the fields and mountains, why then did not sin have on all the same effect, if lions, tigers, eagles, fishes, and all that are now carnivorous, fed on herbs before man sinned?


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    How comes it to pass that cattle, sheep, "deer, goats, horses, and all those species of animals that are not carnivorous, were not also changed by sin's metamorphosing power to become carnivorous also? I can see no reason why any partiality could take place, or why sin, if it affected any, why it should not equally affect all? From which it is evident to me, that the verse quoted signifies, that every herb of the field was given to be meat for every beast of the earth, and every creeping thing, which were destined and formed to feed on them, and to such only.

    If we believe that God created, in the beginning, carnivorous animals, as lions, tigers, leopards, panthers, wolves and hyenas, with all fowls that live on flesh, and all fishes, with all the monsters of the fish and reptile kinds, which absolutely have nothing else but flesh for their subsistence -- then it will follow, that a corresponding mode of teeth and claws are necessary to facilitate their grade in being. This is the proof they were made as they are in the beginning.

    But if all animals were perfectly docile before the sin of Adam, than it will follow, that such as were carnivorous, and not fitted in their forms or constitutions zzz feed on herbs, must have existed in a starving condition, unless it is supposed a miracle was in continual effect for their support, till such time as the sin of man should give them license to seize the delicious repast prepared for their appetites, teeth and claws -- unless we suppose >he animals on which they might prey would remain passive, and let themselves be devoured. as the tiger may be supposed walking deliberately


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    up, in all the grandeur and amiableness of his docile nature, to the equally docile stag, and gnaws him down, while not a muscle moves in opposition to the eater. This cannot be. But unless they would thus tamely submit to be devoured, they instantly depart from the character of their supposed docility. The face of the argument is, that the first attempt of any of these, to get their destined food, is a declaration of war: Hence, in reference to the world of animals, each stand on the defensive. If this is not so, then we have only to adopt the above opinion of docility, which is too inconsistent for belief.

    If they were not created at first with all this preparation for a carnivorous mode of living, then, after man sinned, outsprang the teeth and claws of panthers and hyenas -- outsprang the teeth of all the flesh-eaters of the deep -- out grew the talons and beaks of eagles and vultures -- instantly the vast anaconda received his constringent bone-breaking power -- instantly his mouth gaped to engulph the passing prey -- at once all these threw themselves into postures of offence, as if they had eaten nothing from their creation till the sin of man; which must have been true respecting all carnivorous animals, if they were not so created in the beginning, with corresponding appetites, dispositions and powers.

    We should reject it, therefore, and conclude that all kinds of beasts are as they should be, and were at the beginning. With this view of them, we see a propriety in the mandate of heaven, when it was said to man, dominion over the beasts, the fowls, the fishes, and


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    subject them to your controul for the purposes of your happiness while in this corporeal estate

    But as soon as he sinned, he lost this extraordinary controul of animals, and became exposed to their natural fury; or to those qualifications which are now called by us, in our weak and feeble state, furious or savage dispositions, which, in themselves considered, are as innocent as the turtle dove; and if man was still in his primitive state of holiness, would be as harmless as the song of the nightingale. It is man who is changed in his executive relation to animals -- it is this circumstance which has so clothed the wild beasts of the wilderness with unapproachable terror -- it is this that has given to many kinds of domesticated animals the appearance of what is called bad dispositions. But if we had the ancient dominion, these tempers of animals would cease to be known, with respect to man, as evils, and would be viewed as they are by angels, or those intelligences who are above a state of mortality. But man is fallen; consequently the very things appointed as the means of his happiness have become his afflictions in many instances. This rule is observable, even in the effects of the gospel; for it is a "savour of life unto life, or of death unto death," according as it is believed or rejected.

    It is not possible for the mind to admit for a moment that there could arise any trouble to the man Adam, or to his posterity, if they had not sinned, from any imbecility to govern and manage all kinds of animals with the utmost facility, in accordance with the dominion given at first. But it is evidently a natural evil, which


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    cannot be avoided at the present time, that the human ra<5e cannot without danger and much trouble, govern many kinds of beasts, which danger and trouble was not incident to man's pristine state; because we may not suppose the existence of any thing that could in any sense mar the perfect composure and happiness d. man, till he had sinned. Sin, therefore, brought into being this kind of affliction, as well as all other kinds. If, then, such was the perfection of God's kingdom in Eden before sin entered there, then it will follow, that when the Messiah's kingdom shall have become definitely victorious -- when the stone cut out of the mountain shall fill the whole earth -- when righteousness shall cover the earth as the waters cover the whole face of the deep; then, and not till then, shall this evil, as well as all other evils, be destroyed from the whole face of the globe.

    During this glorious Millennial rest, shall undoubtedly be accomplished the view Isaiah the prophet had of the peace and happiness of that day -- a description of which we find in his eleventh chapter, from the sixth to the ninth verse inclusive. After having, from the commencement of the chapter, spoken of the glory, power, and wisdom of Christ, that' he shall smite the earth with the rod of his, mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked, the subject of his final and universal reign is then introduced by the following remarkable account: The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf, and the young lion, and the failing together, and a little child shall lead them. And the


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    cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together, and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. And the suckling child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice' den. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain: for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea. The whole of this quotation from Isaiah may be understood, in a spiritual sense, to signify, that from the commencement of a preached gospel until the Millennium, there shall be innumerable instances of the conversion of lion-like men, cruel sinners, ravening like the evening wolves fop their prey; or as leopards, fierce and dreadful; or as bears, to devour and break in pieces; or as serpents, the asp and cockatrice, symbols of deceit and vengeful malice. These are often the trophies of gospel grace, who, by its power, become as lambs, or as little children, in point of humility and innocence.

    But the quotation may be also literally understood, in application to the Millennium; for God will so protect man, and all that is his, during the Millennium, that though his flocks and herds, and little children, were to mingle with all the above named terrors of the wilderness; yet God. by the restoration of man to his ancient dominion over the animals, would not suffer any evil to befal him. Such will be the blessedness and security of Mount Zion when the Lord shall do this; when man shall again have, in virtue of the ancient grant his ancient rights restored, through Jesus Christ.


    [ 299 ]


    Consists of arguments to prove, that neither the dispositions nor death of the animal creation was occasioned by man's fall into sin, as is supposed by many.

    Between the beasts that graze, or those that prowl,
    Exists no link that claims the human soul;
    No bond nor tie by which the fatal sin,
    Could reach the brutal state to give them pain;
    No change from tame to wild, through all the ranks of brute,
    Took place when hell insidious brought the infernal suit.

    That innumerable evils are consequent upon the sin of Adam, is evident; and that it extends to all his posterity with its baleful influences, is but too true; and that God has pronounced a curse upon the ground on account of man's sin, and appointed it to be finally destroyed by fire at the last day, which could never have been its miserable end if man had not sinned. Yet the sin of man has not, in its effects, readied the Animal creation, so as to become the first cause of their dissolution.

    If it is thought the sin of the parent should not be


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    required at the hand of the child, so as to subject it to direct punishment, either in this life or the life to come, wherefore, then, shall the sin of man be required at the hand of the animal creation, so as to subject them to a natural death? Surely there is no relation between man and beasts, by which a communication of the fatal effects of sin could reach a dumb animal. No man will allow such a relation can exist. But Adam, being the father of the human race, has therefore communicated the baleful effects of his sin to his progeny; which could not possibly be otherwise, on account of the strict natural relation existing between us. If our first parent had not sinned, his children would not have been depraved. Therefore Adam, not being the father of the animal world, could not affect their nature by his sin.

    We know that God is just, and consequently requires of his creatures according to the ability bestowed in the constitution of such creatures as he has made. Upon this ground, it is evident God requires nothing of the dumb beasts; for the grade of their free agency does not ascend high enough to distinguish between the moral difference of actions. Therefore, because a beast does not possess a rational soul, God has not subjected them to any law which can make them accountable; for the only law that is discoverable in the animal creation is that of instinct. No beast is at all zzzconsciotu of any reason -- why he has fled, why he has eat, why he has drank, why he has been frightened, why he has been at rest, or even that he exists at all, any more than does zzz inert matter. See note on page 289.


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    It would, therefore, be unjust to subject the beast of the field to suffer death, on account of the error of a dissimilar kind of being, which I consider is as absurd as to transfer the consequences of Adam's sin to the inhabitants of some other planet. Their death, therefore, must be accounted for on some other principle. But the folly of supposing them subjected to death for Adam's sin, shows itself from another view, which is this: If justice and righteousness are eternally principles, then, in a strict relation to this subject, it will follow, that God would never have slain animals, if it was wrong, with the skins of which to make coats for Adam and Eve after their fall, and with whose flesh was undoubtedly made the first burnt offering to God, in reference to the promised Messiah. Then it will follow, that the life of beasts are to be inviolate on that principle, and no exigence whatever could justify their death. But that it is not wrong to take the life of animals, God himself has shown us, by his own example, when first he slew beasts for the accommodation of the naked couple.

    We find Abel, the second son of Adam, familiar with this thing when he made his burnt sacrifice, which so provoked his brother Cain; and I cannot doubt but flesh was in fact the food of the antedeluvians as much as in subsequent ages: and that animals was the most natural food, and the easiest come at in those early days, is perfectly reasonable. If it was just for Noah and his posterity to use them as food, then it was as just and as proper immediately after the fall as at any time since; and I do not doubt but flesh would have become


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    the food of man, even if he had never sinned; for what other purpose could they have been created? From these circumstances, therefore, I conclude, that it is not radically nor relatively wrong to kill an animal for any good purpose; and that the sin of man did not procure the death of animals in any sense, is evident, at least to me, from the above reasons.

    It has pleased God to introduce his creature man into existence, with a corporeal body, and has appointed food for its subsistence. Now, as God has diffused throughout all his works the principle of life, therefore, in the composition of all kinds of fruit, is contained real animal life, and also in water, or any substances whether dense or rare. "There is not a drop of pure and living water but contains not less than 30,000 perfect animals, furnished with the whole apparatus of bones, muscles, nerves, heart, arteries, veins, lungs, viscera, and animal spirits," (Dr. Clark) which are discoverable by the use of glasses. Death, in relation to these, was therefore in the world before the sin of man.

    Innumerable deaths must, therefore, have been the consequence, whenever man put forth the axe or plough, as was certainly intended he should do in order to subdue the earth, for thus he was commanded before he fell. Consequently the passing plowshare would have crushed -- the falling forest would have killed -- and the consuming fire, for the removal of timber, would have destroyed multitudes of feeble life even if man had never fallen.

    We judge, therefore, that sin has brought death upon


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    none but offending man, which death was effected by his removal from the tree of life; for upon him was death threatened, but not upon any of God's works beside -- it being perfectly natural to all animal life from the beginning. Yes, even man had even this mortal tendency; but the tree of life was the grand preventive till he had sinned.

    It is a scriptural fact, that God at first blessed the animal creation by saying unto them, Multiply, fee. Upon which principle, therefore, it would not have been necessary that a great many years should have passed away, before each particular kind of animal would, from their perpetual multiplication, have filled up all the space under the whole heaven -- the consequence of which would have been a general and particular destruction of all land animals, occasioned by their own numbers. A general crush of all bodies must have succeeded finally, if starvation and disease, engendered by the vastness of their numbers, had not destroyed them sooner.

    Next to these, the myriads of the seas, in process of time, would have thrown their scaly billions from the ocean's bottom to the skies, and pushed on all the shores of all the seas, vast banks of putrefying fish! 11 And from aloft, and stretched from pole to pole, the whole heaven would have swarmed with countless clouds of fowl, from where the beasts lay crushed to the highest point where clouds can soar. From this view we see, if God had not in his wisdom appointed from the beginning animal bodies to be the support of animal life, that the filial consequence


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    must have been a total extinction of every kind. \Ve ought, therefore, to believe, that as they were pronounced very good at first, so they are still, and that the sin of man cannot possibly have affected either their dispositions or death: And instead of a natural evil, we ought to consider the dissolution of animals a natural good of no small magnitude, and was intended so at first, whether man stood or fell.

    But if it should be thought impossible that so great a multiplication of animals could ever have succeeded as to engross all the space of the globe, even if they had never died, let it be relied on that the language of philosophy declares, that from one thistle seed, distinguished by its botanical name, Acanthum vulgare, is competent to produce, in the short space of four years, a progeny sufficiently numerous, not only to completely engross all the space of this globe, but also that of the whole solar system. See Dr. Clark on Gen. 3, 18.


    [ 305 ]


    Presents arguments designed to confute the opinion, that all the animal creation, nor any part of them, shall arise from the dead at the last day, to be remunerated for their sufferings and death, suppossd by some to have been occasioned by the sin of Adam.

    When from the bursting tombs the righteous dead shall rise,
    To meet their coming Lord descending from the skies,
    No howling voice of beast shall mix the holy throng,
    Nor bleat of gentler flocks disturb the rapturous song;
    For these no blood was shed on Calvary's dreadful cross,
    Because when Adam sinn'd they suffer'd then no loss;
    And therefore cannot rise, no more than moulder'd trees.
    To mount the lofty skies and endless glory seize.

    There are many who have imagined, on account of the first transgression, that the whole animal world have thereby been subjected to death. And that they may be remunerated for this suffering, it is supposed they shall be raised from the dead at the resurrection, but whether at the time of the first resurrection, or the second. I do not know: the assertors of this doctrine lave not informed us on this point.


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    This opinion is founded chiefly on the 8th chapter t« the Romans, from verse 19 to verse 23, inclusive, where it is stated as follows: For the earnest expectation of the CREATURE waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God. Verse 19.

    That any person should ever have supposed this CREATURE, which waiteth with such anxiety, can be the animals of creation as well as man, is exceedingly strange; for where is the Scripture, or reason, which can afford ground for belief, that any beast was ever yet anxious for the manifestation of the sons of God, or looked for the coming of Christ as an atonement for sin, or for his kingdom to be set up on earth, which was the tiling looked for, and so strongly desired should be manifested by the CREATURE, which is man.

    For the CREATURE was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him, who hath subjected the same in hope. Verse 20. Although the creature man has sinned, and thereby became subjected by the judicial act of God, to the vanity of an evil state, yet we cannot think that Adam, or any other man ever felt willing to be under this bondage of vanity and death; for it is stated that the creature Adam was drove out of Paradise, which strongly implies his unwillingness to go; but he was compelled to submit, for it was the sentence of his God. Thanks be to Him, although he has wisely made us subject to the consequences of our own folly in this life, by removing us, in a seminal sense, from the tree of life, yet hath he subjected the same creature man in hope, through the promised seed,


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    who is Christ, who was in due time to be manifested, which is the thing spoken of, and is called the manifestation of the sons of God in the 19th verse.

    Because the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the sons of God. Verse 21. This verse puts the thing still farther from embracing animals in any sense relative to the point; because the delivery there spoken of is to be from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the sons of God. What is this liberty of the sons of God, which is said to be from corruption? Is it not the bringing of the soul from darkness to light, as well as finally the body from the grave? €s it not the final sanctification of the soul, which is its fitness for heaven, and entitles his body also to a glorious resurrection from the dead? Now what natural beast was ever brought from darkness to light, converted and sanctified? If none, then how can they have a part in this glorious liberty, which is emphatically the privilege of the sons of God, who are finally to be raised from the dead, and is the delivery of the creature man from the bondage of his corruption into life eternal, as it relates both to body and soul.

    But if the reader still inclines to believe the animal creation included with the creature man, let him recollect that such a position will give all the praise for the resurrection of animals to the devil; because, it will follow, that if man had not sinned, then beasts, upon that supposition, would not have died, and therefore could not arise from the dead, to be made happy in another life. This last idea, however, is not applicable to the case of man, because sin nor death do not,


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    in any degree, retrench the endless being of man, although it has changed the mode of his egress from this to another state.

    For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now. Verse 22. If this verse is spoken of animals, as well as of man, the question may be asked, in what way the beasts of the field groan and travail in pain as well as man? because the pain and travail appear to be a labour of the mind, on account of the evils entailed upon our race in consequence of the fall, which is styled vanity -- of which a beast is not at all conscious; for there is not a shadow of reason to believe any beast ever knew, or in any sense possessed a knowledge that they even exist. It must, therefore, be spoken only of the whole creation of man in every clime, and of every nation, whether Jew or Gentiles; for the Desire of nations has been looked for by Gentiles as well as Jews; therefore this groaning and travail is nothing else but the motions of that light which lighteth every man who is born into the world, exciting the soul to feel after the needed Deliverance, if happily they may find Him, of which a beast is not capable.

    And not only they, but ourselves also, which have the first fruits of the spirit, even we ourselves, groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body. Verse 23. In this verse, the Apostle has included the whole Christian church which then existed, as well as the Apostles themselves, who had received the first fruits, or effects of the gospel dispensation, by the operation of the Holy Ghost. I say included them with the rest of mankind in this same


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    groaning, to be delivered from this present evil world, and longing for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of their body and soul from this state of vanity into the glorious liberty of the sons of God, which they shall possess after the first resurrection.

    But if we receive the sentiment, that animals are included in this general desire to be delivered with the sons of God, then it will follow, that the beasts which perish (says Solomon) are brought up and put on a level with the rational part of creation in point of privilege respecting a resurrection, and stand equally interested with the Apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ.

    The sentiment is an error, because it implies an operation of grace to make even a man sensible that his situation might be bettered by a redemption of his body from the evils of this life, and from the dead through Jesus Christ to eternal glory, of which state a beast can have no joyous anticipation, for they have no faith.

    Again -- if by the term every creature, we are to understand all kinds of animals, and that they therefore must rise from the dead, then we are compelled to believe, that when our Lord said, Go ye into all the worlds and preach the gospel to every creature, means that they should preach the gospel to animals as well as men. This is sufficient to confute the sentiment. See Mark, 14, 15.

    And he said unto them, go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. But if the opinion is admitted, that beasts shall arise from the dead to life again, then the question may arise, with what body


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    and in what form shall they come forth? To solve this question, we may properly advert to the Scriptures for counsel, where we are informed, that the creature man, at death, is sown a corruptible body, but shall be raised an incorruptible body at the resurrection of the just. It is presumed none will doubt but this great and glorious event, so advantageous to the creature man, shall be in consequence of the righteousness, passion, resurrection and intercession of the Messiah.

    But have we any account that the Messiah ever wrought a work of righteousness for animals, in the same sense he has for man? which work consisted in the honour he bestowed upon the law of God, by perfectly keeping its commands; for this law had been broken by man, and relatively dishonoured, but was gloriously honoured and magnified by the Messiah; otherwise the atonement by the voluntary sacrifice of himself could have availed nothing.

    Have we any reason to suppose animals were put under any law, whereby they were made accountable? or that they have in any sense done contrary to the law that is in them, which is the law of instinct, and is very good, even at the present time.

    Have we any account that beasts have sinned, and therefore ought to repent? Are there any threatenings against them, as beings who are capable of doing wrong, in a sinning sense? Or promises, that if they do well, that sin shall not lie at their door, in consequence of which they are to share in the felicities of a future and supernatural life? To which I reply, that if animals never needed such a work of righteousness done for


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    them by the Messiah as he did for man; and if they never had any law which has made them at all accountable to God; and if they never sinned, and therefore ought not to repent, and consequently are not to be threatened; and if they have done no acts which can be esteemed moral virtue, as denoting a consciousness of the existence of a Creator, and of faith in him -- then on what grounds have any a right to expect for dumb beasts a resurrection, in common with the more exalted and redeemed creature man?

    But some may imagine, however, that there shall be an animal resurrection upon a different principle than that obtained by the Messiah for his creature man; which may be supposed to be the sovereign act of God, without any respect to the atonement.

    That God is a great King, and absolute Monarch of all that eternity ever did, does now, or shall contain, for He doeth whatsoever he will, but nothing but what is proper to be done; which acts are ever in accordance with consistency and His holiness. He said, let there be light, and there was light. He built the amazing structure of the solar system, with all other systems, and has established the latent principles of all effects, which have as yet unfolded themselves in nature's amplitude. These are proofs of his sovereignty. We are not, however, at liberty to involve the free agency of man's rational spirit with the results and effects of latent principles established in nature. That item among the works of God is above the results of nature's vast machine, and is endowed with the zzzamaling yet glorious power of electing its own destiny;


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    but beneath this item there is no result, but is the effect of some latent power, tending to their several ends.

    But as a wise sovereign, he does those things only which are consistent to be done; therefore we conclude, that He will maintain order in his works; and for this very reason, also, I reject the idea of an animal resurrection.

    The first instance of inconsistency, upon the supposition that beasts arise from the dead, is, that it will become absolutely necessary for the Creator to endow them with a portion of rational understanding; or else they cannot know that they have had a prior existence, and that their resurrection is to remunerate them for their former sorrows, occasioned by the act of another kind of being, called man.

    But if this shall not be the fact, their ignorance of their former condition will entirely spoil the idea of a recompense; in which case, it would evidently be as well for the Creator, (if there must be animals) to make an entire new creation of dumb beasts, in preference to raising these of our earth to life again. And if it be necessary for them to receive a rational understanding' in order that they may receive information that they had previously existed in a dumb state, would it be inconsistent, in connection with this view, to suppose, that at some future time in the lapse of ages, when the great wheel of things has made its mystic revolutions, but they may receive another change for the better? and so at last arrive at the full stature of intelligent being: and thus corroborate the atheistical notion, that nature, in her multifarious revolutions, did at length,


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    from the womb of everlasting ages, produce, as the climax of her power, the creature man.

    A second instance of inconsistency will appear, when We examine with what bodies they are to come forth. If they shall arise with spiritualized bodies, which have passed from a gross nature to a celestial one, then indeed we shall have realized the Indian's fancied heaven, where he imagines that his native woods, with hills and vales, and running floods, will again appear, with all the game of a thousand mountains, to be objects of an everlasting chase.

    But if they are raised up natural animals, they will again require the pasture of the mountains, with every kind of food which is natural to their comfort, which will again produce the procreative power -- the multiplication of their numbers will of necessity follow; and in order to this, the earth must remain as it is, time without end; which idea at once contradicts the doc-' trine of the earth's being destroyed by fire.

    But if that prophecy is truth, which states, that there is coming a day whereon the heavens shall be on fire, and the elements are to melt with fervent heat -- when the earth, with all its works shall be burnt up -- when every mountain and island shall flee away, and there shall be no more sea; where then shall the animal kingdom have a resting place, or where shall the fowls winnow the passing winds, or the fish sport among their accustomed waves? or where shall they be kept in safety, till the dreadful storm is passed away?

    Much learned labour has been bestowed, to reader the subject of an animal resurrection plausible, founded


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    on the supposition, that justice itself is bound to remunerate them for supposed sufferings. But it appears to me, that certain proof should first be come at, before we make such deductions. A consciousness of suffering is absolutely wanting in the whole animal world. Their grade in being does not arise high enough to possess a conscious knowledge of suffering, so as to deplore and lament it. Here is manifest the wisdom of God, who, while he made animal natures capable of feeling, denied the power of rational thinking; therefore, are not conscious so as to deplore pain when they feel it. This alone is possessed by man -- a consciousness, so as to deplore pain when it is knowingly felt; bin even man is not conscious of pain when asleep. Some kinds of animals show signs of life even after their heads are taken off, viz. the tortoise, several kinds of fish, and serpents; but there is no knowledge of pain, though the flesh agonizes. It follows, then, that if their heads were on, unless endowed with a consciousness of knowledge, and sense enough to deplore such pain, that their suffering is not of that sort which might expect redress from the Creator. This argument I would apply to all animals, from the insect up to the most sagacious beasts of the field. But if animals must arise from the dead, then it will follow, that no exceptions are to be made, and will extend to every minutia of animation, embracing every species, with every particular insect that ever existed, even the zzzvermes of the human body, as well as of animals, which loads the opinion with contempt beyond endurance.


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    Finally: that doctrine which pleads a resurrection of animals to a future state, plainly charges the Creator with folly; inasmuch as that work which he pronounced very good, is so constituted, as finally to be reduced to calamity necessarily, (not by choice, as was the case with man) so as to justify a demand even on the justice of the Creator of a remuneration. But I think I have proven in the preceding pages, that animals were created subject to death, without any reference to the sin of man; and therefore, it being an appointment of the Creator, no remuneration should be expected for animals, any more than for vegetation, which also is appointed to die annually. The death which was brought into the world by sin, falls on man's body and soul, but not on beast. These effects, which are similar in appearance, are the result of dissimilar causes. The first came by sin, but the latter by the appointment of the Creator.


    [ 316 ]


    Presents a view of the vast mutiplication of mankind during the Millennium, and of the happiness of their political state; and who they are that will attempt to make war upon the camp of the saints, called Gog and Magog; and why Satan must be, loosed out of his prison a little season, after the Millennium; and in what manner they will attempt an attack upon the camp of the saints, and of their final end.

    If God at first ordain'd the procreative birth,
    That men should multiply on all the new made earth;
    If marriage then was holy, then was bless'd of heav'n,
    When first the only two were to each other giv'n:
    So when Millennial years shall all that's evil hide,
    The human race restor'd, shall then be multipli'd.

    That the multiplication of the human race will be immensely great during the Millennium, there cannot be a doubt. This the Revelator seems strongly to intimate, when he speaks of the army of Gog and Magog, which will begin to exalt itself against the camp of the saints in the four quarters of the earth, whose


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    numbers (of the apostates only) shall be as the sand of the sea for multitude. Rev. 20, 8.

    And further, it is evident, there will be a multiplication of mankind during those years of holiness and innocence, for we find a qualification of this kind existed in the composition of the blessing which God pronounced upon the venerable ancestors of our race, when first they came in all. the glory of perfection from the hand of their Creator.

    The qualification container! in that first of blessings pronounced on man, was, Multiply and replenish the earth. If, then, it was consistent to ordain the propagation of our species in that holy and sinless state, most certainly it will be equally consistent in the Millennium; because the ordinances of heaven are founded upon the eternal principles of righteousness, and the propagation of human beings is well pleasing in the sight of God -- provided always that the bond of matrimony and reciprocal affection, be the only cause of such propagation. Every deviation, therefore, from this rule, is open war with the wisdom and order of heaven. And all pretences for holiness and sanctity, of such as despise the marriage bond, and boast their ability to live above it, are generally the authors of much secret confusion and wickedness, and would do well to notice the caution of Solomon, Be not overmuch zzzrighteoirs -- why shouldst thou destroy thyself? Eccle. 7, 16, If the marriage bond, that obvious wisdom and ordinance of heaven, which at first was established in the paradistical state, was holy, just and good -- then equally so when the earth snail be restored, when man shall


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    become universally innocent. Consequently the race of man will be exceeding numerous; for, during the lapse of a thousand years, there shall be no diminution of their numbers by death, for then shall be waged no wars. The instruments of death, that once made horrible the field of battle, shall then become instruments of husbandry. No inordinate appetite, the fruitful parent of disease, shall then possess the souls of any, but simple, innocent, restored nature shall only crave her support, which shall ever be at hand by the attending providence of God, so that they will be as far removed from natural evil as Adam was before he fell.

    If it be needful to restore again the tree of life, it will be in sufficient numbers to supply every individual with its life-preserving fruit, so that death, produced by a natural tendency to dissolution, (as I believe was the condition of man before he sinned) will not be permitted to approach the human race.

    This being their condition, the increase of his numbers bafiles all calculation; but undoubtedly the whole earth will become as a well tilled garden in all the accessible climes, in order to afford habitations for the Millennial population. It cannot be reasonably doubted but the earth affords land enough to accommodate all that can be expected to come into being during the Millennium, besides the saints who, will be alive at its commencement, in which time the human race will suffer no loss by death. If all the race were now Jiving that have existed from the beginning, there would be more than twenty-six persons to each square foot of land, This calculation is deduced from the two following datas:


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    First, the inhabitants of the earth who have existed since Adam till the year 1818, are computed at the incomprehensible number of thirty-six thousand six hundred and twenty-seven billions, eight hundred and forty-three thousand two hundred and seventy-five millions, seventy-five thousand eight hundred and forty six. The second data is, the earth affords fifty millions of square miles of land. This, reduced to square feet, amounts to one thousand three hundred and ninety-three billions, nine hundred and twenty thousand millions. The larger number, which consists of inhabitants, is divided by the lesser number, which consists of square feet of earth, which produces the distracting product of twenty-fix persons to each square foot. From which it is evident, that long ere this time, death would have been in the world if man had not sinned, unless God had, from time to time, removed them by translation to a higher and more refined mode of existence.

    But after the Millennium shall have commenced, in order that all may be sustained, as population shall increase, the habitations of men will gradually become more and more compact; consequently, by the providence of God, the whole earth to whom it belongs, will be divided into small possessions, sufficient for the perfect comfort of their occupants. A deed, which is now the legal security for landed possessions, with a place for record to guard against the invasion of rights, as at the present time, will then be useless among men. A simple line, marked and known as the boundaries of the dweller thereon, will be all that will then be needful.


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    All legal officers shall then become useless; there shall be no such thing as the administration of laws by man; all precautions against villainy, such as penal laws now exhibit and inflicts; locks, bolts, bars, and prisons, shall for ever cease, for God, the holy one, shall rule in the hearts of men; consequently there will not exist a desire contrary to pure righteousness: And wisdom shall not then be far off, but in all hearts, leading all souls, in all cases, to the best possible conclusions, which will effectually evade every misunderstanding which now often afflicts the hearts of the most pure. At that day, will totally cease all kinds of useless business, and nothing be retained among men but those pursuits, as mechanics and merchants, who shall make and trade in those articles which shall be for their simple comfort -- nothing for luxury, nothing for pride. Money will probably cease to be a circulating medium -- an exchange of commodities will take its place; but even this will not occupy one ambitious thought, for no desire to lay up against an evil day can then possess the mind. Having food and raiment, house and home, they have all that heaven ever designed man could innocently possess, and their security will be the providence of God, who shall lead them and feed them continually.

    If any shall choose to pass to other countries, there shall nothing prevent; for most certainly the facilities of intercourse, both by sea and land, will then be in use, and a perfection of safety shall accompany all, infallible safety, such as now cannot be expected, while Satan is permitted to wander up and down in the earth.


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    The passing stranger will need no money; no one will say, this or that is my possession; but all is the Lord's. One vast commonwealth of kindness shall then envelop the globe.

    A desire of different religious sectarians to disciple others to their peculiar doctrines, will then for ever cease; and the missionary labours to counteract the baleful effects of error and sin,' will then also be at an end; for all shall then know the Lord, and feel salvation in their heart, from the least to the greatest. But, asks the reader, does not such a view of the Millennial state present the human race in a condition too inactive relative to society, and the employments of life, the glory of which is activity, when directed to worthy ends? Let Adam, and his progeny, answer this, if they were not fallen. Was there not a work appointed for them to do? To Adam it was said, Dress the garden; and to his seed, then in a seminal state, subdue the earth. Stupidity, therefore, during the Millennium, will not be man's character, no more than if they had never fallen. With the gentle labours of the day, shall be blended the joys of holiness, and to recount with wonder the works and ways of God in his providence and grace since the world began, which will be a constant and great resource of mental and social employment.

    To look forward for the accomplishment of the things yet to take place, when the Messiah shall come with clouds and great glory, to raise the wicked dead, and to be avenged on his enemies, when themselves shall be changed in the twinkling of an eye, from a corporeal


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    to a celestial state, and be caught up into the air to be for ever with the Lord.

    The anticipation, too, that they shall be present when God shall make all things new; when in the great space, where now is situate the amazing fabric of the solar system, which was created in six natural days, but after the judgment that space shall be blank, and void, and dark again -- He shall fix in the centre of this deep the foundation of a more glorious system; a world, wherein shall dwell righteousness. And who knows but that new creation is to be the glorious residence and future heaven of the saints of this globe, and of the others? Did not the Saviour say to his disciples, I go to prepare a place for you?

    Such thoughts as these shall be the sweet employment of the saints; but are not these the thoughts and joys of the saints now? Yes -- but in a very limited sense, compared with the more enlarged and glorious views of the saints then; for doubtless there will then exist, as with Adam before he fell, a sociable and familiar acquaintance with angelic beings and spirits of glory, who will often and visibly mingle with the assemblies of the saints then on earth, telling wonders from the skies, which now it would not be lawful for them to utter.

    But shall they, in the Millennium, assemble as now to worship God f Most certainly; and in those days there will be no loiterers -- all will be fervent, and full of the spirit of praise -- there will then be no need of ministers to call to repentance, for all shall know the Lord -- nor to expound the Word, for all shall understand --


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    the watchmen shall see eye to eye; and the spirit of grace and of glory shall be upon all, for the very thing which Moses so vehemently desired, viz. that all the Lord's people were prophets, shall then be universally accomplished; for the fire of the Lord shall be upon them, to fill them with the spirit of power, to give him glory. Such joy, and much more abundant and lasting, will fall upon them than fell upon the Israelites, when they saw the nimble glances of the holy celestial fire kindling upon the sacrifice, which laid upon the altar; for when Moses and Aaron had blessed the people, the glory of the Lord appeared. And there came out a fire from before the Lord, and consumed upon the. altar the burnt offering, which, when the people saw, they shouted and full upon their faces. Levit. 9, 24. "This celestial fire was carefully preserved amongst the Israelites, till the time of Solomon, when it was renewed and continued amongst them till the Babylonish captivity." Dr. Clark.

    So, doubtless, the glory of the Supreme Being will often be seen among the saints in the Millennium, in whatever ways shall please him. Sometimes as the meek and sociable God, such as he appeared to Abraham under the oak tree zzz 18, 1. Sometimes as a pillar of fire shrouded round with thick darkness, through which his glory may be seen flashing terrible brightness, such as he appeared to the camp of Israel in the wilderness. Exod. 16, 10. At other times such as he appeared to Moses and Aaron, and the seventy elders, who saw the God of Israel; and there was under his feet, as it were, a paved work


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    of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven in its clearness. Exod. 24, 10.

    Isaiah also saw him in a vision, sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple. Abate it stood the seraphims: each one had six wings; with twain he covered his face, and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly. And one cried l« another and said, Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts, the whole earth is full of his glory. Isa. 6, 1,2, 3, 4. St. John had a view of heaven's glorious king when he in spirit saw him, having heard behind him a great voice as of a trumpet; and being turned, he saw out like unto the Son of Man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle. His head and his hairs were white lihzzz wool, as white as snow; and his eyes were as aflame of fire'; and his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace, and his voice as the sound of many waters. Rev. 1, 10, 12, 13,14, 15. St. John saw him again, after another manner, in the same vision. Behold a throne was set in heaven, and one sat on a throne. And he that sat was to look upon like a jasper and a sardine stone; and there was a rainbow round about the throne in sight like unto an emerald. Rev. 4, 2, 3.

    From what I have quoted from the sacred text, I feel justified in believing, that God having both in the old and New Testament times, suffered holy men to see his glory, both in vision and open sight, and also the literal appearance of angelic beings at various times and places, that he will roach more abundantly rejoice the


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    souls of his saints in the days of the Millennium, with sights of heaven's glory and heaven's inhabitants. The Millennium will be God's great Sabbath, when he will be with his saints, and his glory will fill this temple, the earth, so that no evil thing shall in no wise enter to stain the lovely whiteness of the garments of the saints. No doubt the songs of angels will be often heard in the surrounding heaven. Bright flashes of glory will often streak the skies -- glorious sights, such as Elisha saw on the mountains of Jerusalem, will then be often seen.

    There can be no doubt but at the present time there are myriads of spiritual beings hovering all round, to whose view we are ever exposed, both when we sleep and when we wake; but in the Millennium our eyes shall be purged from this dimness of vision, which sin has caused, when there shall exist unnumbered and unknown resources of extatic joys, of which this sinful estate cannot admit.

    A second idea of this division is, to ascertain the reason why Satan shall be loosed from his prison a little season after the thousand years of his confinement shall have passed by. That he will be loosed again after his imprisonment is evident from Rev. 20, 7, 8; where it is stated, And when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison; and shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them to battle, the number of whom is as the sand of the sea. But what can Satan have to do on the earth at that period of time, after having been banished a thousand


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    years? His business undoubtedly will be of the same nature it was before man fell, which was to tempt man to sin, and to destroy him. We are informed that God suffered the loyalty of Adam to be tested by the temptation of the devil, for the purpose of his trial, but not for his ruin; for if we say his ruin was intended, then trial on the part of man is out of the question. Because an agent, possessing mental rational ability, is always supposed possessed, of power to obey or disobey. If this is not so, then man was never an agent, only as the several elements are agents, entirely unconscious of what they are propelled to do.

    But I consider free agency the very qualification of man's rational nature, and that it is morally impossible for him to be possessed of the one without the other; therefore, if he were not rational, he could not be an accountable free agent; and if he were not a free agent, he could not be liable, and therefore could not have fallen; for he, instead of being a rational accountable man, must necessarily have been a dumb beast. Rational free agency, therefore, is that degree of being which exalts man to a capability of distinguishing between good and evil, whether before his fall or since, in a restored state, and also makes him liable. Liability, therefore, to fall, or power to stand, is man's original character, or he would have been but a mere animal.

    But since it is the way of heaven to try the fealty of all intelligent agents, both of men and angels, we may not question its propriety, but rather rejoice, that out of inert matter, God has raised up man to a consciousness


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    of rationable being, endowed with a capacity of giving testimony of consent to his government. But those who are accounted worthy to bear the insignia of saints, when the Millennium commences, having had their trial. Satan, therefore, to these can have no further temptations to offer, because they have passed the ordeal of heaven, and are for ever safe. What purpose, then, is to be effected by his being loosed a little season? This question we shall defer answering till we have examined two positions, which have not unfrequently occupied the thoughts of the wise and the learned, in reference to who those can be whom Satan will gather together, called Gog and Magog, to make war upon the saints. Some have supposed that this great army, called Gog and Magog, will be composed of devils or spirits, who are subordinate to Satan, the prince of devils, who, being released at the same time when Satan shall be loosed, will pour forth upon the earth from their place, by millions, and at once attempt an attack upon the camp of the saints. But this cannot be true, because we find Satan deceiving the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth. The thing, therefore, is plain, that they whom he will then deceive are human beings, and dwelling on the earth. No man will suppose that Satan can deceive devils. An army of devils, therefore, it cannot be who shall make this literal attack upon the camp of the saints. Neither should it be supposed, that it will consist of persons who, during the Millennium, were all that time sinners; but on the account of religion being exceeding popular in the earth at that time, choose to


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    give place to it out of policy. Whatever character such persons might assume during that glorious victory of the church, whether of moralists or of professing Christians, or of open sinners, it is perfectly equal; because if they are sinners, they are already deceived of the devil; and with no propriety whatever can it be said, that Satan shall go out into the four quarters of the earth to deceive those who are already deceived to all intents and purposes.

    The case of Eve will illustrate this point. Of her it is said, that she was deceived of the serpent; but to establish her innocence and righteousness previous to her being deceived, needs no argument. It is evident, therefore, that those who are deceived of the devil at that time are not sinners, previous to their being thus deceived. Therefore if this army of Gog and Magog is not to be composed of the saints, who were counted worthy to be called such at the time of the commencement of the Millennium, nor of devils under the conduct of Satan, their head; nor of sinners, as such, previous to the temptation being proposed, who, then, are they?

    This question I now proceed to answer. I said above, that it is the way of heaven that all free agents should have a trial, or state of probation; but this trial, the millions who shall be born during the Millennium, will not have had at that time.

    But I will here observe, that two qualifications must absolutely be accomplished respecting man, before he can possibly commence a probationer. The first is, the the terms, or law, by which he is to be tried, must be


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    made known to him. The second is, a seeming inducement must be presented, by way of temptation, to break those terms or law, so that a field of action may be presented, wherein the voluntary choice of the free intelligent agent may prove to himself and others, that he is able to distinguish between good and evil by choosing the one or the other, which is the test of fealty God requires. Hence it will follow, that if Satan had not been permitted to tempt Eve, and through Eve to tempt Adam, that they would never have been, in the direct sense, probationers, unless some other way had been permitted to try them. Adam and Eve being perfectly holy, could have no disposition to violate God's law given them; accordingly, they never would have violated it, which, as it regards them, is equivalent to there being no law at all: because, we may not suppose a knowledge of this law could raise in their minds a desire to break it. Such a thought would make God the tempter, by giving them a law. St. James says, Let no man say when he is tempted, 1 am tempted of God; for God cannot be tempted with evil, neither tempteth he any man -- either directly or remotely to sin.

    From which I conclude, that the circumstance of God's giving a law to our first parents, was not, in the remotest sense accessory to the breach of that law, of which they were finally guilty. Was it necessary, then, that there must be a devil before man could be tempted or tried, or commence his probationary state? I answer, by no means; for if the angels who kept not their first estate, were tempted or tried without a devil,


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    (for we cannot suppose the existence of any till those angels fell) then it might have been the same with Adam. Some other mode, as I have before remarked, would certainly have tried him; because I dare not suppose any latent tendency, couched in the qualification of the law, which was given him to seduce him to a breach of it. Neither dare I say there must be a devil called for, to help forward the trial of man, in order to qualify him a probationer; but there being a devil, he was permitted to be their zzztrier or tempter. But if there had been no such fallen evil being, a mode of trial in some other manner must have ensued, or man could never have manifested a voluntary choice of either good or evil; and consequently a probationary state could never have called into action that glorious power, viz. rational free agency.

    From which it is evident, that the trial of no intelligent being can commence until such time as is presented, after some sort or manner, a seeming inducement to break over the prohibition.

    If, then, the above position is true, it will follow, that our first parents were not on trial till the moment they were tempted; neither are infants on trial till such time as they arrive to know good from evil, and are tempted to do that which they know is wrong; and, for the same reasons, neither can the nations who shall be born during that thousand years, in which Satan shall oe taken away, both in identity and influence, be considered as probationers, till the time arrives when he shall be loosed a little season to tempt them, when theft trial shall properly commence, and not before.


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    We are bound to believe every infant which has been born Into life, received that blessing through Jesus Christ. Had it not been for him, there could never have existed an infant child; because, when our first parents had sinned, they on that account, and in that fact, fell from the image and favour of God, and became thereby exposed to instant damnation, which the very nature of justice required should be executed without any mixture of mercy or delay. But the reason why they were not cut off in that moment, was, because the second person in the adorable Trinity, styled in the Scriptures the WORD, had, from the foundation of the world, determined that if man should sin in the hour of his trial, He would instantly espouse man's cause, as a Redeemer, and, in the fulness of time, would assume his very nature, such as Adam was before he fell, and come into the world to be the victim of relentless yet holy justice, and thereby rescue the ruined couple, and with them seminally the whole race. On his account, therefore, their natural lives were spared, execution was stayed from eternal death of body and soul; for the very moment the crime of disobedience was consummated, justice knew where to point its vengeful arrows. For this very reason, it is written in the book of God, that Christ is a Lamb, slain from the foundation of the world. Rev. 13, 8.

    The salvation, therefore, of the natural lives of our first parents, by the prospective sacrifice of Jesus Christ, was also the true and radical cause of the natural life of every infant that is born into the world.

    When Satan tempted, the woman to sin, it is evident


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    he intended to lay his blasting hand of ruin to eternity upon the very principles which were to usher into being the whole human family, by destroying the only two in whom was deposited the sacred fire of procreative life.

    But from that contemplated dungeon of oblivion and nonentity into which the progeny of man was plunged, in the loins of Adam, the blessed Saviour redeemed us, and opened wide the gate of life in his pierced side, through which the millions of our race have rushed into being. We conclude, therefore, the position of Christ's being the radical cause of the natural life of all infants -- a truth, which none but an infidel would wish to contradict. If, then, he, by the sacrifice of himself, has become the author of natural life to all infants; and being the pure fountain of life itself, cannot, therefore, produce an unholy work. He was also the author of the being of the two first, who are said to come pure from his hand. So all his works are pure and holy.

    I have made the foregoing remarks to establish the doctrine, that infants are pure and holy through Jesus Christ, though descended of fallen parents -- which circumstance does not invalidate the idea of the relative, positive, and passive holiness of a child; because direct unholiness is constituted by the direct and voluntary act of an informed free agent against light, which is not the case of an infant; for sin is the transgression of a known law, either expressed or written on the heart. It is, therefore, said by Him who cannot err, that of such is the Kingdom of heaven. Mark 10, 13, 14, 16.


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    If children, then, at the present time are born into life, under such favourable circumstances, as to be beloved in a very tender sense by the Son of God, and are by him, and through him, pronounced fit subjects for the kingdom of heaven, even now when the world is full of sin and sinners -- even now, when they are conceived in sin and brought forth in iniquity, though not absolutely their own, but Adam's, and their parents; how much more, then, shall they be holy in the Millennium, when it cannot be said they are fallen or conceived in sin, and brought forth in iniquity, judge ye.

    But a question now arises, will those children who are born of holy parents in the Millennium, need to be converted and regenerated, as children now absolutely need when they come to know good from evil, or arrive at the line of accountability? for although infants are not sinners, yet they are fallen.

    I shall answer it by referring to the case of Adam, and shall say, if Ire had not fallen by his own act of sin, and had continued holy as he was created, and had in pursuance of the holy injunction, multiplied his species, can we suppose his offspring would have been otherwise than holy, and consequently stood in no need of a change of heart? Then it will follow, that if all the saints who are living at the time of the first resurrection, do then experience a divine change, which shall be equivalent to the state in which Adam stood in his innocency, when he had access to the tree of life; then their offspring shall be also holy, and shall need no change of heart to fit them for heavenly enjoyments,


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    which I sincerely believe will be the happy state of both the parents and their children.

    If, then, this shall be the happy lot of the generations of the Millennium, we see at once all these, who doubtless will swell in numbers to many millions, shall not have any trial or probation during that thousand years; because they will be in the same situation that Adam and Eve were in during that space of time which must have elapsed between the moment he was created and the moment he fell. But how long that time was no mortal can determine. It is not reasonable to suppose he fell immediately, for we see he performed several things before the unhappy moment arrived. The things he performed were, first, as soon as he was created, he was put into the garden to dress and to keep it. A second thing to which he was called to attend, was the law given him concerning the tree of knowledge, and the dreadful penalty if he should disobey the prohibition.

    A third business which his Creator required his observance of, was to name every living creature that moved upon the earth. And whatsoever Adam called every living creature that was the name thereof. Gen. 2, 19. This was a work which would seem to require considerable time.

    A fourth incident of his newly commenced existence was, God caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, during which time He took from his side a portion of his body, and therewith made he the woman. How much time was consumed to do all these things, we cannot tell; but I think it not unreasonable to suppose he was


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    occupied in these several particulars less time than one week. One day must have passed by before he was called to any of them, which was the seventh or Sabbath day, because we see Adam was created on the sixth day from the first, and the next being the Sabbath, we may not suppose any of those things, except the giving of the law, were attended to on that day, which would be in harmony with its sanctity.

    I consider it extremely absurd to suppose either Adam, or his wife, experienced any desire to break the holy law given unto them, respecting the tree of knowledge, as it is termed, before they were tempted to do so. Such a position would prove them already corrupt, even before a law was given, or a temptation presented to break that law; and would prove, beyond dispute, that man was originally far enough from being pure and holy. If, then, their probation did not commence till the tempter came, then they were not probationers before. The same is the case of infants now. They are not probationers until they have matured to a knowledge of good and evil, or in the estimation of God have come to the line of accountability.

    The reader will perceive I have called to view the case of Adam before he fell, and have endeavoured to establish that he was not a probationer until the temptation came, for the purpose of laying a foundation, whereby to maintain, that none of the persons born during the Millennium will be probationers, though free agents until their trial shall also come.

    That they shall not have any trial during the Millennium, is provable from the following: First -- Satan


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    who has been allowed to be the tempter of all our race, shall, at the beginning of the Millennium, be shut up. So testifies the beloved St. John, that he shall be chained and cast into the bottomless pit, and sealed, so that he cannot escape from thence. If so, then he cannot tempt the souls of men during that thousand years. -- Secondly, if all persons are holy during the Millennium, then children, as they come to years of understanding, will not be exposed to any evil examples, as they are now.

    Upon these grounds, therefore, the multitudes who shall be born during the Millennium shall not be tried, their fealty shall not be put to the test; and the reason why God will not allow their trial then, is because this is his great jubilee -- his day of release to a world which has been for six thousand years oppressed with a weight of sin; but then it shall rest. But if the trial of men's fealty the peace of that Sabbath will doubtless be disturbed, and the race of man reduced to the same deplorable predicament they now are in, which would spoil the very idea of a Millennium of rest, peace and holiness. But if all persons who come into being in the Millennium, shall be exempt from trial during that time, when, therefore, shall they be called to evince their loyalty to God, under circumstances of a seeming inducement to do otherwise?

    This point I proceed to answer. When the thousand years are expired, we are assured by St. John, the beloved disciple, Satan must be loosed for a little season; and the verse which informs us that Satan shall


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    be shut up and confined hi hell, which is called the bottomless pit, because it is eternal in its duration, also informs us that after the thousand years is fulfilled, "he must be loosed a little season." The purpose, then, for which he is loosed is, that he shall become the instrument of trial to those who have not had a trial during the Millennium. But let none dare to think that he is loosed for the express purpose that any of them shall be inevitably and necessarily seduced; for such a thought will spoil the very idea of trial or probation -- for their act of sin will be properly their own voluntary act, as was the case of Adam when he sinned; for they shall all have power to resist the tempter as Adam had, and if they will be wise, and use that power which, is free-will, they cannot be seduced by Satan when he shall make the attempt upon them, for that power is the gift of God for their defence, not for their ruin. -- But, alas! the sequel of the story is, that of these very ones he will deceive many, who are compared with the sand of the sea for numbers; and by St. John are styled Gog and Magog, who will be gathered together from the four quarters of the earth, and shall go upon the breadth of it, in order every where to destroy the saints, who are spoken of as one great family -- hence are called the camp of the saints.

    I will here attempt to show the reason why this host of persecutors are by St. John, the Revelator, called Gog and Magog.

    The ancient Jews were chosen from among the nations by the God of sacred revelation, for the purpose of committing to them that matchless oracle of truth


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    and wisdom, the Bible. This nation, it appears, were in their fulness, embodied under twelve patriarchs, and were styled the camp of Israel. The title or name of Israel arose from the circumstance of Jacob's being so named by the angel at the break of day, when he had strove with him all the night -- which name signifies to prevail. From the circumstance, therefore, of this people's being styled the camp of Israel, who were then the only visible church on earth, St. John has spoken of the saints in the Millennium under the same idea, and has styled them the camp of the saints. Now when the Jews, after their return from the Babylonish captivity, zzz which Daniel was a captive, and had enjoyed the blessings of their country many years, there came against them in those days, (B. C. 300 years) an immense army, with the intention of destroying them, root and branch, from the earth, which army is called by the prophet Ezekiel, Gog and Magog.

    There is not a doubt but St. John has borrowed the circumstance of that great armament against the Jews, as typical, not only of the papal apostacy, in defiling the Christian sanctuary, but also of that last and great apostacy at or near the end of time. And as the former was literally Gog, from the land of Magog, so the latter are titled after their very name, because of the unparalleled opposition which, by the spirit of prophecy, the latter Gog and Magog were foreseen to make against God and his saints.

    That army which came against the Jews, of whom Ezekiel the prophet has given so grand and animated account, was the great king Antiochus Epiphanes, who with an assemblage of nations, took and pillaged their


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    city and temple of their immense riches. The reason why this king was called Gog, say commentators, is because the word Gog signifies, in the Syrian language, that which is covered or hidden, and applies to the well known character of Antiochus, whom historians describe as an artful, cunning, and dissembling man. -- And Magog appears to be the country where he had the seat of his dominion, which, in other words, was called Syria, but by the Syrians Magog. See Pliny, Hist. Nat. v. ch. 23. (Clark.)

    So great and terrible was the overthrow of these nations, who came against the Jews, at the instigation of Antiochus, that the prophet Ezekiel has described their ruin before hand, as being effected by the sword, by pestilence, by great rains mingled with hail stones, and by fire and brimstone. These are his words: And it shall come to pass, at the same time when Gog shall come against the land of Israel, saith the Lord God, that my fury shall come up in my face. And I will call for a sword against him, throughout, all my mountains, saith the Lord God. And I will plead against him with pestilence, and with blood; and I will rain upon him, and upon his bands, and upon the many people that are with him, an overflowing rain, and great hailstones, fire and brimstone. Eze. 38, 18, 21, 22. Thunder and lightnings were probably meant here; such as aided in the destruction of the Egyptians in the days of Moses, when the fire ran along on the ground. Exo. 9, 23.

    The vileness, therefore, of the intentions of Antiochus, and his auxiliaries, against God's camp, the Jews,


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    is the reason why St. John has used them to prefigure that last onset of wicked men against the camp of the saints in the very end of time, and has called them after the name of the former Gog and Magog. And as in the case of Gog and Magog, who came against the Jews, who were destroyed in a great measure by the superintending agencies of supernatural beings under the direction of God -- so shall the latter Gog and Magog he destroyed by fire from out of heaven. This I believe to be the true interpretation of Gog and Magog in both cases, as set forth in Ezekiel's prophecy, and in St. John's view of the state of men after the Millennium. But in what way the devil will present his temptation to those who shall then be tried, is not revealed. *

    Here, then, commences that great and last apostacy, which, gathering head, becomes popular, and flies for acceptance upon the wings of devils through all the earth, whereby many are seduced by the destroyer. -- No doubt but infidelity, in its rankest form, shall be, received as orthodox; and the whole story of God's book, with all the accounts of the first resurrection, of which they had heard so much during the Millennium, from those who were living when it happened, will be denied; and forgetting their former feelings of peace and happiness, will scorn and deride the whole as foolishness and imposition -- which impious feelings begin to be accompanied with the strange and horrid desire of shedding the blood of the righteous.

    Such was the spirit that frowned on the fates of men, when once in the days of Lewis Capet, the French

    * See Appendix (D.)


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    king, there was formed a community of atheists, who, to the cunning of the serpent, added his venom, with the fury of tigers; and when they had destroyed those they hated for their sentiment's sake, fell with equal fury upon themselves, for Satan's house is not a house of peace.

    Such were the effects which arose from the impious fancies of a Voltaire -- out of whose cogitations came hosts of murderers, who soon opened the blood sluices of the French nation; giving to the world an awful proof, that a community of atheists would not regard the sacred rights of men. Such will be the spirit of those apostates at that day, when Satan shall be loosed a little season, a desire to exterminate the righteous from the earth, because they testify of sinners that their deeds are evil.

    The manner, therefore, that this apostate host will adopt to destroy the camp of the saints, will undoubtedly be as usual, where Satan reigns, with fire and sword. Such will be the infatuation of this great and last sedition, that they will think the lives of the saints an easy prey, and their goods for spoil and plunder.

    Let it be observed, that now the temptation being commenced, that the Millennium is passed by. Seven thousand years from the creation is consummated; and Satan, therefore, loosed for a little season, a year or two possibly, in which time they again revive the munitions of war.

    At the commencement of the Millennium, the saints had beaten swords and spears into instruments of husbandry; but how these apostates revive again the instruments


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    of death. Although they are well acquainted with what Isaiah had wrote near four thousand years before, that there should coins a time when the nations should learn war no more, yet, in perfect accordance with their infidelity about the truth of the Scriptures, attempt the sanguinary preparations, in open defiance of every better feeling, against all mercy, and the interdictions of heaven, and that, too, against the innocent saints.

    But the words of the Lord are sure words, which are that the nations should learn war no more. For while they shall be gathering together their forces, with the view of attacking the saints in all places at once (as Haman devised to destroy the Jews at Babylon) but before they shall come nigh to the camp, ere they have felt the horrid pleasure of shedding human blood, or have learned the art of war, by experience, a blast of fire from God out of heaven shall descend with devouring fury, and destroy them. See Rev. 20, 9. And they went vp on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city; and fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them.

    Thus having passed through the Twelfth Division, and having endeavoured to show the probable multiplication of mankind in the Millennium, and their great privileges and happiness, and why Satan is to be loosed a little season, and who they are that will compose the army of Gog and Magog, and why they are called so, and in what manner they will probably attempt their attack upon the saints, and of the overthrow of h1» army, we now pass to give an account of the resurrection of the wicked dead.


    [ 343 ]


    Embraces a view of the resurrection of the wicked dead after the Millennium, and endeavours a description of the phenomenon of the earth's dissolution by fire, and in what way the elements will probably act upon each other, when the great decomposition of the solar system shall be compelled to take place at the command of God.

    But, O my soul, how great the dread display,
    Of world's dissolving on that fiery day;
    Of angels flying -- and the great white throne,
    To judge the wicked dead, comes hastening down;
    And on the amazing pile of dazzling light,
    Will sit the glorious Three in holy might
    But more apparent, Christ, in human form,
    Shall in its centre rule the fiery storm;
    And from the dreadful height, like ocean's roar,
    His voice will sound, -- I live for ever more!

    Now has arrived that day and hour, of which it is said, No man knoweth, no not the angels in haven, neither the Son, but the Father. Mark 13, 32. The true meaning of which is, the Son, separate from the


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    Father, knoweth not the day nor the hour no more than any other mere man; but, in union with his Father, he knoweth both the day and the hour.

    The Saviour often said, in the days of his flesh, of myself (abstract from God as mere man) I can do nothing. This remark was intended as an argument to show the Jews, that because he could do nothing of himself, as a mere man, that therefore the works he did showed him to be one with the Father, as he said, 1 and my Father are one -- which fact he desired to impress strongly upon the mind of the Jews; and so they understood him, for they said to him, Thou being a man makest thyself God, for he said he is the Son of God.

    He, therefore, as God, the Word being one with God, the Father, knoweth all things, and needeth not that any man shall tell him what is in man. He, therefore, as God, not as mere man like one of us, knoweth both the day and the hour when the judgment day shall come; for he himself is the mighty Counsellor, the Everlasting Father, whose mystic union with the human nature surpasses the comprehension of all finite minds; but such is the fact, which challenges our faith and adoration.

    Let those who will not receive him as such, stumble on that stone, and be broken, and on whomsoever that stone shall fall shall be ground to powder, by the eternal pressure of his wrath; for it is written, Kiss the Son lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way when his wrath is kindled but a little. Psalms 2, 12.

    But who among mortal men, whose powers are frail,


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    shall be able to describe the terrible approaches of the great God, and our Saviour, to judge the world? So glorious and dreadful will be the appearance of his great white throne, and so fearful the phenomena that will begin to appear in the heavens, the earth and the sea, that all description must fall infinitely short of perfection.

    Previous to the eruption of some great volcano, whose neighbour is the sea, the earth is felt to tremble, and the ocean is heard to roar, though there be no winds to move its bosom. A fearful stillness pervades the air -- the fowls of heaven mark their flight with hesitancy, and the beasts roar for very fear -- the sun is but dimly seen through the hazy sky, and meteors glare along the frighted concave, ere yet the twilight has clad the sunny beams with night's approach.

    But now shall appear the sign of the Son of Man in heaven. Matth. 24, 30; for lo! the planets will begin to wander from their orbs, and dash one against the other; for now is lost the latent principle of the centrifugal power, which operates on all planets, and inclines them to fly off in straight lines into interminable space, which necessarily will give them a tremendous centripetal force towards the sun. That body being the centre or lowest point in the system, is therefore the centre of attraction to all the planets. Here, then, in their descent toward the sun, will be a horrible realization of the stars falling from heaven, and of the powers of the heavens being shaken; and long before they reach the sun, will dash one against


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    the other, which, indeed, will be a wreck of matter and a crush of worlds on fire.

    But now, ye saints, look up, for your redemption from earth draws nigh, when you shall feel the mighty change from terrestrial to celestial life, which, in the twinkling of an eye, shall translate you from a corporeal being to that of a heavenly and more glorious state.

    Hark! what sound is that which rolls along the amazed heavens, from Saturn's ring to where Mercury welters in the sunny beam? but scarce the sullen roar has died away, when louder still a dreadful thunder smites where hangs our earth amid the trembling air. 'Tis Gabriel's voice -- the archangel gives the alarm, when lo! as if the treasured thunders of ten thousand years were bursting from their iron vaults, and bellowing through all the works of God, the dread command, Awake, ye dead, and come to judgment.

    Oh! how unlike is this to the first resurrection of the righteous dead, whose opening eyes were greeted with the blest vision of eternal day -- whose ears were saluted with the sweet songs of angels, and whose persons were robed in radiant light, and shall shine like stars in the firmament for ever and ever.

    But these awake to all the horrors of a lost estate. Their glaring eye-balls catch the doleful view on every hand, of wretches like themselves -- their ears the appalling sound of the trump of God -- their persons naked, and exposed to shame and everlasting contempt -- all pale with horror, who fain would hide beneath some towering Alps.


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    There on a bleak and trembling space stand the whole fraternity of infidels, with Voltaire as chief -- dismay and malice mark the strong agonies of their countenance, when they see afar off the dreadful Son of God. Then will gnaw the wreathing worm of fell despair within -- then, with gnashing teeth, they'll bite their tongues for pain, and with timorous voices cry, xvith all sinners, Mountains and rocks fall on us, and hide us from the face, of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb. Rev. 6, 16.

    Now great Babylon shall come into remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath. Rev. 16, 19. Here is a strong intimation that Papal Rome had, before this period, been destroyed, which, in the verse above quoted, is called Babylon, and in other places, Mystery -- Babylon -- the Mother of Harlots, and Abominations of the Earth. But in the judgment she is brought into remembrance, as if she had been forgotten awhile, which seems to agree with our former idea advanced in the Seventh Division, that sometime during the next century, Rome will be sunk, after the example of Sodom and Gomorrah. But if there shall be no Millennium, and the judgment day is to come at the end of six thousand years from creation, or at the end of the next century, as some believe; and Rome Papal in Italy, all this while situated in the midst of the nations practising her errors, in greater or less degrees, how, then, can the language of St. John be applicable to the case» of Rome, to bring her to remembrance in particular, more than other sinners, if she had not been destroyed


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    and cast out of sight before that time, and, in a relative sense, forgotten?

    But now, when death and hell shall give up their dead, she shall be brought to remembrance, to be exposed, and her works made known to an assembled world, and her final doom pronounced, for in her was found the blood of prophets and of saints, and of all that were slain on the earth. Rev. 18, 24.

    But still the dreadful trump blows its shrill blast throughout the globe, and awakes the dead in every clime. There, from the sea of Sodom, many thousands rise from underneath the stagnant lake, who offered violence to the wayfaring angels in the days of Lot, but now are suffering the vengeance of eternal fire. Jude, 7. There, from the Red Sea of the Egyptians, come forth to hateful life Pharaoh's tawny host, whose trust was in the gods of the Nile. The Jews, at Jerusalem, and in all other countries who partake of their character, of whom the Saviour said, If ye believe not that J am He, ye shall die in your sins, (John 8,28) and, Whither I go ye cannot come -- shall rise to see Him they hated, and hung on a tree, God over all, blessed for ever more, coming in the splendour of his meek and eternal kingdom.

    Ah! what a host shall now come forth from all saint butchering countries, to feel the eternal smart inflicted by a holier inquisition from above; for God hath said, Vengeance is mine, I will repay it, saith the Lord. Rom. 12, 19.

    And the tea gave up their dead, which were in it, and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in


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    them. Rev. 20, 13. This verse should be understood, that the sea and the earth is here personified by the word death, who holds the bodies of the wicked dead under his power in the grave; and the word hell, or hades, personifies the place where are confined the souls of those wicked dead till the final judgment, which is unquestionably in the subterranean fires of the earth, the volcanos and burning mountains. This idea gathers strength from the recollection,-that it is said in Revelation 20, 14. And Death and Hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. From which it is abundantly certain, that the first death and first hell spoken of appertain to this earth, else how. can they be taken and cast into a lake of fire, which St, John says is the second death, and is that hell or lake of fire which was prepared for the devil and his angels, into which the first death and first hell, which appertain to this earth, shall be cast at the day of judgment; else how can the Revelator say, that death and hell were cast into the lake of fire, if they are not considered two separate places. The place, therefore, of departed spirits, who have died in their sins, is in the subterranean fires of this globe. There, in those flames, in the literal sense, did the soul of the rich man spoken of by St. Luke, 16, 24, lift up his eyes, being tormented.

    It is supposed by philosophers, "Boerhaave, Boyle, and various others, who devote their lives to the study of nature, that the centre of the earth contains a mass of lava in a state of perpetual fusion. This ocean of flame they call a second sun. Various observations


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    tend to support this idea. In the first place, the ray* of the sun have scarcely any power ten feet beneath the surface of the earth. Secondly; M. de Luc, on the fifth of June, 1778, descended the mines of Hartz to the depth of 1359 feet, where he found the air somewhat warmer than on the surface. But in the mines of Hungary, which are 3000 feet deep, the heat becomes very great, and almost insupportable. If the sun is not the cause of this heat, it must arise from internal fires.

    But to return to our subject. The terrors of that day proceed, for now reigns confusion and dismay throughout all the earth, except in the camp of the saints; for behold the ancient of days is coming nigh to this devoted earth, though seen only in the person of the glorious son of God. The prophet Daniel had a view of the glory and majesty of his appearing when lie shall come in the clouds of heaven, with all his mighty angels, to be admired of his saints, and to judge the dead. I beheld, said Daniel, till the thrones were cast down, i. e. he had, in the vision of God, seen the end of all earthly glory, thrones, kingdoms, honours and riches, and found they were counted as the small dust of the balance in the sight of him whose throne is now set in the top of the heavens, the splendour of which will hide the sun as a taper lost. I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like pure wool: his throne was like the flame, and his wheels as burning fire. A fiery issued and came forth from before him; thousands


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    ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him. Dan. 7, 9, 10.

    This is the great white throne which was seen in the vision of St. John, the description of which surpasses all human effort. And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it,-from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away, and there wes found no place for them. Rev. 20,*11. This is that Jesus who suffered such contradiction of sinners among the Jews, and was insulted, scourged, buffeted and spit upon in the judgment hall of Pilate, and mocked, even after he was nailed to the tormenting cross: but now is revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, in flaming fire, taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. 1 Thes. 1, 8. This is that crucified one, who was dead, but is alive for ever more; who, during many ages, has been the taunt of infidels, but now is known to be Him who holds in his hands the destinies of all beings. At this moment he gives in charge to his angels to gather his elect from the four winds of heaven. Swift as the fierce lightnings they fly at his command, who maketh his angels spirits, and his ministers a (lame of fire, to bring his sons from far, and his daughters from the ends of the earth. Sudden as the flash of nitrous grain when touched with the etherial spark, they feel the immortal change, such as Elijah felt when from the earth he sprang into Israel's fiery chariot, and soared to heaven. So these shall clap their wings of fire, and be caught up to meet the Lord in the air, and to join the spirits of


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    just men made perfect, who had ascended a thousand years before.

    But now the end of all things is come relative to the solar system only, of which it is said, the heavens shall pass away; and means, as I apprehend, the heaven of each particular planet and comet in. the system, shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements (of each) shall melt with fervent heat; the earth also, and the, works that are therein, shall be burned up. 2 Peter, 3, 10.

    I would here notice three reasons which argue in favour of the destruction of the whole system. The first is the word heavens shall pass away. See Gen. 1, 8. And God called the firmament heaven. Observe, it is in the singular; but the former is in the plural, heavens. The other argument is, the words, the earth also shall be burnt up, which seems to signify a separate destruction.

    It is very plain that there is but one firmament or heaven, which encompasses the globe. Therefore, in Gen. 1, 8, it is said, And God called the firmament heaven; but St. Peter says, the heavens shall be on fire and be dissolved. From which it is evident, that other worlds shall be dissolved as well as this.

    Another and third argument that the whole system shall fall to ruin, is, that the sun shall be darkened, which will at once introduce perfect confusion; because if the light of the sun be blotted out, what assurance have we that any of the planets can keep their course; for if that luminous body of light which surrounds the zzzpake part of the sun be destroyed, it is an argument


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    that the very nature of the sun is on the verge of ruin; and unless it is the purpose of the Creator to destroy both the sun and all the planets in the solar system, why should lie be darkened at all?

    That the sun will be darkened, we find the Saviour affirms to his disciples, when they went to him on the Mount of Olives, and asked him privately, when those tilings relative to the destruction of Jerusalem and the end of the world should be. Matth. 24. To the first part of their question, which relates to the destruction of the Jews and the temple, he answered by foretelling many things, which plainly refer to all the horrible calamities that came on that nation soon after his death and resurrection, and continued to come till the Romans finished the dreadful tragedy. See Josephus.

    But to the latter question, which was, And what shall be the sign of thy coming and of the end of the world? he answered them in. the same 24th chapter, at verses 29, 30, 31, by saying, "Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the star? shall fall from heaven, and the powers of heaven shall be shaken. And then shall appear the sign of the Son of Man in heaven: and then shall the tribes of the earth mourn; and they shall seethe Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven, with power and great glory. And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other." Which answer of the Saviour I understand refers to the destruction of the whole system at the


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    judgment day; but this interpretation, which is the one commonly affixed to this place, some commentators seriously disallow, and contend, that the whole chapter alludes to the ruin of the Jewish nation, as destroyed by the Romans under Titus. But how this can be, I cannot discern. They say, the darkening of the sun and moon signifies that the Jewish heaven was to perish, and the sun and the moon of its glory and happiness shall be darkened, and so brought to nothing. The sun, say they, is the religion of their church -- the moon is the government of the state; and the stars are the judges and doctors of both.

    But in order to demonstrate that opinion erroneous, I shall examine the Saviour's reply to his disciples. when they had asked him privately, (for he had just finished a discourse to the Jews, containing calamitous denunciations against them) a twofold question respecting the time when those denunciations against the Jews and their city should take place, also when the cud of the world should be. Tell us (said they) when shall these things be; (the destruction of the Jews) ai\d what shall be the sign of thy coming, (to judgment) and of the end of the world. Verse 3. The reason why they asked him about his coming, and the end of the world, was, because he had said to the Jews in his discourse, see chap. 23, 39, For I say unto you, ye shall not see me henceforth (i. e. after his crucifixion) till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. This, it seems, they understood to refer to the end of the world. To which the Saviour as evidently and distinctly answered both questions;


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    for it is written, And Jesus answered and said unto them, Take heed that no man deceive you, concerning his being the true Messiah; from which he proceeds to relate, item by item, what should befall them, from verse 4 to verse 28, inclusive to which I refer the reader; but at verse 29 commences the answer to the other question, which relates to the end of the world, and tells them that "Immediately after the tribulation of those days (referring to the calamities of the Jews) shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall uot give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken." But if the disciples had asked him an improper question, or even asked the question improperly, he would have corrected them; but instead of doing so, he definitely answered both questions, and therefore sanctions their correctness in this particular.

    If the distresses and tribulation which came upon the Jews as a nation, was the identical darkening of the sun and moon, and the destruction of the stars, as some have supposed, how, then, could the Saviour say, that after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, &.c. if the above tribulation was the real darkening, and their government a real heaven, intended by the Saviour? How, then, was it darkened a second time afterwards?

    A second idea, that the Saviour meant the judgment day, and the worlds contained in the great solar vortex, when he spoke of the darkening of the sun and moon, U, that lie has said in the same 29th verse, that the powers of the heavens shall be shaken at the same


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    time; but those commentators have not attached to the Jewish polity and government but one heaven, which they say was darkened when it was destroyed; but the Saviour has certainly spoken of more heavens than one, which he said should be shaken after those days of Jewish tribulation; therefore, he does not mean the Jewish government.

    That the firmament, or atmosphere, which surrounds this globe, is but one heaven, is proven Gen. 1, 8. And God called the firmament heaven. That most learned man, Dr. Clark, has, in his commentary upon that very word, heavens, contended that it relates to each heaven, or firmament, which surrounds each world of the solar system, and that in that word is really embraced the whole solar fabric. The first place where it occurs in the sacred volume, is the second chapter of Genesis, first verse. "Thus the heavens and the earth were finished." And upon this word, heavens, Mr. Clark builds his belief, that it embraces the whole system -- to which opinion it is judicious to subscribe. I will give his words upon it, contained in his comment: The heavens and the earth. As the word (heavens) is plural, we may rest assured that it means more than the atmosphere. The word heavens must, therefore, comprehend the whole solar system, as it is very likely the whole of this was created in six days: for unless the earth had been the centre of a system, the reverse of which is sufficiently demonstrated, it would be unphilosophic to suppose it was created independently of the other parts of the system. But as the design of the inspired penman was to relate what especially


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    belonged to our world and its inhabitants, therefore he passes by the rest of the planetary system, leaving it simply included in the plural word heavens."

    I therefore conclude, that the view of those commentators who affix it to the Jewish heaven, is wrong, because Christ said in the same verse, where he says the sun shall be darkened, that the powers of the heaven shall be shaken, which is the plural, as Clark contends, and cannot be the Jewish nation, which is in the singular.

    A third argument which goes to disprove that our Lord meant the Jewish government, or heaven, when he said the sun shall be darkened, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken, is, that at that time they had no government of their own, but were then under the Roman yoke.

    Sixty-six years before the time when our Lord spoke those words to his disciples, the Romans had taken away their government, and created a king of their own. Herod was his name, an Idumean by nativity, who conspired against the infant life of Jesus Christ; but he died that same year.

    This dominion the Romans continued to hold, till, being provoked by the Jewish contentions and seditions, they came under Titus, and cut them off. If, therefore, the Jews had no political heaven, as is by some supposed, our Lord, therefore, could not mean them in his answer to disciples, when they asked him of his coming, and of the end of the world.

    But here may arise a query with the reader, who may


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    wish to know how these words can refer to the judgment day; because our Lord said the sun should be darkened immediately after those days of Jewish tribulation.

    To which I reply, it should be remembered, that the tribulations of the Jews is not yet passed by; for they are a people scattered over the whole earth, and have never recovered their manner of government since the Romans put their first king over them. Taking this view of the subject, much of the seeming difficulty disappears, for the Jews will never recover their peculiar laws nor mode of government again.

    But relative to the accomplishment of both predictions contained in this chapter, first, to the destruction of Jerusalem, and second, to the end of the world, the Saviour has clearly stated in verse 34, that the generation of the Jews should not pass till all his word should be fulfilled. Verily I say unto you, this generation shall not pass till all these things be fulfilled. The meaning of which, I apprehend, is, that the very generation of Jews then living at the time of the Saviour, should not pass, i. e. should hot die till Jerusalem should be destroyed, which was realized about forty years after his crucifixion; consequently a great part of that generation lived to experience a literal fulfillment. But respecting that part of the prediction which relates to the end of the world, it may with equal propriety apply; because the generation of Jews, as a nation, will not pass, i. e. become extinct, but shall remain a people, and a distinct people, till the end of the world -- till all these things be fulfilled.


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    We see, therefore, with great propriety, the Lord could say immediately after those days of tribulation, passing over the interim of the Millennium as but a day. And then shall appear the sign of the Son of Man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn when they shall see the Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. The circumstance connected with the darkening of the sun, zzzSic. as mentioned above, viz. that all the tribes of the earth shall mourn, accords but poorly with the time of the destruction of Jerusalem; because we cannot suppose but all the nations (and they were many) in the interest of Titus; and the Roman empire rejoiced, instead of mourning, when the Jews were destroyed. Therefore, if the Saviour did not refer to that time, it follows, that he spoke in reply to his disciple's question of the end of the world, the general judgment.

    But in this place I will just remark, that the darkening of the sun in Matth. 24, 29, and the darkening of the sun in Rev. 6,12, are by no means coincident, and the reason is plain. At the time when the Saviour's prediction shall be fulfilled, it is said the Son of Man "shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect (living saints) from the four winds, (the whole earth) from one end of heaven to the other." And why shall this be done at any period previous to the end of time. But in Rev. 6, 12, it is not stated, nor even intimated, that it should be a«time of gathering the saints, but refers exclusively to the subversion of the Roman pagan empire


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    by Christianity, through Constantine as an instrument. The sun, which was then darkened, and the moon, which became as blood, and the stars, which fell from heaven, and the great earthquake mentioned, were, first, the sun, the secular government -- second, the moon, their ecclesiastical government, or idolatrous priesthood -- and third, their "gods, goddesses, demigods, and deified heroes, of the poetical and mythological heaven." -- Clark. The whole of which, when considered together, are majestically signified by the word earthquake, as a figure of that revolution. But neither St. Matthew nor St. Mark give any account of the Saviour's saying that there should be an earthquake at the time when the sun should be darkened immediately after the tribulation of the Jews. In the same chapter, however, there is mention made that there should be earthquakes, meaning, doubtless, as is meant in Rev. 6, 12, to signify commotions and revolutions of kingdoms and states, Sic.; but is exclusively connected with the signs of the coming destruction of the Jews, and not with the judgment or end of the world. The things foretold to take place at those times of darkening the sun, are totally dissimilar, and therefore allude to different periods, viz. the time of Constantine, and the judgment day.

    The latitude of the language in St. Matthew is too great and general, to be restricted to that small portion of the globe called Palestine, and evidently refers to the time when the saints are to be changed in the twinkling of an eye, at the sound of the last trump, At which time the wicked shall stand to be judged, every man


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    according to the deeds they have done in the body, from the least of them to the greatest, from the horrid infidel to the least unregenerated one among them; and their sentence shall be written on the heart, and the date thereof eternity, put in characters of unspeakable despair.

    But now the great assize is past.. At this moment the energies of nature are let loose, and all the great solar vortex breaks forth in flames of fire, for now is come the day of God, wherein the heavens (of the whole solar system) being on fire, shall be dissolved, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat. The earth also, and the works that are therein, shall be burned up. 2 Pet. 3, 12, 20.

    A philosophical description, by Dr. Clark, of the probable operation of the elements upon each other at that day, is highly interesting. See 2 Pet. 3, 10, and the comment.

    The heavens shall pass away with a great noise. -- "As the heavens in this place mean the whole atmosphere, in which all terrestrial vapours are lodged; and as water itself is composed of two gases, eighty-five parts in weight of oxygen, and fifteen of hydrogen, or two parts in volume of the latter, and one of the former: (for if these quantities be put together, and several electric sparks passed through them, a chemical union takes place, and water is the product; and, vice versa, if the galvanic spark be made to pass through water, a portion of fluid is immediately decomposed into its two constituent gases, oxygen and hydrogen) and as the electric or etherial fire is that which, in all


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    likelihood, God will use in the general conflagration, the noise occasioned by the application o<* this fire to such an immense congeries of aqueous particles as float in the atmosphere, must be terrible in tfie extreme. When, therefore, the whole strength of those opposite agents is brought together into a state of conflict, the noise, the thunderings, the innumerable explosions (till every particle of water on the earth, and in the atmosphere, is, by the action of fire, reduced into its component gaseous parts) will be frequent, loud, confounding, and terrific, beyond every comprehension but that of God himself. The elements shall melt with fervent heat. When the fire has conquered and decomposed the water, the elements, the hydrogen and oxygen airs or gases (the former of which is most highly inflammable, and the latter an eminent supporter of all combustion) will occupy distinct regions of the atmosphere -- the hydrogen, by its very great levity, ascending to the top, while the oxygen, from its superior specific gravity, will keep upon or near the surface of the earth, and thus, if different substances be once ignited, the fire which is supported in this case, not only by the oxygen, which is one of the constituents of atmospheric air, but also by a great additional quantity of oxygen obtained from the decomposition of all aqueous vapours, will rapidly seize on all other substances, on all terrestrial particles, and the whole frame of nature will necessarily be torn in pieces, and thus the earth, and its works, be burnt up."

    "It was an ancient opinion among the heathens,


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    that the earth should be burnt up with fire. So Ovid has expressed himself. Meta. lib. iv. 256.

    "Remembering in the fates a time, when fire
    Should to the battlements of heaven aspire;
    And all his blazing world above should burn,
    And all the inferior globe to cinders turn."

    Minucius Felix tells us, xxxiv. 2 Dryden, that it was a common opinion of the Stoics, that the moisture of the earth being consumed, the whole world would catch fire. The Epicureans held the same sentiment; and indeed it appears in various authors, which proves that a tradition of this kind has pretty generally prevailed in the world. But it is remarkable that none have fancied that it will be destroyed by water. The tradition, founded on the declaration of God, was against this: therefore it was not received." Dr. Clark.

    "Thunder and earthquake are the sons of fire, and we know nothing in all nature more impetuous, or more irresistibly destructive than these two; and accordingly in this last war of the elements, we may be sure they will bear their parts, and do great execution in the several regions of the earth. Earthquakes and subterraneous eruptions, will tear the body and bowels of the earth, and thunders and convulsive motions of the air, the skies. The waters of the sea will boil and struggle with streams of lava that run into them, which will make them fume, and smoke, and roar, beyond all storms and tempests, and these noises of the sea will be answered again from the land by falling


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    rocks and mountains." Sinner! this is your house, your future home -- it is the wages of your sins -- it is the palace of devils -- the repository of all that is bad -- the great cauldron of eternal death -- and is soon to be thrown from its orb into its congenial hell of fire and brimstone, prepared for the devil and his angels.

    "Here are lakes of fire, rivers of melted glowing matter, ten thousand volcanos vomiting flames all at once, thick darkness, and pillars of smoke, twisted about with wreaths of flame like fiery snakes -- mountains of earth thrown into the air, and the heavens dropping down in lumps of fire.

    "But now the storm subsides; for the fire has subdued all bodies, all combustibles, to itself; and those tall flames which pierced the skies, are fallen to an even surface, and present the earth as a molten sea of fire; for when the exterior region of the earth is melted into a liquid state, it will, according to the nature of all other fluids, fill all vacuities and depressions, and fall into a regular surface at an equal distance every where from its centre. In this condition, the earth, with all its sinners, who have persevered to the end in evil doings, shall be thrown from its orb, to where a hell of fire, in the deep recess of eternal night, hath its place" -- which is that very lake of fire into which the devil, who deceived all sinners, shall finally with them be thrown, together with the earth, at the judgment day; for thus saith the Lord, (see Rev. 20, 10.) And the devil that deceived them, was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone.

    Such shall be the end of this poor world -- the god


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    of millions -- the place where death now reigns over the body, and the hell, wherein now are confined the departed spirits of the ungodly; but these shall be cast, together with the earth, into a lake of fire; for it is written, Death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. Rev. 20, 14.

    But, reader, you may escape it -- the way is open and plain -- cease to do evil, and learn to do well -- have faith in the Son of God, working by love, and persevere in this to the end; so you shall be happy, shall be" honourable, shall be glorious, shall be immortal, shall be as the angels of God at the resurrection of the just; for such is the promise of Him who was dead; but, behold! he is alive for ever more!


    [ 366 ]


    Embraces a view of the new creation, which is to succeed the destruction of this system, in which I shall contend that a new creation shall be the result, but not a modulation of the former matter which is to be destroyed by fire, but a new creation out of nothing, as it was in the beginning.

    From the great vault, where flies in open sight,
    The solar system's worlds of borrow'd light;
    When they have pass'd away, and earth and skies,
    The new creation fair will then arise --
    To which no tempter foul, with blasting breath,
    Shall e'er come nigh to kill with pains and death;
    But there the saints shall reign immortal kings,
    Far off from time and sublunary things.

    That there shall be a new creation brought into being, after the destruction of the heavens and earth, is established by the Scriptures; for it is written, And he that sat upon the throne said, Behold I make all things new. And he said unto me, Write, for these words are true and faithful. Rev. 21, 5.

    Here the spirit evidently lays important stress upon the great and sublime work of a new creation, by saying,


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    These words are true and faithful. Therefore, they shall certainly be accomplished. This very thing was expected by the ancient Jews, as constituting much of the bliss of a future state; for thus they understood their prophet Isaiah to mean, when he says, For behold I create new heavens and a new earth; and the former shall not be remembered, nor come into mind. Isa. 65, 17. Now if the new creation is to be made out of the old one, how, then, can it with any propriety be said by Isaiah, that it shall not come into mind, when the remembrance must necessarily continue, that out of the old system's materials the new creation was made? But respecting the time when this shall be accomplished: The ancient Jews believed that God would bring into being this new creation at the end of seven thousand years. This opinion of theirs, I consider both interesting and singular, and goes to establish the sentiment, that they considered the age of this world limited to seven thousand years, which agrees with the opinions advanced in the Seventh Division.

    Some who are learned, of our own times, have strangely hesitated upon the subject of this new creation, and have considered it vastly presumptuous to venture a thought definitely upon it, or pretending to say what is meant by it, and in what it shall consist. But in order to pass clear of the charge of presumption, I shall here introduce St. John, as qualifying the nature of its consistency. And I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away, and there was no more sea. Rev. 21, 1. If the first earth and first heaven are properly so


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    designated, because they consist of the four elements, earth, fire, air and water, then we have a clue whereby to find out of what the new heaven and new earth shall consist. We see that God, hi the beginning, called the dry land earth. Gen. 1, 10; and that he called the firmament heaven. Gen. 1, 8. Therefore, these being thus named in the first instance, it is hence perfectly reasonable to believe, that the new heaven and new earth, in the second instance, shall consist of like materials with this -- otherwise we understand nothing by the communication by St. John. But undoubtedly the beauty and glory of the new creation, will greatly exceed that part of the present system in which we live; for this, by the great deluge, and many other convulsions in nature, has become defaced, and changed from what it was at first. The reason why this eartli is to be destroyed, is, unquestionably because it is polluted; and God, to signify to man his exceeding hatred to sin, has determined to destroy it by fire. A signification something like this, though effected by the agency of a different element, is apparent in the ruin it once sustained by the deluge; for God could as easily have destroyed these antedeluvian nations in any other way as by a general flood. But why the other globes of the system are to be removed, is doubtless to give place to the new creation. Their number, it seems, besides the comets, is 30; but the number of comets, perhaps, is as yet unknown. 450 have been discovered, and the elements of 103 have been calculated; but whether the comets properly belong to the solar system, zzzarc a system of themselves, or whether they connect


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    systems, is perhaps a question. But if they do not belong to this system, then they were not created at the same time with this; and therefore will not be involved in the consequences of the judgment day.

    There is good reason to believe, that all the planets, with all their satellites, all comets and systems, together with their respective suns, be their numbers greater or smaller, are inhabited by intelligent beings. It is improbable that either the sun to this, or the suns to other systems, or even the comets, are fire, as has been supposed. On the nature of the sun there have been various conjectures. It was long thought that he was a vast globe of fire, 1,384,462 times larger than the earth, and that he was continually emitting from his body innumerable millions of fiery particles, which, being extremely divided, answered the purpose of light and heat, without occasioning any ignition, or burning except when collected in the focus of a convex lens, or burning glass. Against this opinion, however, many serious and weighty objections have been made; and it has been so pressed will) difficulties, that philosophers have been obliged to look for a theory less repugnant to nature and probability. Dr. Herschel's discoveries by means of his immensely magnifying telescopes, have, by the general consent of philosophers, added a new habitable world to our system, which is the sun. Without stopping to enter into a detail of the propriety of the position, it is sufficient to say, that these discoveries tend to prove, that what we call the sun is only the atmosphere of that globe, and that this atmosphere consists of various elastic fluids, that are more or less


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    lucid and transparent; that as the clouds belonging to our earth are probably decompositions of some of the elastic fluids belonging to the atmosphere itself, so we may suppose that in the vast atmosphere of the sun, similar decompositions may take place -- but with this difference, that the decomposition of the elastic fluids of the sun are of a phosphoric nature, and are attended by lucid appearances, by giving out light. The real opake body of the sun he considers as hidden generally from us, by means of this luminous atmosphere; but what are called the maculae, or spots on the sun, and have frequently been seen with the naked eye, are real openings in this atmosphere, through which the opake body of the sun becomes visible -- that this atmosphere itself is not fiery or hot, but is the instrument which God designed to act on the caloric or latent heat, and that heat is only produced by the solar light acting upon and combining with the caloric, or matter of pure virgin fire, contained in the air, and other substances which are heated by it.

    "Where the stars are in great abundance, Dr. Herschel supposes they form primaries and secondaries, i. e. suns revolving about suns, as planets revolve about the sun in our system. He considers that this must be the case in what is called the milky way -- the stars being there in prodigious numbers. Of this he gives the following proof: On August 22, 1792, he found that in 41 minutes of time, not less than 258,000 stars had passed through the field of view in his telescope." -- Clark on Gen. 1, 16.

    Oh! what a view is this of the great God, who has treated countless systems of matter, and are all the


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    abodes of intelligent beings, whose numbers swell beyond the reach of all finite computation. Well might the Evangelist say, And I heard, as it wen; the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia, for the Lord God omnipotent reigntth. Rev. 19, 6. This earth, I have endeavoured to prove, shall be cast into the great lake of fire at the judgment day; but what shall become of the other globes of the system, after having been dissolved by fire, we cannot tell. It is the opinion of Dr. Clark, that at the judgment day they will be decomposed, but not destroyed; consequently, he thinks they may enter again into the composition of a new system. See comment on 2 Pet. 3,11.

    The globes of this system may indeed (except the earth) be arranged, and newly modified into another system, and be placed somewhere in the field of interminable space, which now is void; but the space which they now occupy must be the site of a new creation.

    Annihilation is abhorrent to the views of many relative to matter, who contend that it is altogether indestructible; from which the conclusion is drawn, that the earth, and all the other globes, shall only be refined by fire, and shall then be renewed again, and thus they make out the now creation. But to me, this opinion appears opposed to the very idea of a new creation, by substituting in its place a renovation, or a new modulation, which cannot, with the proper and original sense of the word, be made to agree.

    If we believe that God at first created the worlds out of nothing, then we may not suppose the pre-existence of any particles of matter, out of which he might have


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    formed them. This is what we understand by creation, when we apply it to the making of the worlds in the first instance; and therefore, by the strictest rules of reasoning, ought to adopt the same sentiment in reference to the new creation.

    I know of no data whereon to build the supposition, that God cannot, or that he will not annihilate matter, if he please. The fact that he can bring entity out of nonentity, is sufficient proof that he can, if he please, annihilate the same; for it is equally above our reason to have any conceptions of a power sufficient to make something out of nothing, as it is to conceive how something can be changed to nothing. If the globes of the system, except the earth, are not to be annihilated, it follows that they must be removed to some place in the great field of interminable space, where God has not yet built a system of worlds, to make room for the promised new creation; for it is reasonable to suppose, the same space which now embraces the location of this system, shall also embrace the new creation; because if the first is to be removed, that a second may arise, it strongly implies that the latter shall occupy the place of the former. This new creation, which is prophesied of by the evangelist, (see Rev. xxi. 1,) "And I saw a new HEAVEN and a new EARTH, for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away, and there was NO MORE SEA," is not to take place till after the great and last judgment, when and where, a general and particular exhibition of the conduct of both the righteous and the wicked, will take place. We ascertain that this very earth, and this very heaven or atmosphere which now surrounds the globe, are to pass


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    way, by the evangelist's remarkably qualifying words, "AND THERE WAS NO MORE SEA." And farther, we learn from the following words, in the 15th verse of the same chapter, And he that sat upon the throne said, Behold, I make all things new, that not only the earth, its heaven and the seas, are to pass away, but also the whole solar system, which is the family of the sun. For one earth, and its waters, or sea, is not sufficient in numbers, being expressed in the singular only, to answer the full import of these remarkable words, 'ALL THINGS,' which allude, therefore to more than one earth and its sea; for the water of the whole earth may very properly be resolved into one idea, A SEA.

    The reason, then, why God has said, by St. John, Behold, I make all things new, is, because all things which are referred to in that prophecy, are to be destroyed, and extend to no more nor less, than simply the solar system. It cannot be reasonably doubted, but that the whole system of planets was made, during the same six days in which the earth on which we dwell, was in progress. And although it is stated in Gen. i. 1, "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth; and also in Exod. xx. 11, "For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth;" which relates to but one; yet in (sen. ii. 1, it is stated, "Thus the heavens," &c. (which being in the plural, signifies many, and relates to the several atmospheres which surround the planets of the solar system,) "and the earth were finished, and all the hosts of them:" i. e. were finished within the six days' work recorded in Genesis, by Moses.


    374                                     EXPECTED CHRISTIAN MILLENNIUM.                                    

    The words 'HOSTS OF THEM,' not only relate to numbers of worlds made in six days, and to their respective heavens, but also, doubtless, to their inhabitants. That the Creator, Jesus, has made more worlds than one, is clearly stated, (see Heb. i. 2,) there the majesty of God in Christ is spoken of by the apostle, who says, "by whom also he made the WORLDS." And again, Heb. iii. 11, "We understand the WORLDS were framed by the word of God" which word is Christ; consequently, having made more worlds than one, they are, doubtless, also inhabited; and to these no doubt, the words "HOSTS OF THEM" allude, and comprehend both the brute and the rational.

    Although it is said in Rev. xxi. 5, "Behold, I make all things new," because, as before remarked, all things are to be destroyed, yet we do net infer from the words 'ALL THINGS,' that any more is to be destroyed at the time of the general conflagration, than was made during the six day's creation spoken of in Genesis; and even from this, intelligences must be except- ed. If we subscribe to the idea, that all things whatever, and wherever, are absolutely to be destroyed, on account of the words, "Behold, I make all things new," (which truly do signify a destruction,) then it must follow, that even the angels of heaven, the souls of men, with all the vast variety of intelligencies who people the Universe of God, are finally to become extinct. But such an inference cannot be true, because all intelligencies are necessarily immortal; for God is the father of all spirits that are rational, but in a different sense from what he is the author of mere matter


                                        EXPECTED CHRISTIAN MILLENNIUM.                                     375

    because the former possesses, in certain degrees,' a portion of his likeness, in the fact of intelligence, and therefore cannot cease to be; but the latter is a mere unreflecting exhibition of his power, and coincident convenience of the former, and embraces with it also, all degrees of brute animation, and therefore may cease to be. If then we may except angels, the spirits of men, with every other degree of rational intelligence, from what is embraced in the words "ALL THINGS," then it will follow, that we may also restrict them from comprehending any thing, but those things of brute and inert matter, which were created in the six days, comprehended only in the solar system.

    But some have doubted whether angels were created prior to the time of the creation of this system; but to me it appears that they must have existed before, else how could there have been those who by Job are styled the sons of God, who, when the work of the six days' creation was finished, shouted for joy? See Job xxxviii. 7; "When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy." -- This undoubtedly alludes to angelic beings, who existed long before the time of this creation. Doct. Clark remarks, in his notes on that verse in Job, that those morning stars, or sons of God, "must refer to some intelligent beings, who existed before the creation of the visible heavens and earth."

    If, then, there were angelic beings before the time of the creation of this system, of a spiritual order, why not also of a material order, such as suns, and their respective systems revolving about them, and adapted


    376                                     EXPECTED CHRISTIAN MILLENNIUM.                                    

    To the support of those who might have been placed upon them, however different their natures, or modes of existence, might have been from ours.

    To me it appears unreasonable to suppose, that there was nothing of either spirit or matter created from ages everlasting, or from ages without beginning, till about six thousand years ago, or a little short of that. The very fact of God's creating this system, argues the reasonableness of the position; for if at one time it was proper to do so, why not at another? If at one period in the flow of endless ages, it was consistent. to create, as in the case of this, a tremendous exhibition of his multifarious power, through which, in the view of intelligences, he is glorified, why not at another?

    Indeed, there appears to be a sort of necessity, that a lower order of things, that is, the material, should be created for a theatre of action, whereon the higher order, that is, the intelligent, might be occupied in their several grades of probationary endurance. For it appears that the angels of heaven and hell had once a state of probation, as well as the race of man at the present time. See St. Jude 6 v. "And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation;" consequently, they who kept their first estate, and they who kept it not, had both a time of probation, and were all created holy at first as was Adam. If then, there were intelligent existences before the time of this creation, and these intelligences were also probationers for a time, who can gainsay the idea of the propriety of the existence of a lower order of things


                                        EXPECTED CHRISTIAN MILLENNIUM.                                     377

    even, before the creation of the solar system, for the same purpose. We have no account in the book of Genesis, where we find the history of the order of creation, as it relates to the solar system, that there was more than one Sun, or one great and general source of light created. See Gen. i. 16, "And God made two great lights, the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night;" by which is understood the sun and moon. The rays of the sun do not extend to all the works of God, because the eye of astronomy, as well as of philosophy, and even our natural eyes, take cognizance of miriads of suns that shine to their respective systems, whose distances from where our sun is situated, is so great, that his rays can never reach them, nor were ever designed to do so. But we discover them by their own light, which always have a twinkling appearance, but the planets which revolve about them are not discoverable even with glasses, the distance is too great. Now, as the book of God gives no account of the creation of but one sun, which was "to rule the day," it follows, of necessity, that at that time there was but one created, which was to be the center of "ALL THINGS" in this system, and is the very things which are to be destroyed at the judgment day, so that the word of God may go into effect. BEHOLD I MAKE ALL THINGS NEW. If, then, we have no authority to believe, that there was more than one sun made when the solar system was created, and seeing there are other suns, innumerable, the quere arises, when were they made? before the time of this creation, or since?


    378                                     EXPECTED CHRISTIAN MILLENNIUM.                                    

    PROBABILITY, in several particulars, would determine they were created before. First, we have proven from scripture, Job xxxviii. 7, that there were angelic beings in existence, at the time when this system was created, who had been probationers before that time, and have predicated upon that idea, that there must have been, or might have been, therefore, a lower order of things, namely: globes of matter, whether constituted as this is or not, is not material. But before we pass farther in the argument, it may be remarked, that the proof of the angels probationary state having been past before the time of this creation, is, that as soon as the work was finished, and man had received his help mate, and the divine law of prohibition respecting the forbidden tree, that there was found a devil to tempt our fore parents. His subtlety and management in the seduction of the sinless pair, plainly argue him to be one of those fallen intelligencies who had his probation before the creation of this world. Now, if the angels who kept not their first estate, and the devil, who was one of them who tempted Eve, was created at the same time when this earth was created, it will follow, that they enjoyed their first estate but a very short time at most, which to me appears not to agree with the fitness of things belonging to this subject. For if the angels were all created at the time this system was made, then it will follow, that Satan, with zzzaH the companions of his fall, shouted praises to God on account of the greatness of the work; for it is said by Job, that "all the sons of God shouted for And immediately thereafter, we find him attempting


                                        EXPECTED CHRISTIAN MILLENNIUM.                                     379

    to destroy the works of God in his seduction of the only two of the human kind. On account therefore of the shortness of the time between his creation, and the time he is found the enemy of God, and his works, is it not probable, that his probation must have transpired before the time of the creation of this system.

    But to return to the argument respecting the probability of there being a lower order of things created, before this was, to which we belong; we will say in addition to what has already been advanced, that in all ages of time there is no astronomical record, that the heavenly bodies which are situated beyond the great circle of the solar system, have at all altered in their positions, but have remained invariably the same; which is an additional reason why we ought to believe them created before the time at which this world and its heaven, together with all the planets and their satellites which belong to the solar system and their heavens, were created.

    And as a sufficient reason that all the planets which revolve around the sun were created at the same time with this earth, it may be noticed, that if they were not, that consequently, they must have together with their inhabitants, wandered in total darkness, from the time of their creation till the sun, which now enlightens them was created, for they have no light in themselves. For it is a fact, that no part of the solar system, receives either light or other influence from other suns, situated beyond the great circle of the solar concave. Therefore, to suppose the planets were created at any other time, whether before or since the


    380                                     EXPECTED CHRISTIAN MILLENNIUM.                                    

    time the sun which now shines to enlighten them was created, is a glaring incongruity. Because if they were created before, then they had zzzruandered in darkness, and without a center of general gravitation to revolve about, which is the sun; and consequently had existed to no good purpose, the same incongruity follows, if we imagine them created since that time; for then the sun must have shone in vain in every point of compass except toward this little earth till they were created. But that the planets were made within the six days of creation, we prove by Gen. i. 16, l), "He made the stars also," (which are the planets,) "And God set them in the firmament of the heavens," (which means the great solar heaven where all the planets roll,) to give light upon the earth and to give light to each other, and to receive light from the earth as well as from the rest in time of night.

    If, then, we have succeeded at all in the foregoing positions and arguments, that at the time of the creation of the sun that enlightens this system, there was no others made which have any connection with this; then I conclude it a fair result, to say that at the judgment day no others are to suffer a dissolution, and therefore, that the words, "Behold I make all things new," relate to no more than was made during the six days of creation, which must be destroyed as stated in the scriptures. See 2d Peter, iii. 12, at which time the sun itself must be dissolved. See Math. xxiv. 29, and my remarks on pages 352 to 359, inclusive.

    Now after the removal of all which now occupies the vast concave of the solar system, a new order or a


                                        EXPECTED CHRISTIAN MILLENNIUM.                                     381

    new constitution of things shall arise, which, as stated before, cannot take place till after the judgment day, and is spoken of as the new creation. See Rev. xxi. 5, "And he that sat upon the throne said; Behold I make all things new."

    That the heavens and the earth are to be destroyed by fire at a certain time, which is called the day of judgment, we prove from 2d St. Peter iii. 7, 10, 11, zzz" But the heavens, (which is the plural) and the earth, which are now by the same word kept in store, (that is since the deluge till that time) reserved unto zzzfirt against the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men. "But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens, (which is the plural) shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat; the earth also, (as well as the elements, or the several heavens which surround the several globes of the system) and the works that are therein, shall be burned up. 12, Looking for and hasting unto the coming of the day of God, wherein the heavens, (which is in the plural) being on fire shall be dissolved, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat. 13, Nevertheless (says the Apostle) we, according to his promise (which promise is found in Isaiah lxv. 17,) look for new heavens, (which is in the plural), and a new earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness," Which precisely agrees with the expression of St. John, "Behold I make all things new."

    If at first, when the great deep of total darkness, which reigned through all that space which is now circumscribed by the revolutions of the planet Herschel,


    382                                     EXPECTED CHRISTIAN MILLENNIUM.                                    

    which is farther from the sun than any other planet yet discovered, and describes a circle, or orb, round him, which is eleven thousand three hundred and thirty three millions of miles.

    Now, if the planet Herschel, were to move only at the rate of five hundred miles an hour, it would take it two thousand five hundred and eighty five years eight months and thirteen hours, to pass once around the sun. We repeat it. If at first this amazing concave, in which is now situated the solar system, was void, so it shall be again after the judgment day; for all the globes with their respective elements, or heavens, which float in this space, must pass away by the operation of fire, with a great noise.

    If, then, at first, when God began the creation of this vast system, the heavenly intelligencies, called morning stars and sons of Rod. were permitted to attend him, and to admire with shouts of joy its tremendous consummation; so then, also, doubtless, will not only the angelic hosts who have kept their first estate be again permitted to witness this new creation, but also the whole glorified company, who shall have been redeemed from the earth. But it is not probable, that this new creation will consist of precisely the same minutia of things that it does now; for if it does, then an Adam, and an Eve, with all their race as it is now; and also just as many planets in the system, of the same magnitudes and qualifications, which would be but a repetition of works, instead of a new order of things, or a new creation.

    The words, "Behold I make all things new."


                                        EXPECTED CHRISTIAN MILLENNIUM.                                     383

    should be understood, doubtless, to signify, that God will make a new order of things which will consist of earth, as a general foundation, for we must not forget that the evangelist has said, relative to this new creation, "And I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for line first heaven and ihe first earth were passed away;" which plainly qualify its originality of matter, or foundation, to be of earth. But because it shall consist of earth, it does not follow that it must necessarily bring forth the same products that this does now; for God can order the glory of its surface, and productions according to his will; and as the constitutions, and modes of existence, with which its inhabitants may be endued, shall require.

    From the manner in which the Revelator has spoken of the new creation, we may infer, that but one heaven and one earth shall compose it, "And I saw a new heaven and a new earth," (which is the singular.) But when we find St. Math. xxiv. 29; St. Mark xiii. 25; St. Luke xxi. 25, and 2d St. Peter iii. 10, speaking of the destruction of the worlds at the judgment day, that they speak of them in the plural numbers unanimously. Wherefore, it may be supposed, that but one earth, and but one heaven to encompass it, shall compose the new creation, which will be an immense globe, filling the whole space which is now encircled by the orb of the planet Herschel, and on account of its vastness, and the still more immense heaven or atmosphere that will encompass it, is doubtless the reason why the Lord, by the prophet Isaiah, Chap. Ixv. 17, has said. "For behold I create new heavens and


    384                                     EXPECTED CHRISTIAN MILLENNIUM.                                    

    a new earth," from which (2d) St. Peter (iii. 13,) took occasion to remark, as follows "Nevertheless, we according to his promise, look for new heavens and a new earth." But the reason, as above remarked, why the word heavens instead of heaven is used by the prophet, and the apostle, is probably because they foresaw that it would be more spacious and enlarged, than what is now required to surround all the planets of the system put together, and have accordingly contemplated it, as being encompassed by its heavens, opposite its different sides.

    This is apparently the only way in which we are able to reconcile Isaiah and St. Peter's seeming discrepancy with the revelator, respecting the words, heaven, and heavens; for while the former spoke respecting the new creation, they mention heavens as belonging to it; but the latter, "1 saw a new heaven," (which is but one) and a new earth. Here, then, is a globe of sufficient immensity, to contain all the glorified beings after the judgment day, that have, or may hereafter commence their being, whether on this earth, or on any of the globes of the solar system, for it may be that even the inhabitants of the planets at that time, may also, if holy, pass from their present mode of being to some other.

    But it may be enquired, if this new creation is to fill up the whole space which is now occupied by the sun, and the planets, from whence is it to receive light? Since as before stated, the suns of other systems cannot afford it any, on account of their distances. We will let Philosophy, answer this question. How


                                        EXPECTED CHRISTIAN MILLENNIUM.                                     385

    do we suppose the inhabitants of the sun are enlightened? Doubtless, in no other way but by a reflection ot its own rays, shining towards its own opaque surface, as well as from that direction to the planets. That it is an inhabited globe is now the universal opinion of philosophers. See page 369, of the 14th division of this work, where I have inserted some remarks from Dr. Clark, taken from his comment on Genesis 1st on that subject. And this new heaven, which shall surround the new earth, may possess the same qualifications to enlighten itself, and consequently there can be no night there. But without resorting to philosophy, to know how it is to be enlightened. St. John states, (Rev. xxi, 23,) that "the city had no need of the tun, neither of the moon, to shine in it; for the GLORY of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light, thereof." Such light as is now emitted from the natural sun, will fall infinitely short of the splendor which he who made the sun shall give to that city, and new heaven and earth which is to be created for the saints. "The nations of them which are SAVED, shall walk in the light of it. And so glorious will this new principality, this immensity of mansions, this glorious city of the new Jerusalem, this final and eternal rest of the saints, appear that a new splendor shall be lighted up upon the face of the great deep, vastly exceeding that which enlightens it now, but not discernable by any except such as have in them the seal of the living God, which is holiness, "without which none shall see the Lord nor the glory of his power."


    386                                     EXPECTED CHRISTIAN MILLENNIUM.                                    

    It may be, that this new heaven, and earth, is what the Saviour referred to when he said, (See John xiv. 2, 3, "I go to prepare a place for you. And if I go find prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you unto myself; that where I am, there ye may be also. Some are of opinion, that this city described by St. John, Rev. xxi. 16, will be fifteen hundred miles square, being equal in height, width, and length, because twelve thousand furlongs are equal to fifteen hundred miles, and the statement respecting its dimentions, is, that it shall be four square; the length, the breadth, and the height of it are equal, to be composed of gold and a variety of diamonds and its streets of pure gold, as it were transparent glass. Is not this the place described by the revelator. See chap. xxi. from the 9th to the 21st verse inclusive, to which the reader is referred. From the scripture to which we have just referred, the account of the revelator proceeds, till in the 22d chapter, at the 3d and 4th verses, he states that his servants should serve him, and that they shall SEE His FACE. From which we ascertain, that the whole account must allude to the eternal state, and cannot belong to no period of the church on the earth, for it is said they shall SEE His FACE; which cannot be enjoyed short of the great change to take place at the sound of the last trump, when the saints shall see him as he is, (1st John, iii. 2,) and not before. It is not probable, even if Adam had not departed from hjs original perfection, such as it was before he sinned, and had, agreeable to the injunction of heaven, multiplied his likeness on the earth and even these.


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    the moral likeness of their father, that they could have seen the face of God, short of the change designed for them to pass through, which would have been a translation to a higher and more spiritual mode of being.

    That man, in no state of corporal being, whether fallen or not, can see the face of God and live, is supported by the following scriptures. When Moses requested to see God he replied, "Thou cannot see my face, for there shall no man see me and live, Exod. xxxiii. 20. And St. Paul, 1st Timothy vi. 16, speaking of God, says, "Who only hath immortality dwelling in light which no man can approach unto, whom no man hath seen nor can see:" Also, 1st John iv. 12, "No man hath seen God at any time," consequently, even Adam is here excluded in his sinless state, from being capacitated so as to see the face of God in a corporal or unspiritualized mode of being.

    No: not even in the days of the Millennium can it be expected, that men, though as holy as Adam before he fell, shall be privileged with a sight of the invisible God.

    Wherefore, it is concluded, from the above scriptures, which speak of the impossibility of mans seeing the face of God as he is, unless he condescend to put on the form of an angel or of a man as he has sometimes done; that the whole account of the new creation, the new Jerusalem, the city of fifteen hundred miles square, and equally high; and of its inhabitants, who there shall see the face of God, wholly belongs to a mode of being, beyond that of time and sense


    388                                     EXPECTED CHRISTIAN MILLENNIUM.                                    

    Though the special enjoyment of God, is in the soul, filling it with unspeakable raptures, which every one knows, who have tasted the powers of the world to come, in the facts of regeneration and sanctification; yet it does not appear at all unreasonable to suppose, that in addition to this enjoyment, God will institute or create an order of things beyond this life, through which he will still, in the view of spiritual beings continue to be glorified, as well as now. Hence the prophets have described the luminous appearances of the hosts of heaven; hence the Evangelist has spoken of the place of their abode, the new Jerusalem, as exceedingly resplendent, "Having the glory of God; and her light was like unto a stone most precious, even like a jasper stone, clear as chrystal.

    If then the saints are to be refulgent in their appearances, shining like the stars of the firmament forever and ever; if the new Jerusalem, so great and so high, the palace of the new creation, is to be resplendent to look upon; if God, who is the author of all this, and is doubtless ten thousand times more glorious, who shall be with them, and lead them and feed them; then with what propriety, it is said, a weight of glory is the inheritance of the saints. How wonderful a state of things is this. Here will be found those pleasures which are laid up at God's right hand, for those who love him, and shall love him to the end. -- This is the place referred to when the Revelator exclaimed, "And I heard a great voice out of heaven, saying, behold the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people,


                                        EXPECTED CHRISTIAN MILLENNIUM.                                     389

    and God HIMSELF shall be with them, arid be their God." "And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes, and there shall be no more death neither shall there be any more pain;" for the former things (which related to this system,) are passed away, Rev. xxi. 3, 4; and a more permanent state of never ending- bliss will succeed it. Here in the fadeless splendor of the mansions of the new Jerusalem, was the revelator invited by an angel to come and see, who said, "Come hither, zzzO will show thee the bride, the Lamb's wife," "And he carried me away in the spirit, and showed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God."

    Here in this city will be situated the bride, the Lamb's wife, who will make herself ready, and passing through much tribulation, will rest forever there. And being the children of the resurrection they are to be equal with the angels of God, which is the statement of him who is the resurrection and the life. See Luke xx, 36; if so, then indeed those abodes of the righteous shall be very glorious. It is said they shall have bodies like the glorified body of our Lord; and it may be that at the time of his transfiguration on the mount, was an exhibition of that body as it is now in glory. (See Mark ix. 3.) And his raiment became shining, exceeding white as snow; so as no fuller on earth can white them-. -- Again the appearance of angels at the tomb of the risen Saviour, is an exhibition of the glory of the heavenly hosts, (Luke xxiv. 4,) two men stood by them in shining garments. Also, the angel who rolled away


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    the stone from the tomb where they had laid the body of our Lord, was glorious to look upon. His countenance was like lightning, and his raiment as white as snow, Math, xxviii. 3.

    If, then, the saints are to be equal with the angels of God, will they not also, be like them in appearance. Of this fact, prophesied Daniel, who foresaw the glory of the saints, says, "And they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness, as the stars, for ever and ever. Dan. xii. 3.

    The period of the general judgment according to scripture, may be expected to take place not far from eleven hundred and seventy six years from the present, reckoning as follows, from the 1827, till the year of our Lord, 2000, will be 173 years, when the millennium will commence; at which time will be the resurrection of all the "dead in Christ" from whence a thousand years must elapse, which is the term of the millennium, immediately after, Satan is to be loosed, but is to continue "a little season only," suppose three years, when this is accomplished, the last trump shall sound, when all the living saints on earth will be changed in the twinkling of an eye, and be caught up to God, when the wicked dead will rise, and the judgment set; instantly thereafter, the whole solar system will burst into flames of fire and pass a way with a great noise, when the new creation will doubtless immediately succeed, and the righteous enter there, to reign. with Christ, and to enjoy an eternal weight of glory. And as descriptive of the ceaseless


                                        EXPECTED CHRISTIAN MILLENNIUM.                                     391

    flowing and perpetuity of their happiness, the Revelator, says, that the angel, who had showed him the great city, the holy new Jerusalem, (chap xxi. verse 10. 11.) also showed him a river, (chap. xxii. l,) proceeding from the throne of God and the Lamb, clear as crystal. We find Ezekiel, chap, xlvii, has also described a river proceeding from underneath the threshold of the temple, and on its banks we observe,(verse 7,) there were very many trees on the one side, and on the other; which trees doubtless, signify the Patriarchs, Prophets, Apostles and Preachers of the Gospel. But the difference in those rivers, is, the first belongs to time, and the militant state of the church, but the latter, to glory, and the triumphant state of the church. This latter river proceeding from such a fountain can never cease to flow; it will therefore pour its redundant floods, through all the new creation, without end. God and the Lamb, will never suffer any evil to approach those blessed mansions -- will never suffer trial or temptation, again to prove the fealty of his bride. Having received sufficient proof of her affections while she was in her probationary state in the days of mortality, will establish her there in a ceaseless and infallible state of perfection. Round about the throne which the Evangelist saw,(See chap. iv. 3.) there was a glorious rainbow, the token of eternal peace and blessedness towards the saints, "And he that sat upon it, was to look upon, like a jasper and a Sardine stone;” a beautiful mixture of sea green, with blood red. "And before the throne there was a sea of glass like unto crystal" (Rev. iv. 6 -- also, xv. 2, "And I saw a sea of glass as it were


    392                                     EXPECTED CHRISTIAN MILLENNIUM.                                    

    mingled with fire, and they that had gotten the victory, having the harps of God" called golden harps in other places. This sea, or ocean of glass clear as crystal may signify the whole universe of God's works, suspended in the open regions of interminable space.

    Here in the new creation, from all its parts, from the tall spires and battlements of the new Jerusalem, the triumphal palace of endless rest -- the golden city with gates, and walls, and streets, of precious stones; and from the sea of glass, did the evangelist John, in his vision on Patmos, hear those shoutings and loud Hallelujahs, which he has compared to roaring seas and to mighty thunderings, saying with loud acclamations, and the voice of triumph, singing the song of Moses and the Lamb, "Great and marvelous are thy works Lord God Almighty, just and true are thy ways thou king of saints."

    Then when that glorious frame shall into being rise
    Adorn'd with more than fill'd earth's ancient Paradise;
    Then in those world's of love, O! let my spirit rest,
    Among the righteous there -- among the blest.

    For this who would not strive, in works of faith and love,
    To reign with these in heaven and shout with these above;
    And as the stars forever, shine in glory there,
    To see the face of God, and his image bear.



    [ 393 ]

    A P P E N D I X.


    ( A. )

    [Referred from page 251.]

    It was an ancient opinion among Christian theologians, that at the time of the first resurrection, there shall none arise from the dead, but such as had actually suffered a violent death as witnesses for the gospel of Christ, and is called the resurrection of the martyrs.

    This opinion is founded on Rev. xx. 4; "And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them; and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years."

    But it appears from examination, that this verse does not justify the opinion, because every description of saints are as clearly spoken of, as those who suffer a violent death on account of the true religion. We will review the verse according to its own order. First, And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them. Here in the first clause of the verse, is an account of the final glorification of all saints, both before, and after, the Christian dispensation was made known., The thrones upon which the evangelist saw them sitting, signifies the excess of glory and happiness to which the saints shall be exalted in heaven, and is also expressive of their final victory over all their enemies, death, sin, and the devil. This is implied in the following words: and judgment was given unto them; i. e. judgment was given in their favour, but against their enemies. After this first general remark, which relates to all saints, the Revelator proceeds to particularize them according to the several characters or parts which they had sustained, while probationers in a state of suffering. Second, And I saw the souls of them that had been beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God. The word "beheaded," should be understood as expressive, or as


    394                                                             APPENDIX.                                                            

    implying all kinds, of violent deaths which the martyrs suffered, because no other kind of suffering is here spoken of. In this part of the verse, all are included who had suffered, either as witnesses for Jesus, after his advent, or for the word of God, if/ore his incarnation; for many, from the martyrdom of Abel, the son of Adam, till the time of Christ, had suffered death for the word of God. The Revelator is very clear in stating, that he saw the souls of such as had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands, seated upon thrones; consequently, such saints as had lived before the time of the beast alluded to, as well as after, are included; for what Christian since the time of Christ, or worshipper of the true God before Christ, ever received those marks? Wherefore, all saints, in every age of the world, till the time of the general judgment, are included among the saints seated upon thrones, as spoken of by St. John. From which we learn, that not only those saints who are martyrs, in the violent sense of the word, are to be privileged in the first resurrection, but all others also, except such as shall be alive when the event arrives, and such as shall be born during the time of the Millennium, who will not fall away in the time of Gog and Magog. But even those saints are also included in the Revelator's view, among those seated on the thrones, because neither had these received the abominable mark.

    But if any still incline to imagine that the Christian martyrs only are meant in the verse, they would do well to recollect, that all saints, in all ages, are truly martyrs, inasmuch as they partake of the spirit of the martyrs, and would as certainly have sealed their testimony with their blood, if called to it, as those who did.

    The words of Christ favour this opinion, when he said, "they who will live godly in Christ Jesus, shall suffer persecution;" and are consequently martyrs: if not in the violent sense of the term, they are in spirit, and must therefore have part in the first resurrection, except those before excepted. Although these are spoken of as reigning, seated upon thrones, a thousand years only, yet when that time expires, we may not suppose that they are then to come down from them, but shall still be privileged with them, together with all those other saints who had not died at the


                                                                APPENDIX.                                                            395

    time of the first resurrection, and all such as shall not fall away in the time of Gog and Magog. On these accounts, therefore, I Cannot receive the opinion, that so partial a resurrection as that of the martyrs who died violent deaths, is only embraced in the 4th verse of the 20th chapter of Revelations. [Referred from page 251.]


    [Referred from page 258.]

    Upon the most prominent subject of this extraordinary chapter, ( Rev. xx.) SCEPTICISM, from a quarter least to have been suspected, seems to treat the subject, namely, that of understanding the thousand years there spoken of in a literal sense, as uncertain. This scepticism consists in the supposition, that the thousand years there spoken of so frequently, should be understood as prophetic years, instead of natural. •• Consequently, have imagined that those years, which, together with other Scriptures, are the foundation of the doctrine of a Millennium, should be multiplied by the number 360, as that is the number which comprehends a Jewish year: and have therefore multiplied the thousand years of that chapter by the above number, which produces a three hundred and sixty thousand years' Millennium, instead of the simple one thousand. But I do not know of any passage in the Holy Scriptures, upon which to seize as a precedent to justify such an opinion: I do not recollect any portion of holy writ in any of the prophets, nor in the New Testament, where years are spoken of, which will bear such an interpretation: and it would be singular indeed, if the years so frequently mentioned in that chapter, are alone, in all the book of God, to bear such an explication.

    There are accounts in the sacred volume, of days, of weeks, and of months, which may be understood as prophetic. For instance, in the book of Daniel's prophecy, (see chap. 8, verse 14, where it is staled, that after two thousand three hundred days, the sanctuary should be cleansed. Those days, beyond all doubt, signify as many natural years, which is agreed to by all who bestow any attention upon the subject. In the same prophet, there is an account of a certain number of weeks, which are also prophetic, and signify as many years as there are amount of days in


    396                                                             APPENDIX.                                                            

    the number of weeks mentioned. See Daniel ix. 24. Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people, &c. These weeks are clearly prophetic, and related to the coming of the Messiah; and embraced in their meaning as many years as there are days in seventy natural weeks, reckoning as the Jews do -- 30 days to a month, and 360 days to a year. These prophetic weeks amount, consequently, to four hundred and ninety years, and extend from the time of the vision of Daniel, to the advent of Christ. This is also agreed to on all hands.

    We have also an account of prophetic months. See Rev. ix. 5. And to them it was given that they should not kill them, but they should be tormented five months; which, according to the rule of prophecy, amounts to as many years as there are days in five months, and therefore signify one hundred and fifty natural years. The tormentors here alluded to, were, doubtless, the Mahommedan soldiers, who were permitted to continue their ravages, for the establishment of their religion and empire, one hundred and fifty years. This is an historical fact; and comprehends the time of the Saracen incursions, to which, no doubt, the Revelator prophetically alluded.

    Other instances from the Scriptures, of prophetic days, weeks, and months, might be enumerated; but we find no account of years, which signify a prophetical multiplication after the same manner, or that bear any resemblance to such a calculation. -- Consequently there exists no data in scripture, to justify any such interpretation of the thousand years spoken of in the 20th of Revelations: and how this chimera ever possessed the mind of any person, is to me quite unaccountable. The thousand years, therefore, so frequently and plainly stated in that chapter, which relate to the binding of Satan, and to the reigning of those who shall be counted saints at the time of the first resurrection, should be understood in the literal sense. But if any are still disposed to consider those passages which relate to the thousand years, in a prophetic sense, perhaps the following method of interpreting scripture, according to such a rule, will convince them. For I consider it equally warrantable, to make the application of the same mode of reasoning to any other account of YEARS mentioned in the Scriptures, as to that.

    Our first instance shall be the case of Abraham, when God


                                                                APPENDIX.                                                            397

    said to him, (see Gen. xv. 13,) "Know of a surety, that thy seed shall be a stranger in a strange land, that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them FOUR HUNDRED YEARS." Now if the one thousand years spoken of in Rev. xx. are to be understood as prophetical, and therefore signify, instead of 1000 natural years, three hundred and sixty thousand; then by the unerring rule of arithmetical calculations, the four hundred years, mentioned by the God of Abraham, which foretold the Egyptian bondage of his seed, the Jews, must mean one hundred and forty-four thousand years, instead of four hundred; because according to the rule with which we are finding fault, we are to multiply the 400 years by 360, which are the number of days in a Jewish year. Again, Methuselah is said to have lived nine hundred and sixty-nine years, (see Gen. v. 27,) now multiply these according to the rule which we oppose, and we have the amazing product of 348,840, instead of the simple nine hundred and sixty-nine natural years. Again, St. Paul states, (see 2d Cor. xii. 2,) that he had known a man "in Christ about fourteen years ago," "caught up to the third heaven," and doubtless, meant himself. Now if this rule be applied, to interpret this account of St. Paul’s, it will follow, that instead of fourteen natural years, we shall have to believe that it was five thousand and forty years, which would carry us back from the time in which Paul made this statement, beyond the time in which the world was made, in the beginning.

    Perhaps these three instances are sufficient to show the absurdity of such a calculation, or manner of interpreting the term, years, when mentioned in the sacred writings, whatever they may relate to, or whenever they may occur; for from a course like this, the whole book of God is thrown into obscurity, darkness, confusion and falsehood the most palpable. Let us therefore receive St. John's account as it is, respecting the thousand years, and not! undertake to add to them without some data, and authority from the scriptures. Notwithstanding St. John spoke as a prophet, when he foretold the binding of Satan, and the reign of the saints, that the term should be a thousand years, yet that circumstance by no means justifies the idea that a thousand years signifying a longer time than is simply expressed in the text, any more than the years mentioned to Abraham respecting the slavery of his seed


    398                                                             APPENDIX.                                                            

    in Egypt, could signify a longer time than is simply stated, which was four hundred years. The prophet Jeremiah, plainly foretold that his countrymen, the Jews, should "serve the king of Babylon seventy years," (see Jer. xxv. 11.) This kind of expression hy this prophet which relates to futurity, is no more nor less definite with respect to the term years, than St. John is, where he foretells that a thousand years, shall be the term of the reigning of the saints on earth. But if we are to understand the Revelator as some would incline to do, then it must follow, that instead of the people of the Jews, serving that identical king of Babylon seventy years, as foretold by their prophet, they should serve him twenty-five thousand two hundred years.

    From these instances, it is plain therefore, that wherever the terra years occur in the sacred volume, we should understand it in its most literal sense. Consequently, the thousand years so often repeated by the Revelator, signifies simply what it states, no more nor less. Which establishes the doctrine that between the first and second resurrections, there shall be literally one thousand years, as argued in the eighth division of this book, and was also held in the primitive church, in the time of Polycarp, who had been a pupil of the Revelator himself. [Referred from page 258.)


    [Referred from page 286.]

    There are other reasons that heaven designed to clothe our fore parents, than those which I have stated on that subject, in the eighth division of this work. For it is evident that every grade of animal being, from the equinox to the poles, are fitted in their constitutions, mode of living, and manner of defence, whether against heat or cold, wet or dry, to suit the climate where they exist. But man in his primeval state of nakedness, was not suited to any climate, for if he had even in Eden been exposed to the down pouring rays of a vertical sun, the fair and delicate surface of his person would doubtless have suffered by the scorching heat; for we may not suppose him, even in the garden of Eden, insensible to feeling. But from this inconvenience, their Creator had undoubtedly shrouded them beneath the shading branches of the groves of paradise? But however accommodating this circumstance,


                                                                APPENDIX.                                                            399

    or providence of God, might have been to them for a time, yet we are not to suppose, that to their descendants this convenience could have always been afforded them with equal felicity, that it was to the two first in the bowers of Eden. Because in a short time, their offsprings must of necessity, from an increase of numbers have gone down from the garden to people the wide spread earth; in other regions, and to be employed according to one of the first, and great injunctions, laid on man, which was to SUBDUE THE EARTH, and therefore while thus subduing it must become wholly exposed, which could not have been beneath the foliage of the woods.

    The animals of every kind, with but few exceptions, are more local than men are, and do not wander so far from their native habitations. But men were designed to people all the approachable climates of the earth, however variable, with the self same race. It was therefore truly philosophical in the Creator, to bring men into being, dissimilar from all other animals with respect to their nakedness, for the express purpose of defending him from earth’s varying temperatures in some other way, than by feathers, hair, fur, scales, shell, and wool, as animals are. And that way is, artificial clothing; a way which God himself designed, and also prepared in the first instance, and put them upon the only two in human kind, which was made of the skins of beasts, (see Gen. iii. 21.)

    If, therefore, men were not at first created with the local habits that animals are, how then could it be expected, that he should explore and dwell with comfort in the whole earth, from the torrid zone to the higher and colder regions of both northern and southern latitudes, unless they were to be defended against the varying temperature of the elements, in some other way than by sheer nakedness.

    There is no mode of defence against the elements to be conceived of, which could be adapted to the circumstances, and habits of men, that can answer so good a purpose, as a kind of clothing or defence, that may be put off and on at the pleasure of the wearer. Animals are not capacitated thus, they are not designed to change climates as men were, and therefore are suited to the respective places which they inhabit, whether of heat or cold> land or water. If the northern bear of Greenland, with his thick


    400                                                             APPENDIX.                                                            

    and cumbrous load of hair and fur were suddenly transported from his snowy woods, to the hot and sultry regions beneath the equinox, he would faint, and probably expire with suffocation. -- Or if the unwieldy elephant, naked as he is, though fitted in this way to enjoy the intensity of the heat of his natural woods and bowers in Africa, were suddenly plunged among the snow of Greenland, he too must soon expire.

    But men are not so exposed when they change climates, because they can manage" and accommodate their kinds of garments of defence, to suit all exigencies whatever. But if men were to have remained naked, if they had not sinned, they would not have been as well fitted to their destinations as the beasts are. How is it possible that man, who at first as well as now, was formed of flesh and blood, and therefore as keenly sensible of the effects of either heat or cold, wet or dry, as at the present time, could have navigated the seas, naked, and exposed to the burning rays of the sun. or have explored either earth or seas in the northern latitudes, without clothing suited to his employment. It is impossible consistently to imagine such a thing, unless with this imaginaticmvvezzz connect the idea, that in the hot climates, h» would have soon acquired a skin as thick as an Elephant, or a scaly hide like the Rhinoseros or Crockadile, to defend him from the heat. Or if in the colder regions, we suppose that soon a defence of hair or fur, like the bears and wolves of the mountains would have been caused to cover him for his defence. But how much more agreeable to reason, is it to suppose, that artificial garments were at first intended by the Creator, to defend the creature man, to enable him to pass with comfort from one part of the earth to an other.

    But a quere may arise here: If man in an unfallen, or sinless state, was not liable to death, in any possible way, how then could the operation of the elements, either of heat or cold, have at all endangered his life, or even discommoded him, so as to have amounted to a natural evil. I answer, in the first place, that out mode of defence against such an event, would have been the clothing of their persons, as before argued. But second: Men would have been more prudent, more discreet, would have possessed a higher degree of discretion, and knowledge, and zzzconsequentu-, would never have fallen into the error of over acts -- acts


                                                                APPENDIX.                                                            401

    of imprudence and presumption as they do now, and therefore could have come into no danger, through this beaten highway to the grave. Neither would they have been at all liable to accidents, as men are at the present time, for this part of the economy of God's providence would have been exercised over them. in an arbitrary sense. Third: It is very possible, that neither the heat, nor the cold, might not have been so intense, in either the torrid or the frigid zones, as it now is. For these two effects may have been increased by the operations of the great deluge upon the atmosphere of the globe, the surface of which was dreadfully broken up by its waters. See Gen. vii. 11, where it is stated that on the same day of the commencement of the flood, that "all the fountains of the great deep were broken up, and the it inflows of heaven were opened," Which strongly implies, that the hidden waters, beneath the surface of the earth were then caused to spout their floods towards the skies, occasioned by the sinking of immense tracts of country, which would naturally have; that effect. It is supposed therefore, that immense oceans are now exposed to open sight, that would have remained forever hidden, and were then, and would continue to have been the subterranean sources of innumerable springs and rivers, which before the flood, beautified the earth, for what else can be meant by the expression, fountains of the great deep, us in the verse quoted above.

    The exposure then of these immense waters, may now have an unhealthy effect upon the atmosphere, by increasing in the warmer climate* contiguous to seas, an unhealthy humidity. which would not have been the case if they never had been thus broken up. Also, in the higher latitudes approaching either of the poles; water being more retentive of the zzzzfrigoripliic principle than earth, would naturally expel from these regions the latent principle of fire, which is caloric, or is that principle with which the rays of the sun mix, from which arises the effect called warmth or heat. If then ty the presence of these waters, an increase of cold is occasioned-, consequently, an expulsion of the caloric female, or virgin fire., rakes place, and is compelled to mix in the regions nearer the equinox, and thereby occasions an increase of heat as well as an increase of cold in the regions from where it is expelled, and in this way that charming equilibrium of a healthy atmosphere,


    402                                                             APPENDIX.                                                            

    which existed before the flood is destroyed. This equilibrium of the temperature which doubtless prevailed in all the earth, except near the poles, might hare been one of the cause* why men lived in those times to a zzzgrerrfer age than they do now. Hut however these thoughts may appear, in mitigating the severity of either heat or cold, yet we are not at liberty to conclude, that there was no such quality as cold or frost in the atmosphere before the fall. For with equal propriety it might also be imagined that at that time, there was no such thing as heat or warmth. The two principles of heat or cold are necessary to each other in producing a temperament of climate, suited to the existencies of the earth, for if either of those principles were to prevail exclusive of the other, who could point us to the boundaries of their intensity.

    That some climates of the earth, were cold, and even frozen, and not suited to become the habitations of men, even if they had never sinned, is provable from the situation of the earth in reference to the sun. For it would be an error of the most monstrous kind, to suppose that the planets, and the earth among the rest, had on the account of Adam's sin, altered their positions in reference to that luminary. Indeed the thing is impossible, because the sun at first was set in the heavens to be a source of light as well as of heat, and of producing by their motions on then own axis, and around the sun, all the variety of seasons, and climate, that succeed in one year. Consequently such a thing as the frozen potes of the north and south did as surely exist before the fall of man, as that they now exist. Wherefore it wa» highly necessary, that man, who is the general tenant of this globe should be clothed, whether fallen or not, in order to be able to explore it, and thus by becoming acquainted with the wonderful works of God, could glorify him the more.

    Taking this view of the whole subject, with zzzrespect,,/!/-*/, to the creation of the rudiments of man's clothing. Second -- MunV original nakedness, exactly corresponding, with such a provision. zzzTVitrrf -- The more than beastly appearance -- a world of naked human beings would zzzraaJ;e even in their own zzzsigtit. Fourth -- The fact of a variety of seasons before the fall, to which man's naked person was not adapted without the addition of artificial zzzylotlung; and fifth, the evident intentions of the creator, that man


                                                                APPENDIX.                                                            403

    was to zzzbelhe only general inhabitant of the whole earth, the poles arid the severe cold regions round about them excepted, are convincing proofs that it was the intention of the Creator to clothe mankind whether Adam should stand or fall. [Referred from page 286.]


    [Referred from page 340.]

    However, the following may be supposed, will be the manner of seduction, practised upon them at that time. When Satan shall again have, after the Millennium is passed by, that kind of approach to the human soul, which will expose it to sinful influence, he may begin their trial, by a suggestion to their minds that possibly the history of God's Grace, and plan of salvation, as stated in the scriptures may not be true, and is an imposition. -- For not having seen nor felt the influence of sin, upon others, themselves, nor yet upon the earth, and only having heard of these things, may be through the suggestion of the devil, inclined to doubt whether such a principle as sin could have existed at all; and may begin to suppose that some bow or other, the history of sin and its effects are but a fable, not perceiving at the same time that even on this ground the fact of sin is admitted, to have once existed; for if the account of it is but a fable, why then the account is a deception, and deception is sin. But having never seen nor felt its effects, as before observed, they will be wholly unprepared to argue or meditate upon the subject, but exactly prepared to trust the word of God, (for if we do not understand it, it is best to trust it,) and in this way maintain their innocence against the wiles of the devil.

    It was after this manner Satan commenced the seduction of Eve, by suggesting to her mind, that she was imposed upon by her Creator, because he kept her in ignorance of the astonishing influence, the fruit of the tree of knowledge, would have, in exiting her, to become equal with the Gods, if she should but taste it. for God doth know (said Satan,) that in the day ye eat thereof then your eyes shall be opened and ye shall leas Gods. Eve did not perceive, that to imagine herself imposed upon, was equivalent to charging her Creator with duplicity, which is sin itself, so deceitful were the machinations of Satan, in the guise of


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    a serpent; and so hidden were his approaches to her ruin. Eve knew nothing of tin nor of its consequences, having never felt its influence nor seen its effects, and therefore, was not prepared to argue or meditate the point, with respect to an act of disobedience, but was exactly prepared to trust what God had said to her upon the subject of eating the fruit of the tree, and if she had but trusted, she would not have been deceived by the Devil.

    So those persons who shall be born during the millennial state having never seen the effect of sin in any sense, may doubt whether in reality, the account of mans original fall, and of his restoration by one called Jesus Christ, is true, consequently a spirit of curiosity and disputation, accompanied with many vain surmises, about the nature of sin, and what a state of trial can signify, will prevail.

    Was it not after this manner, that Satan began his temptation of the Messiah, by endeavoring to suggest to his mind, doubts respecting the care and providence of God had over him, else how should he now be found in a desolate wilderness, exposed to, and really feeling the pangs of hunger. From which circumstance. Satan immediately moved him to take care of himself out of the appointed way of providence, as he did Eve, or rather to do an act, as being independent of God's general Providence. Hence the Devil said to him, "If thou be the son of God, command that these stones he made, bread, (Math. iv. 3.) He also tempted him to an act of presumption byway of showing himself to be the Son of God, when he said, If thou le the son of God, (which implied a feigned doubt) cast thyself down, that is from the pinnacle of the temple, or from the top of a gallery which was erected by Herod, who was a king set over the people of the Jews, by the Romans, the height of this gallery was so great that the eye of anyone standing upon it, could scarcely fathom the depth beneath.

    Satan tempted him to covetousness and worldly ambition, when he said, all this will I give thee, referring to the kingdoms of this world which he had just then presented to his view. Also, to idolatry, when he said, if thou wilt fall down and worship me, but in all this it was not possible for Christ to be overcome of the Devil, although he had voluntarily put himself within his power to be tempted, so that in the view of all who come to God by him,


                                                                APPENDIX.                                                            405

    may be accepted as a faithful high priest. After much the same manner, we find Satan proceeded with Eve, but with greater success, for he commenced with her about eating, as he did with Christ about making the stone into bread. But when Eve had suffered her mind to be led at all from the letter of the command given to her by the Creator, the first thing remarked of her in the sacred volume, is, "And the woman saw that the tree was good far food. Here, doubtless, first arose in her mind the thought that God did not deal liberally with her, else he would not have denied me the fruit of this tree, herein she doubted her Maker’s providence over her. Second -- She was tempted to presumption when she saw the tree was good for food, and consummated that presumption by eating of its fruit. Third -- She was tempted to ambition and overcome from the idea that it was a tree to make one wise, for it appears Satan had succeeded to promote in her mind a desire to become as the gods. Fourthly -- She was tempted to idolatry, and consummated that crime when she had rejected the command of her God, who had said, ye shall not eat of it, and accepted of the council of the Devil who had otherwise advised her, herein she became an idolater.

    From which we discover a similarity in essence between the temptation of Eve and Christ, wherefore, I think it not unreasonable to suppose that after a similar manner, Satan will advance his temptation to those who are to be tried after the Millennium. -- In those four points of temptation, as recounted above, namely: Distrust, Presumption, Ambition, and Idolatry, with which the Saviour was tempted, are summed up the whole catalogue of temptation, which are felt by men, and are reducible in essence, to one or the other of these four points. Hence it is said he was tempted in all points as we are. See Clark on Math. iv. upon this subject.

    First -- A general distrust, or doubt concerning the truth of God's grace toward a lost world, and plan of salvation as revealed in the scriptures may be the first suggestions of Satan to their minds, consequently a denial of his Providence must follow.

    Second -- To tempt them to acts of presumption will probably be the next expedient of Satan, which will consist in his secret operations on their minds, urging them to the dreadful resolve of acting according to their notions of unbelief and distrust of the divine


    406                                                             APPENDIX.                                                            

    providence. Third -- Their heart being now prepared by doubts and presumptions resolves, ambition will next urge them to desire the possession of more than the simple comforts of life, to which they had been so long accustomed, during the Millennium; hence an effort will be made to seize upon the effects of the saints. Fourth -- Having now forsaken the law of God with which they had been so long acquainted, during the Millennium; and accepted in its stead the council of the Devil, are therein guilty of Idolatry. The operations of these principles, and progress of the temptation, will be observed by the saints, who accordingly will not fail to warn them, (for the}; will be their sons and daughters,) that this is the very time, when the prophecy of the Revelator’s to be fulfilled, and that this is the very time in which Satan is to be loosed for a little season, and to go out into the four quarters of the globe to deceive them, and to gather them to battle against the saints, the numbers of whom are to be as the sand of the sea. They will tell them that this is the great army of Gog and Magog, upon whom God will pour down fire out of Heaven, to destroy. But for this very reproof, their anger will rise to a more vehement flame considering it mere fanaticism, and determine them at once to destroy the whole camp of the saints in all parts of the earth and to possess their effects. But in the midst of the uproar and, din of war-like preparations to compass the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city; fire from God out of heaven will descend and devour them. Rev. xx. 9. [Referred from page 340.]

    [Referred from the Introduction, page 12.]

    INFIDELITY is a term, expressive of all those principles, which draw off the adoration and service of the souls of men, from the Creator to some other object; or, as in the case of Atheists, to no object at all, which renders the heart unfilial to God: this is -- Infidelity.

    Of these there are many kinds and sects, some of whom reverence or adore images, as of saint* and martyrs -- others, gods of wood, stone, iron, copper, brass, silver and gold -- others, the elements, as water, earth, fire and the heavenly bodies -- others, animals, as fishes, birds, beasts, serpents and the persons of men, as Heroes, Popes, grand Lamas and Mahomet. All of whom, more or less, in their progress and attempts at celebrity, have


                                                                APPENDIX.                                                            407

    marked their way with blood shed; some of whom continue to do so, till the present time, as in the case of the Turks, who of all others seem to have imbibed principles the most sanguinary and immovable, received from their imposter prophet, Mahomet. -- These infidels have continued their ravages, and slaughter of mankind, more or less, for about twelve hundred years; and at this time hold a most fearful eminence among the nations of the earth. Their empire embraces a portion of ASIA, EUROPE, and AFRICA, whose numbers amount to many millions.

    But against Christian nations and individuals, their most vehement rancour and malice seems to be aimed; indeed with them it is a virtue of the first order to afflict and destroy all such as are not Musselmen; and to die in battle is a sure passport to Mahomet’s paradise.

    From this evil root, has arisen, the excessive cruelties practised by the Turks. But perhaps the period for this infidel power -- this Tyger among the nations is now come, when he shall begin to be broken, to be shorn of his strength, and terrors.

    Perhaps the late successful attack of the three combined powers, RUSSIA, FRANCE and ENGLAND upon the Turks in Europe is the prelude to the fulfillment of the Revelators prophecy respecting the great battle of Armageddon. See Rev. xvi.16, "And he gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue, Armageddon" "And the seventh Angel poured out his vial into the air, and there came a great voice out of the temple of Heaven, from the throne saying it is done," -- "And there was voices and thunderings and lightnings, and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth"; so mighty an earthquake and so great," Which doubtless signifies convulsions, revolutions, and changes among the nations of the earth, greater than has ever yet been effected, which will follow in the consequences of this war. "And the great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell."

    Observe the surprising agreement which exists between this prophecy, ( And the great city was divided into three parts,) and the/uci which has recently transpired respecting the war commenced upon the Turks, by the three above noticed powers, -- who have destroyed the whole Turkish fleet, and have doubtless agreed to conquer and to divide the empire among themselves; which


    408                                                             APPENDIX.                                                            

    if effected, will be dividing the great city, or empire of the Turks into three parts, to which I am much inclined to think the prophecy refers; for this is the period for the commencement of the outpouring of the seventh vial of plagues.

    But great and long will be the struggle. The Infidel powers, whether of Turks or others, may all finally be drawn into this great and last battle; that of Armageddon, which is to take place before the Millennium, when the "cities of the nations shall fall," and the Christian cause prevail, and the powers of despotism and infidelity come down to rise no more.


    Transcriber's Comments:
    Josiah Priest's View of the Expected Millennium

    Adam Clarke's Commentary - Revelation 17

    ... it is evident that the two other forms of government which had fallen must be among those of the Romans; first, because though the Latin nation so ...
    Dissertation on the Dragon, Beast, and False Prophet, of the ...
    by James Edward Clarke - 1814 - 400 pages

    ... must be among those of the Romans; first, because though the Latin nation so called was deprived of all authority by the Romans, yet the Latin power ...
    http://books.google.com/books?id=-8gWAAAAIAAJ&pg=RA1- PA215&lpg=RA1-PA215&dq=%22first+because+though+the+latin%22 &source=web&ots=PlYN-AYOuU&sig=nG7gZPLPwdBgFKioDqVhipYT_B8

    Religious Seekers and the Advent of Mormonism

    Dan Vogel


    In Adam Clarke's popular nineteenth-century commentary on the Bible, Revelation's description of the "great whore that sitteth upon many waters" was explained as a reference "no doubt" to the "Latin Church." Commenting on the whore's wealth, Clarke wrote that it "strikingly represents the most pompous and costly manner in which the Latin Church has held forth to the nations the rites and ceremonies of its idolatrous and corrupt worship." [[47. Adam Clarke, The Holy Bible... with a Commentary and Critical Notes, 7 vols. (n.p., 1810), 7:1036-37. end47]]

    Clarke's commentary on Revelation was reproduced in Josiah Priest's View of the Expected Christian Millennium published in Albany, New York, in 1828. [[48. Josiah Priest, A View of the Expected Christian Millennium (Albany, 1828), esp. 126-27. end48]]

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